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COMPENDIOUS SYRIAC GRAMMAR. 



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COMPENDIOUS 

SYRIAC GRAMMAR 



THEODOR NOLDEKE 

PROFESSOR OF ORIENTAL LANGUAGES, UNIVERSITY OF 8TBA8SBUBG. 

WITH A TABLE OF CHARACTERS 

BY 

JULIUS EUTING. 



TRANSLATED 

(WITH THE SANCTION OF THE AUTHOR) 
FROM THE SECOND AND IMPROVED GERMAN EDITION 

BY 

JAMES A. CRICHTON, d.d. 



~$*<r 



LONDON: 
WILLIAMS & 1STORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1904. 



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PRINTED BY W. DRUGULIN, LEIPZIG (GERMANY). 



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TRANSLATOR'S PREFATORY NOTE. 

It appears desirable that the leading modern grammars of the four 
best-known Semitic languages, in their classical forms, should be readily 
accessible to English-speaking students. And in this connection, probably 
few competent judges will dispute the claims of the following treatises to 
be regarded as authoritative and leading, viz: — Wright's Arabic Grammar 
(as revised by Robertson Smith and De Goeje) ; Kautzsch's Gesenius' 
Hebrew Grammar; Noldeke's Syriac Grammar; and Dillmann's Ethiopic 
Grammar. Of these the first two already exist in English, Wright's work 
having been in that form from the outset, at least under his own name, 
and Kautzsch's Gesenius' having been presented in a similar form a few 
years ago, in Collins and Cowley's excellent translation. The grammars 
of Noldeke and Dillmann, however, have not hitherto appeared in Eng- 
lish, although their pre-eminent position in their respective departments 
of Semitic philology is perhaps even less open to challenge, than that of 
the other two. It is to supply this want in the educational apparatus 
available for English students, so far at least as Noldeke's Grammar is 
concerned, that the present translation has been attempted. 

Of course it may be said, that students of Syriac will in all liklihood 
be sufficiently well acquainted with German, to be able to consult the 
original for themselves. I trust that such is the case ; but those students 
^ and scholars amongst us, who are most familiar with German, will prob- 
© ably be the first to welcome a translation of such a work, if only it has 
o been executed with reasonable fidelity and care. There are obvious ad- 
vantages in an English version for an English eye, however accomplished 



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VI translator's prefatory note. 

a linguist its owner may be. At all events it is in that belief, and with 
no other desire than to do something for this branch of study, that I 
have ventured upon the present edition. 

No attempt has been made to alter in any way either the substance 
or the arrangement of the Grammar. Citations, it is true, have been 
again verified, and slight errors here and there have been tacitly corrected. 
To facilitate reference, not only has the very full Table of Contents been 
set in its usual place, but its items have also been applied throughout 
the book, in the form of rubrics to the several sections. With a similar 
design an Index of Passages, wanting in the original, has been drawn up 
and placed at the end of the volume. 

Among other friends who have been helpful towards the preparation 
of this version, I have specially to thank Professor Robertson of Glasgow 
University, for much kindly encouragement and wise counsel. Above 
all I must express my deep indebtedness to the distinguished author 
himself, Professor Noldeke, for the unfailing courtesy and unwearied 
patience with which he lent his invaluable guidance and assistance, as 
the proof-sheets passed through his hands. Thanks are also due to 
Herr W. Drugulin and his staff, for again encountering, with a very con- 
siderable measure of success, the typographical difficulties, which a work 
of this nature must present. 

James A. Crichton. 



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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION/) 

This book does not claim to be in any respect a complete Syriac 
Grammar. It is true that with the material at my disposal I might 
have added very considerably to not a few sections; but any treatment 
of grammatical phenomena which aimed at completeness in every detail 
required quite other manuscript studies, than were at all open to me. 
Practical considerations too imposed a severe limitation. I trust however, 
that even within restricted limits, I have succeeded in producing some- 
thing which may be of use. 

I have taken my material from the best sources within reach, 
entirely disregarding Amira and the other Maronites. Besides the 
Jacobite and Nestorian grammarians and lexicographers now in print, 
I have made use of Severus of St. Matthaeus (usually, but incorrectly, 
styled "of Tekrit") as he appears in the Gottingen manuscript. The 
Directorate of the Gottingen Library, with their accustomed liberality, 
farther sent me, at my request, from their manuscript treasures, the 
large grammar of Barhebraeus together with his Scholia; and, with no 
less readiness, the Library-Directorate of Gotha sent me the Vocabulary 
of Elias of Nisibis. These manuscripts yielded produce of many kinds. 
It would have been an invaluable assistance to me, if I had had before 
me the Masoretic tradition of the Syrians, with some degree of complete- 
ness. Of this, however, I had at command at first — in addition to the 
epitomes which are found in printed works — only a few extracts, which 



(*) Somewhat shortened at the close.— The first edition (1880) was dedicated 
to J. P. N, Land (Died 30. Ap. 1897). 



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VIII PEEFACE TO THE FIBST EDITION. 

I had myself noted down in earlier years, from the well-known Nestorian 
Masora of the year 899 (Wright's Catalogue 101 sqq.) and from the 
London "Qarqafic" manuscripts (Rosen-Forshall 62 sqq. ; Wright 108 sqq.). 
The deficiency was made up, at least to some extent, by the amiability 
of Wright, Zotenberg and Guidi, who — in answer to a host of questions 
about the mode of writing this or that word in the Masoretic manuscripts 
in London, Paris and Rome — furnished me with information which in 
many cases had been gained only after prolonged search. A careful collation 
of the entire Masoretic material, allowing for the chance mistakes of 
individual scribes, especially if it were accompanied by an attentive 
observation of good, vocalised manuscripts of the Bible, would let us 
know pretty accurately and fully how the Jacobites on the one hand, 
and the Nestorians on the other, were wont to pronounce Syriac in the 
Church use. Any point in which these two traditions are found to be in 
agreement must have been in use prior to the separation of the two 
Churches, that is, at the latest, in the 5 th century. Although in the 
recitative of the Church Service there was doubtless a good deal of 
artificiality, yet we have in it a reflex at least of the living speech. The 
Grammar of Jacob of Edessa (circa 700) is unfortunately lost, all but 
a few fragments. What the later systematisers give, has, generally 
speaking, no more authority than can be traced to the Church tradition. 
Even the observant Barhebraeus, towering as he truly does by a head 
and shoulders over the rest of his countrymen, has not always surveyed 
this tradition completely, while sometimes he explains it incorrectly. 
Now and then too, following mere analogy, he presents forms which 
can with difficulty be authenticated in the genuine speech. Accordingly 
if here and there I do not notice Barhebraeus' data, I trust it will not 
be attributed to a want of acquaintance with them on my part. Still 
less could editions like Bernstein's "Johannes", or Joseph David's 
"Psalter" (Mosul 1877) — which unfortunately gives an "improved" text 
of the Peshita — constitute an absolute authority for me, although I am 
greatly indebted to them. I need hardly mention that in the matter of 
vocalisation I have made large use of the well-known complete editions 
of the Old Testament and the New Testament, and of both the Nestorian 



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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. IX 

and the Jacobite-Maronite tradition. In this process, however, I have 
endeavoured to observe a due spirit of caution. Even the examination 
of the metrical conditions found in the old "poets" (sit venia verbo!) 
lias not been without results for determining grammatical forms. 

Still, even when all authoritative sources have been disclosed, a 
good deal will continue to be obscure in the Phonology and Morphology 
of Syriac, as it is only for the Bible and a few ecclesiastical writings 
that an accurate tradition of the pronunciation exists. So much the less 
will the expert be disposed to find fault with me, for having left here 
and there, upon occasion, a mark of interrogation. 

As regards the Orthography of the consonantal writing, we are 
very favourably situated at the present time, when a long series of texts 
reproduces for us with accuracy the style of writing followed in manu- 
scripts, from the 5 th century onwards. 

The Syntax I have based wholly upon original authors belonging 
to the age in which Syriac was an absolutely living speech. I have relied 
specially upon prose works, and among the poets I have given preference 
to those who write a simple style. Only a very few of my supporting- 
passages come down as far as the 7 th century: the others range from 
the 2 nd to the 6 th . To bring in Barhebraeus orEbedjesu for the illustra- 
tion of the Syntax, is much the same as if one sought to employ Lauren- 
tius Valla, orMuretus, as an authority for original Latin. All the examples 
I have myself collected, with the exception of about a dozen. Naturally 
I have made much less use of strongly Graecising writings, than of those 
which adhere to a genuine Aramaic style. From the ancient versions of 
the Bible I have, without farther remark, adduced such passages only 
as are free from Hebraisms and Graecisms. Looking to the great 
influence of the Peshita on the style of all subsequent writings, I might 
perhaps have gone somewhat farther in quoting from it. All the citations 
from the 0. T. I have verified in Ceriani's edition, so far as it has 
proceeded. Other translations from the Greek I have used only very 
exceptionally, — in fact almost never except to illustrate certain Grae- 
cisms which were in favour. No doubt even the best original writings in 
Syriac give evidence of the strong influence of Greek Syntax; but, on 



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A PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

the other hand, everything is not immediately to be regarded as a Grae- 
cism, which looks like one. The Greek idiom exercised its influence with 
all the greater force and effect, precisely at those points where Syriac 
itself exhibited analogous phenomena. 

Although, in the composition of this book, I have continually kept 
an eye upon kindred dialects and languages, I have nevertheless refrained 
almost wholly from remarks winch touch upon Comparative Grammar. 
Not a few observations of that character, however, will be found in my 
"Grammar of the New -Syriac Language" (Leipzig 1868) and my 
"Mandaean Grammar" (Halle 1876). Here and there, besides, I have 
tacitly rectified a few things which I had said in those works. The great 
resemblance of Syriac to Hebrew — and that especially in Syntax — 
will, I hope, be brought into clearer light than heretofore, by the mere 
description of the language given in this book. A similar remark may 
be made with regard to special points of contact in the case of Syriac 
and Arabic. 

I have been obliged to avoid almost entirely any reference to my 
authorities in the Phonology and the Morphology. I have also refrained 
from quoting the works of modern scholars. A brief manual cannot 
well separate between widely-known facts and special stores either of 
others or of one's own. But yet I do not mean to miss this opportunity 
of referring to the fact, that I am peculiarly indebted to Prof. G. Hoff- 
mann's essay, contained in ZDMG XXXII, 738 sqq., even as I am 
farther under deep obligation to tins dear friend of mine, for many an 
epistolary communication and encouragement, with reference to the 
present work. Prof. Hoffmann also enabled me to make some use, at 
least for the Syntax, of his edition of the Julianus-Romance (Leyden 
1880) before it was given to the public. Unfortunately it was then too 
late to permit my utilising that story still more thoroughly. I have 
farther expressly to declare my adherence to the conception of the roots 
f W and '5W, which Prof. August Miiller has set forth in ZDMG 
XXHI, 698 sqq., and which Prof. Stade coincidently follows in his Heb. 
Gramm., although I am not blind to the difficulties which cling even to 
that theory. 



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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. XI 

As I wished to avoid extreme prolixity, I was obliged to seek for 
some adjustment between the two systems of vowel-marking. Whoever 
weighs the practical difficulties, and particularly the typographical 
difficulties, will, I trust, find the plan which I have adopted here, to be 
fairly suitable, although I cannot myself regard it as entirely satisfactory. 
In the latter part of the Syntax I have made an attempt to employ the 
One-point System, occasionally introducing the Two-point System, and 
applying proper Vowel-signs only where they seemed to be required in 
order to ensure clearness. That attempt was bound to show a certain 
amount of arbitrariness and vacillation. The reader may always reflect, 
that in many cases different ways of marking have prevailed according 
to place and time, and that very seldom indeed does an old manuscript, 
which employs the points with any degree of fulness, continue to be 
perfectly consistent in this matter. As regards the carrying -out of 
this marking, I must apologise for the circumstance that the points are 
not of the same size throughout: distance from the place of printing 
made it difficult to correct this slight inequality. 

The division into paragraphs aims in nowise at logical consistency : 
still less is this to be looked for in the process of subdivision which has 
been applied to not a few of the paragraphs. In every case my sole 
concern was to break up the subject-matter into comparatively small 
sections, so as to facilitate the survey and the reference from one 
passage to another. 

I take for granted in those who mean to use this Grammar some 
acquaintance at least with Hebrew. Whoever desires to learn Syriac 
from it, without the help of a teacher, will do well to impress upon his 
memory at first merely the fundamental characteristics of the Ortho- 
graphy, the Pronouns, something of the Flexion of the Nouns, the 
Paradigm of the Strong Verb, and the most important deviations of the 
Weak Verbs, — as also to acquire some acquaintance with the attach- 
ment of the Pronominal Suffixes. Then let him read easy, vocalised 
texts, next, extracts from the Bible, as they are to be found, for example, 
in Rodiger's "Chrestoniathia" — a compilation to be highly commended 
even on other grounds. The learner may at first pass many difficulties 



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XII PREFACE TO THE FIBST EDITION. 

by, but in time he should with increasing care try to find out in the 
Grammar the explanation of anything which may arrest his attention. 
If, at a later stage, he goes systematically over the whole of the Grammar, 
including the Syntax, there will no longer be so much that is strange in 
appearance to him. And even to a teacher — dealing with beginners 
in Syriac, or any other Semitic language, who already understand some- 
thing of Hebrew — an analogous procedure may be recommended. 
Familiarity with the Nestorian punctuation will be gained most readily 
from Urmia- [and New York-] editions of the Bibld, although these do 
not give the system in completeness — doubtless for typographical 
reasons — and, besides, are not free from mistakes. 

The Table of Characters, from Euting's master-hand, will suffice 
to exhibit the development of the Aramaic Character, at least in several 
of its leading types, from its earliest form up to the oldest Estrangelo, 
and the farther development of this last, up to the more modern script. 

In conclusion I beg once more to tender an emphatic expression of 
my warmest thanks to the Library- Authorities, as well as to the personal 
friends, who have been helpful to me in the composition of this book. 

Strassburg i. E. 30 th Septr., 1880. 

Th. Noldeke. 



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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.* 1 ) 



Although I did not reckon upon the necessity arising during my 
lifetime for a new edition of the Syriac Grammar, I still have continued 
to note down in my own copy — following my general practice — many 
additions and improvements. A good deal of this material, accordingly, 
I was able to devote to the new edition. Amongst other things, I have 
compared the citations already given from the Life of Simeon Stylites, 
with a transcript of the London Codex lent me by Prof. Kleyn of Utrecht, 
now deceased. It would appear however, that the Vatican text is upon 
the whole nearer the original, than the one in the British Museum. 

I have endeavoured to introduce a considerable number of improve- 
ments in points of detail, but I have abstained from radical alterations 
except in a very few cases. In the Syntax I have added to the number 
of the examples. The Syriac Bible has been more largely drawn upon 
than in the former edition, particularly as regards the Gospels, and 
especially the Synoptic Gospels. These last exhibit almost invariably an 
exceedingly flowing, idiomatic style of Syriac, which upon the whole 
reads better than the Semitic Greek of the original. This feature comes 
into still stronger relief in the more ancient form of the text — as con- 
tained in C. (Curetonianus) and S. (Sinaiticus) — than in our usual text 
P. (Peshita). The Syriac Old Testament frequently approximates the 
original Hebrew text too closely; and, precisely because of the intimate 
relationship of the languages, we sometimes find ourselves at a loss as to 
whether the verbal reproduction is still in conformity with the true 



(*) [This edition in the original is dedicated to Prof. Guidi]. 



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XIV PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

Syriac idiom, or is really a Hebraism. It should farther be noticed, that 
the genuine Syriac Canon is of much less compass than that of the 
Western Churches, and lacks, for instance, the Book of Esther and the 
Chronicles. The punctuation, therefore, of these last books in the Urmia 
edition, is of more slender authority than that of the others, which 
reproduces an ancient and established tradition, although it is not free 
from mistakes. 

Many Syriac words, of which the form is not in keeping with the 
rules of Aramaic, have been proved now to be loan-words from the 
Assyrian. I have frequently drawn attention to such strangers. In this 
matter I follow Jensen's data in Brockelmann's Syriac Lexicon, and 
partly, direct communications from Jensen himself, as well as Delitzsch's 
Assyrian Dictionary. In the case of some words however, which are 
now indeed looked upon as being borrowed from the Assyrian, it is 
perhaps a matter of doubt whether the supposed borrower may not be 
the lender, or whether the words concerned may not be part of a 
common stock. 

I have increased the number of references from one paragraph to 
another, but the order of these paragraphs remains the same. As the 
figures indicating that order have not been altered, quotations made in 
accordance with the paragraphs of the old edition are suitable also for 
the new. The few additional paragraphs which have been introduced, 
bear severally the number of the one which immediately precedes, 
a b being attached thereto. 

The new edition has received much benefit from the discussion of 
the first by Prof. G. Hoffmann in the "Lit. Centralblatt" of 4 th March, 
1882, — as well as from other printed and written notices from his hand. 

The late Prof. Bensley, as well as Dr. J. O. Knudson and Dr. H. 
Schulthess farther earned my gratitude by pointing out various inaccuracies, 
particularly errors of the press. And after all, in preparing the second 
edition, I came upon a few more blunders, some of them rather serious. 
If, as I venture to hope, the new form of the book should turn out to 
be tolerably free from annoying mistakes of the press, this is due 
very especially — seconded by the dexterity of the compositor — to the 



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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. XV 

careful first correction of proofs, undertaken by Dr. Chamizer, the 
director of the printing house of W. Drugulin. 

The abbreviations which I have adopted are for the most part clear 
enough in themselves. Besides those which have already been mentioned 
as indicating the three Texts of the Gospels, viz. P. C. and S. the 
following perhaps should be noticed: — 

Addai = The Doctrine of Addai, The Apostle (ed. by G. Phillips). 

Aphr. = The Homilies of Aphraates (ed. by W. Wright). 

Anc. Doc. = Ancient Syriac Documents (collected and edited by 
W. Cureton, with a preface by W. Wright). 

Apost. Apocr. = Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. Vol. I (ed. by 
W. Wright). 

Barh. = Barhebraeus. 

Ephr. = S. Ephraem Syri Opera (Roman edition). 

Ephr. Nis. = S. Ephraemi Syri Carmina Nisibena (ed. by G. 
Bickell). 

Isaac = Isaaci Antiocheni Opera (ed. by G. Bickell). 

Jac. Ed. = Jacob of Edessa. 

Jac. Sar. = Jacob of Sarug. 

John Eph. = The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John, 
Bishop of Ephesus (ed. by W. Cureton); 

Joseph ■= Histoire complete de Joseph, par St. Ephraem [?] ed. 
by Paul Bedjan, 2. ed. Paris 1891). 

Jos. Styl. = The Chronicle of Joshua, The Stylite (ed. by W. Wright), 
[wrongly attributed to Joshua.] 

Jul. = Julianos der Abtrunnige (ed. by J. G. E. Hoffmann). 

Land = Anecdota Syriaca (ed. by J. P. N. Land). 

Mart. — Acta Martyrum Orientalium et Occidentalium (ed by 
Steph. Ev. Assemanus). 

Moes. — Monumenta Syriaca ex Rom. codd. Collecta (ed. by 
G. Moesinger). 

Ov. = S. Ephraemi Syri, ; Rabulae Episcopi Edesseni, Balaei 
Aliorumque Opera Selecta (ed. by J. Jos. Overbeck). 



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X VI PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

Sim. = Life of St. Simeon Stylites, — in the 2 nd Volume of the Acta 
Martyrum (ed. by Steph. Ev. Assemanus). 

Spic. = Spicilegium Syriacum (ed. by W. Cureton). 

Of Syriac abbreviations note 'ao = jL&;jfco "and the rest" «= &c. 

Strassburg i. E. August 1898. 

Th. Noldeke. 



NOTE ON THE ENGLISH EDITION. 

I am glad to have the opportunity of expressing here my satis- 
faction with Dr. Crichton's translation of my book, and my hearty re- 
cognition of the great care and ability with which he has performed his 
task. Special thanks are also due on my part to the translator, for recti- 
fying certain errors which had crept into the original work in the case of 
several of the citations. I venture to hope that the book, in its new form, 
will prove useful to a still wider circle of readers. 

Strassburg i. E. March 1904. 

Th. Noldeke. 



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CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTION. 
PART FIRST. ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONOLOGY. 

I. ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Letters. Page 

§ 1. Form of the Letters 1 

§ 2. Pronunciation 3 

§ 3. Disposition of Words 4 

Vowel Expression. 
(a) By Vowel Letters. 

§ 4. Actual Use 5 

§ 5. Apparent Use of J 6 

(b) By Other Signs. 

§ 6. Simple Points 6 

§ 7. Combination of Points 7 

§ 8. System of Vowel-marking by Points 7 

§ 9. System of Vowel-marking by Greek Letters 8 

§ 10. Mixed System 8 

§ 11. Marking Length of Vowels 9 

§ 12. Marking Absence of Vowel 9 

§ 13. Examples: Use of Vowel Signs 9 

Other Beading- Signs. 

§ 14. Diacritic Point in * and ? 9 

§ 15. Rukkakha and QuSSaya 10 

§ 16. Plural Points % 10 

§ 17. Upper and Under Line 11 

B* 



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XVIII CONTENTS. 

Page 

Interpunctuation and Accents. . 

§ 18. Interpunctuation 12 

§ 19. Accents 12 

n. PHONOLOGY. 

1. CONSONANTS. 
General Statement. 

§ 20. Beginning of the Syllable 13 

§21. Doubling 13 

§ 22. Assimilation 14 

Rukkdkhd and Quits' ay a. 

§ 23. R. and Q. in individual words 15 

§ 24. R. and Q. in closely associated words * 19 

§ 25. R. and Q. in Greek words 19 

§ 26. Dentals and Sibilants 20 

§ 27. Labials 21 

Liquids. 

§28. n 22 

§29. Z 22 

§30. r 22 

§ 31. Unusual Abbreviations with Liquids 23 

§ 31 b . n becoming I in foreign words 23 

Gutturals. 

§ 32. Falling away of initial I 23 

§ 33. Treatment of medial I 23 

§ 34. Auxiliary Vowel of the I 24 

§ 35. Orthographic Note on I 24 

§ 36, II becoming U 25 

§ 37. *. 25 

§38. * 25 

§ 39. Greek rh 26 

The Vowel' Letters © and <-. 

§ 40. Usual Changes 26 

§ 41. o and *. as representing the 2 nd and 3 rd Radical 29 

2. VOWELS. 
Long and Short Vowels in open and closed Syllables. 

§ 42. Long Vowels 29 

§43. Short Voweli 29 



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0ONTENT& XIX 

Page 

Some of the most important Vowel Changes. 

§ 44. a 31 

§ 46. a 32 

§ 46. e . . 32 

§ 47. e 33 

§ 48. o, o 33 

§ 49. au and ai 34 

§ BO. Loss of Vowels 35 

New Vowels and Syllables. 

§ 51. Vowel prefixed— (Alaf Prosthetic) 37 

§ 52. Auxiliary Vowels 37 

Influence of the Consonants upon the Vowels. 

§ 53. Ofl 38 

§ 54. Of the other Gutturals and of r ... • 39 

§ 55. 3. STRONGER ALTERATIONS 39 

§ 56. 4. TONE 40 



PART SECOND. MORPHOLOGY. 

§ 57. Strong and Weak Roots . . 41 

§ 58. Variation of Weak Roots 42 

§ 59. Roots tried, gem 42 

§60. Quadriliteral Roots 43 

§ 61. Nouns and Verbs 43 

§ 62. Interjections 43 

I. NOUNS. 

1. PRONOUNS. 

Personal Pronouns. 

§ 63. Subject-Forms 44 

§ 64. Enclitic Forms with Participles and Adjectives 45 

§ 65. Possessive Suffixes 46 

§ 66. Object Suffixes 46 

§ 67. Demonstrative Pronouns 47 

§ 68. Interrogative Pronouns 47 

8 69. The Relative Pronoun 47 



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XX CONTENTS. 

2. NOUNS IN THE STRICTER SENSE. 
(Substantives and Adjectives.) 

A. GENDER, NUMBER, STATE. Pag6 

§ 70. General Statement. Paradigm of the simplest Forms 48 

§ 71. Insertion of *. before the Feminine-ending . . 49 

§ 72. PI. Emph. St. in ait/a 50 

§ 73. Abs. and Constr. States (corresponding) 50 

§ 74. PI. from Enlarged forms in an 50 

§ 75. Fem. in ithd 51 

§ 76. Fem. in uthd 52 

§ 77. Fem. in otha 52 

§ 78. Fem. in dthd 52 

§ 79. PI. in wdthd 53 

§ 80. Feminine-ending treated as a Radical 54 

§ 81. Falling away of Fem.- ending in PI 54 

§ 82. Assumption of Fem. -ending in PI 55 

§ 83. Feminine-ending: at 55 

§ 84. List of Feminines not having a Fem.-ending 55 

§ 86. Fluctuation of Gender in Names of Animals 58 

§ 86. Radical I treated as Fem.-ending 58 

§ 87. Nouns of Common Gender 59 

§ 88. Gender of Greek Words 60 

§ 89. Greek Plural- endings 60 

§ 90. Nouns undergoing no change in Plural 61 

§ 91. Defective Nouns 62 

§ 91 b . Certain Abstracts expressed by Plurals 62 

B. SURVEY OF THE NOMINAL FORMS. 

§ 92. Preliminary Observations 62 

(AA) Tri-radical Nouns un-augmented externally. 
The Shortest Forms. 

§ 93. Preliminary Observations 63 

§ 94. With a and e of Strong Root 63 

§ 95. „ „ „ „ „ Roots primae I 66 

§ 96. „ „ „ „ „ „ primae *- (©) 65 

§ 97. „ „ „ „ „ „ mediae I 65 

§ 98. „ „ „ „ „ „ mediae o (and -)..... 65 

§ 99. „ „ „ „ „ „ middle n 66 

§ 100. „ „ „ „ „ „ tertiae I .66 

§ 101. „ „ „ „ „ „ tertiae *. (o) . . . 66 

§ 102. „ „ „ „ „ „ mediae geminatae 67 

§ 103. With u of Strong Root 67 



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CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

§ 104. With u of Weak Roots ... 68 

§ 105. With falling away of 1 st Had 68 

With a after the l 8t Radical. 

§ 106. With short Vowel after 2 nd Had 69 

§ 107. With 5 after 2 nd Rad 69 

§ 108. With i after 2 nd Rad 69 

§ 109. With short Vowel of the l 8t and a of the 2 nd Bad. .... 69 

With short Vowel of the l 9t and % (e, at) of the 2 nd Rad. 

§ 110. With l of 2 nd Rad 70 

§ 111. With e of 2 nd Rad 70 

§ 112. With ai of 2 nd Rad , 71 

§ 113. With short Vowel of the l 9t and u (o) of the 2 nd Rad 71 

With Doubling of the Middle Radical. 

§ 114. With two short Vowels 71 

§ 115. With a after the 1"*, and a after the 2 nd Rad 72 

§ 116. With e after the l 1 * and a after the 2 nd Rad 72 

§ 117. With u after the l Bt and a after the 2 nd Rad 72 

§ 118. With a after the l rt and i after the 2 nd Rad 73 

§ 119. With a after the l 8t and u after the 2 nd Rad 73 

§ 120. With c after the 1«* and w, o after the 2 nd Rad 73 

§ 121. With Doubling of the 3 rd Radical. ...... 73 

(BB) Nouns of Four or more Radicals without External Increase. 

§ 122. Various Forms 73 

§ 123. Abstract Nouns with u—d 74 

§ 124. Five-lettered Nouns 75 

§ 125. Presumptive Compounds 75 

(CC) Formations with Prefixes. 

§ 126. With m 75 

§ 127. With t 76 

§ 127*. Other Prefixes 77 

(DD) Formations with Suffixes. 

With an (on). 

§ 128. Abstract Nouns and Nouns Substantive 77 

§ 129. Adjectives .... 78 

§ 130. Nomina Agentis 79 

§ 130 b . With in 79 



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XXII CONTENTS. 

Page 

Diminutives. 

§ 131. With on 79 

§ 132. With in 80 

§ 133. With os 80 

§ 134. Others 80 

Withdi. 

§ 135. With di alone (ndi) 80 

§ 136. With dndi 83 

§ 137. With \ % y 83 

§ 138. With uth 84 

§ 139. Traces of other Word-forming Suffixes 84 

§ 140. Foreign Suffixes 85 

C. COMPOUNDS. 

§ 141. Genitive-Compounds 85 

§ 142. Gender of such Compounds 86 

§ 143. Compounds with la 86 

§ 144. D. BEMABX ON THE TREATMENT OF GEEEK PB0PEB-NAME8 . . 86 

§ 145. E. ATTACHMENT OF THE POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES .... 87 

F. LIST OF ANOMALOUS NOUNS. 

§ 146. Substantives and Adjectives 91 

§ 147. Pronominals 94 

3. NUMERALS. « 

% 
Cardinal Numbers. 

§ 148. Leading Forms 95 

§ 149. Forms with Suffixes 96 

§ 150. Days of the month 97 

§ 151. Another Substantive-Form 97 

§ 152. Numerals in Compound Expressions 97 

§ 163. Ordinal Numbers 98 

§ 154. Other Forms derived from Numerals 98 

4. PARTICLES. 

§ 155. Adverbs and Conjunctions 98 

Prepositions. 

§ 156. List of Prepositions 101 

§ 157. Prepositions with Suffixes 103 



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CONTENTS. XXIII 

P»ge 

n. VERBS. 

§ 158. Preliminary Observations 103 

§ 159. Tri-radical Verbs 105 

Verbs with three strong Radicals. 

§ 160. Peal 105 

§ 161. Hardness and Softness of the Radicals 106 

§ 162. Ethpeel 106 

§ 163. Pael and Ethpaal 107 

§ 164. Aphel and Ettaphal 107 

§ 165. Participles 107 

§ 166. Nomina Agent is 108 

§ 167. Infinitive 108 

§ 168. Paradigm of the Regular Verb 109 

Verbs with Gutturals. 

§ 169. Mediae Gutturalis , .... Ill 

§ 170. Tertiae Gutturalis Ill 

Weak Verbs. 

§ 171. Verba mediae I . . . 112 

§ 172. Verba tertiae I 113 

§ 173. Verba primae j 115 

§ 174. Verba primae I 116 

§ 175. Verba primae o and *. 119 

§ 176. Verba tertiae - 121 

§ 177. Verba mediae o and ~ 125 

§ 178. Verba mediae geminatae 127 

§ 179. Verbs weak in more than one Radical 129 

Quadriliteral and Multiliteral Verbs. 

§ 180. Formation of Quadriliterals 130 

§ 181. Inflection 131 

§182. Multiliteral Verbs 132 

§ 183. List of Anomalous Verbs ........ 132 

Verbs with Object- Suffixes, (a) With strong Termination. 

§ 184. Leading Rules 134 

§185. Paradigm: Regular Verb with Suffixes 136 

§ 186. Observations on the Perfect 138 

§ 187. Examples of Variations 138 

§ 188. On the Imperfect 139 

§ 189. Examples of Variations 140 

§ 190. On the Imperative, and the 2 nd Sing. m. Impf. 140 

§ 191. On the Infinitive 4 . . 142 

(b) Verba tertiae ~ with Suffixes. 

§ 192. Leading Rules 143 

§ 193. Paradigm of Verb Tert. *. with Pronominal Suffixes 143 



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XXIV C0NTBNT8. 

Paee 

§ 194. On the Perfect 14=6 

§ 195. On the Imperfect 14=6 

§ i96. On the Imperative 14=7 

§ 196*. Transition of Verbs tettiae I to Verbs tertiae ~ before Suffixes . . . 147 

§ 197. Quadriliteral8 before Suffixes 147 

§ 198. Reflexive Verbs before Suffixes 148 

§ 199. KJ 148 



PAKT THIRD. SYNTAX. 
I. THE SEPARATE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

§ 200, Preliminary Observations 160 

1. NOUNS. 

§ 201. A. GENDER 150 

B. ABSOLUTE STATE*. EMPHATIC STATE. 

§ 202. Abs. St. in the Substantive 151 

§ 203. State of the Attributive Adjective 157 

§ 204. State of the Predicative Adjective 158 

C. GENITIVE AND CONSTRUCT STATE. 

§ 205. Genitive Connection by the Oonstr. St. and by * 161 

§ 206. Constr. St. before Prepositions 164 

§ 207. Constr. St. before Adverbs 165 

§ 208. Separation of Genitive from Governing Word 165 

§ 209. Nouns with ;, when Governing Noun is not expressed 166 

§ 210. Determination of Governing Word 167 

D. CO-ORDINATION. 

§ 211. Attributive Adjective 168 

§ 212. Apposition 169 

§ 213. Loose Apposition 169 

§ 214. Apposition in Words denoting Measure 170 

§ 215. Apposition of "much", "little", "many", "few" 170 

§ 216. Expressions of condition or state ("as") 171 

E. ^D. 

§ 217. In Abs. and Emph. St 171 

§ 218. In Constr. St. and with Suffixes .171 



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CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 
§ 219. F. rr» .173 

G. PRONOUNS. 

Personal Pronouns. 

§ 220. Separate . . .• 174 

§ 221. Enclitic ©* for Emphasising-purposes 175 

§ 222. Pronominal Suffixes for emphasising Determined Nouns 175 

§ 223. Reflexive Pronouns 176 

§224. Pleonastic \. with Pronominal Suffixes 177 

§ 224*. Reflexive Pronominal Suffix with the Genitive 177 

§ 225. V . . . . , 177 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

§ 226. Adjective- and Substantive-use 179 

§ 227. Personal Pronoun of 3 rd pers. placed with demonstrative effect before 

Substantives and before other Demonstratives 180 

§ 228. Weakening of the demonstrative force .......... 18p 

§ 229. "This"-"That" 18*1 . 

§ 230. "The very same" 181 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

§ 231. Substantive- and Adjective- use 181 

§ 232. "What?" .*....'.' 181 

§ 233. uso 182 

§ 234. Jul . • . .* 182 

The Relative Pronoun. 

§ 235. By itself 183 

§ 236. With Correlative 183 

H. NUMERALS. 

§ 237. Numeral, and Numbered Object 185 

§ 238. Determination of that which is numbered 186 

§ 239. Cardinal numbers used for Ordinal numbers 186 

§ 240. Distributive Expression. Grouping. Approximate numbers * . . . 186 

§ 241. Adverbial Expressions , 187 

§ 242. "One another" 187 

J. ADVERBIAL EXPRESSION. 

§ 243. Substantives as Adverbs 188 

§ 244. Adjectives as Adverbs of Quality 190 

§ 245. Adverbs belonging to an Adjective or another Adverb 190 

K. PREPOSITIONS. 

§ 246. Separation of the Preposition from its Regimen 191 

§247. *» 191 

§ 248. a % . 193 

§249. « { . • • .... 193 



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XXVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

§ 250. Vw 196 

§251. "Between" 197 

§ 252. Prepositional Phrases treated like Substantives 198 

2. VERBS. 

A. PEBSON AND GENDEB. 

§ 253. Subject of the 3 rd pers. not expressed 199 

§ 254. Impersonal Expression. "It" 199 

B. TENSES AND MOODS. 

Perfect 

§ 255. Tempus Eistoricum 202 

§ 256. Pure Perfect 202 

§ 257. Pluperfect 203 

§ 258. Future-Perfect. Perfect in Conditional Clauses 203 

§ 259. In Hypothetical Clauses 204 

§ 260. I©<* Optative 205 

§ 261. loo, Subjunctive 205 

§ 262. Other dependent Perfects 206 

§ 263. Perfect with loo, 206 

Imperfect. 

§ 264. Future 207 

§ 265. Imperfect in Conditional Clauses 207 

§ 266. Modal Colouring 208 

§ 267. Dependent Imperfect 208 

§ 268. Imperfect with loo, 209 

Participles. 

§ 269. Active Participle. Present 211 

§ 270. Future 211 

§ 271. In Conditional Clauses 212 

§ 272. In Dependent Clauses 213 

§ 273. Use of Part, in denoting what was on the point of happening in the Past 215 

§ 274. Historical Present 215 

§ 275. Contemporary Condition in the Past 215 

§ 276. Modal Colouring 216 

§ 277. Active Participle with lo* 216 

§278. Passive Participle. For the Perfect 218 

§ 279. With ^ 219 

§280. Active Use 220 

Participles used as Nouns. 

§ 281. As Pure Substantives 221 

§ 282. Act, Participle of the Peal. Nomen Ageniis of the Peal 221 



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CONTENTS. XXVII 

Page 

§ 283. Other Active Participles and Nomina Ag 222 

§ 2&4. Passive Participles 223 

§ 286. Imperative 224 

§ 286. Infinitive .224 

0. GOVERNMENT OP THE VERB. 

§ 287. Object expressed by the Personal Pronoun 226 

§ 288. Object designated by means of V. in the case of Determined Substantives 227 

§ 289. V of the Object alongside of another \, 231 

§ 290. Double-transitive Construction 232 

§ 291. Passive with Object 233 

§ 292. Character of Objective-designation in Syriac 233 

Infinitive with Object 

§ 293. Verb-Construction 234 

§ 294. Noun-Construction 235 

Infinitive Absolute, 

§ 295. Placed before the Verb 235 

§ 296. Placed after the Verb 236 

§ 297. Without Finite Verb 236 

§ 298. Abstracts of another form taking the part of General Object . . . 236 

D. to*. 

§ 299. Separate and Enclitic Forms 238 

§ 300. Forms of lo* used for Emphasis and Modification 239 

E. VJ. 

§ 301. Preliminary Observations 240 

§ 302. With separate Personal Pronouns 240 

§ 303. With Suffixes, and alone 241 

§ 304. to* KJ with Feminine and with Plural 243 

§ 305. KJ employed like a Participle and with Forms of to* 243 

§ 306. &J with Infinitive and Complete Clauses 244 

§ 307. V K*t "to have" 244 

§ 308. Awl and Jo* with Adverbs of Quality 244 

§ 308 b . iU = simple KJ 245 

H. THE SENTENCE. 
1. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. 

A. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE IN GENERAL. 

§ 309. Nominal Sentence. Verbal Sentence 245 

§ 310. Copula wanting 245 



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XXVIU CONTENTS. 

§ 311. Pronoun of the 3 rd pers. as Copula 246 

§ 312. Personal Pronoun as Subject 247 

§ 3 1 3. KJ as Copula. Wide choice in expressing the Copula 249 

§ 314. Subject wanting .: 249 

§ 315. Time-range of the Nominal Sentence 250 

§ 316. Separation of the Subj. from the Pred. by means of o 250 

§ 317. Nominative Absolute 250 

Concordance of the Parts of the Sentence. 

§ 318. Collectives as Sing, and Plur 251 

§ 319. Plur. in Phrases with ^ 253 

§ 320. Prep, with Substantive as Subject 254 

§ 321. Verb in the Sing, with Subj. in the Plur 255 

§ 321 b . otK^b ^a &c 255 

§ 322. Gender and Number of a Group of Nouns coupled with o or a like 

Conjunction 256 

§ 323. The different Persons (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd ) when bound together 258 

Arrangement of Words. 

§ 324. Position of the Subj. and Pred 258 

§ 325. Position of the Object 261 

§ 326. Position of Adverbial Qualifications 261 

§ 327. Position of certain Particles 262 

B. SPECIAL KINDS OF SENTENCES. 

Negative Sentences. 

§ 328. J) and its strengthened Forms 262 

§ 329. Position of the Negative 266 

§ 330. Double Negative . .• 266 

§ 331. Interrogative Sentences 267 

2. COMBINATION OF SEVERAL SENTENCES OR CLAUSES. 

A. COPULATIVE SENTENCES. 

§ 332. Ellipses in Copulative Sentences 268 

§ 333. Negation in Copulative Sentences ■. 270 

§ 334. Copulative Sentence for a Contemporaneous circumstance or for a Con- 
sequence 271 

§ 335. Close Combination of two Verbs by means of "and" 272 

§ 336. Government of such Combinations 273 

§ 337. Close Combination of two Verbs without "and" 274 

§ 338. Government of such Combinations 276 

§ 339. Note upon o 277 

§ 340. o and oi doubled 277 



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CONTENTS. XXIX 

B. RELATIVE CLAUSES. 

Page 
Attributive Relative Clauses. 

§ 341. Relative Pronoun and Referring Form ^ . . . 278 

§ 342. Referring Form in the case of the Subject 278 

§ 343. Referring Form in the case of the Object 279 

§ 344. Referring Form with Genitive and Prepositions 280 

§ 345. Referring Form in a second clause 280 

§ 346. Referring Form expressed by a Demonstrative 281 

§ 347. Relative Clauses attached to Adverbial Expressions 282 

§ 348. Relative Clauses attached to Adverbs 284 

§ 349. Placing before the Relative Clause the Preposition proper to the Refer- 
ring Form 284 

§ 350. Relative Clauses referring to the 1 st and 2 nd Pers. and to the Vocative. 

Apposition to the Vocative 285 

§ 351. Relative Clauses with fju— h- . 287 

§ 352. Relative Clause preceding its Noun 288 

§ 353. "Whosoever" 289 

§ 354. Omission of the , 289 

§ 355. Short Adverbial Qualifications as Relative Clauses 289 

§ 356. Relative Clause as Attribute to a whole Sentence 290 

Conjunctional Relative Clauses. 

§ 357. Preliminary Observations 290 

§ 358. Relative Clause as Subject, Object, Predicate 291 

§ 359. Relative Clause in the position of a Genitive 292 

§ 360. Relative Clause dependent upon a Preposition 292 

§ 361. Abridging-Substantive before Relative Clause 294 

§ 362. Abridging Demonstrative Pronoun before Relative Clause .... 295 

§ 363. , JL» 296 

§ 364. y\ 296 

§ 365. Other Adverbs as Correlatives 299 

§ 366. ? "in order that", "since" &c 299 

§ 367. \ before Oratio Directa 300 

§368. ? left out 301 

§ 369. J repeated ; 301 

§ 370. j not at the head of its Clause 301 

§ 371. Relative Clauses set in a Series . . . . ' 302 

C. INDIBECT INTEBBOGATIVE CLAUSES. 

§ 372. Proper 303 

§ 373. I*^ ? &c 305 

D. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. 

§ 374. vl . 307 

§876. A 311 



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XXX CONTENTS. 

Page 

§ 376. v! for «&t 314 

§ 377. Clauses which resemble Conditional Clauses 314 

* * 

* 

Structure of Periods. Involution and other Irregular Forms. 

§ 378. Structure of Periods 314 

§ 379. Involution, or Enclosing of one Clause within another 315 

§ 380. Parenthesis 315 

§ 381. Anacoluthon 315 

§ 382. Ellipsis 316 

APPENDIX. 

On the Use of the Letters of the Alphabet as Ciphers 316 

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 318 

INDEX OF PASSAGES 321 



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INTRODUCTION. 

From the time the Greeks came to have a more intimate acquain- 
tance with Asia, they designated by the name of "Syrians" the people 
who called themselves "Aramaeans". Aramaic or Syriac, in the wider 
sense of the word, is a leading branch of the Semitic speech-stem, — 
particularly of the Northern Semitic. This language, extending far beyond 
its original limits, prevailed for more than a thousand years over a very 
wide region of Western Asia, and farther did duty as a literary language 
for less cultivated neighbouring populations. It separated into several 
dialects, of which some have been preserved for us in literary documents, 
and others only in inscriptions. — It is one of these Aramaic dialects 
which we purpose to describe in the present work. This particular 
dialect had its home in Edessa and the neighbouring district of Western 
Mesopotamia, and stretched perhaps as far as into Northern Syria. 
Accordingly it is called by the authors who make use of it, the "Edessan" 
or "Mesopotamian tongue", but usually it lays claim to the name of 
Syriac pure and simple, as being the chief Syriac dialect. Occasionally 
indeed it has also been designated Aramaic, although, in Christian times, 
the name "Aramaic" or "Aramaean" was rather avoided, seeing that it 
signified much the same thing as "heathen". 

Syriac, in the narrower meaning, — that is to say, the dialect of 
Edessa — , appears to have come somewhat nearer to the Aramaic 
dialects of the Tigris regions , than to those of Central Syria and 
Palestine. As far, however, as our imperfect knowledge goes, the dialect 
stands out quite distinctly from all related ones. 



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XXXII INTBODUCTION. 

In Edessa this dialect was employed as a literary language, cer- 
tainly long before the introduction of Christianity. But it attained 
special importance, from the time the Bible was translated into it 
(probably in the 2 nd century) and Edessa became more and more the 
capital of purely Aramaic Christianity (in a different fashion from 
the semi-Greek Antioch). With Christianity the language of Edessa 
pushed its way even into the kingdom of Persia. By the 4 th century, as 
being then Syriac pure and simple, it serves (and that exclusively) the 
Aramaean Christians on the Tigris as their literary language. During 
that period, so far as we know, it was only in Palestine that a local 
Aramaic dialect was — to a certain extent — made use of by Christians, 
for literary purposes. The Syriac writings of the heathen of Harran, 
the neighbouring city to Edessa,- — of which writings, unfortunately, 
nothing has been preserved for us — , must have exhibited but a trifling 
difference at the most from those of the Christians. 

The language and its orthography already present such a settled 
appearance in the excellent manuscripts of the 5 th century, that we can 
hardly doubt that scholastic regulation was the main factor in improv- 
ing the popular tongue into the literary one. The Greek model has been 
effective here. The influence of Greek is shown directly, not merely in 
the intrusion of many Greek words, but also in the imitation of the 
Greek use of words, Greek idiom and Greek construction, penetrating 
to the most delicate tissues of the language. Numerous translations and 
imitations (such as the treatise on Fate, composed after Greek patterns 
by a pupil of Bardesanes, about the beginning of the 3 rd century) furthered 
this process. But we must carefully distinguish between Greek elements 
which had made good their entry into the language, and such Graecisms 
as must have been forced upon it by pedantic translators and imitators. 
Many Hebraisms also found their way into Syriac through the old trans- 
lations of the Bible, in which Jewish influence operated strongly. 

The golden age of Syriac reaches to the 7 th century. The Syrians 
of that day belonged partly to the Koman empire, and partly to the 
Persian. The cleavage was made more pronounced by the ecclesiastical 
divisions, occasioned specially by the unhappy Christological controversies. 



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INTBODUCTION. XXXIII 

The Persian Syrians decided mostly for the teaching of the Nestorians, 
• — the Roman Syrians for that of the Monophysites or Jacobites. And 
when the Academy of Edessa, the intellectual capital, was closed (489) 
to the former as declared heretics, they founded educational institutions 
of their own, — of which in particular the one at Nisibis attained to 
high repute. This separation had as a consequence an abiding severance 
•of tradition, even with respect to the language and the mode of writing 
it. Assuredly the variety of the common dialects in olden time cannot 
have been without influence upon the pronunciation of Syriac, in the 
mouths even of cultivated persons in different localities, — just as in 
Germany the Upper-Saxon language of polite intercourse assumes a very 
perceptible colouring, conditioned by the local dialect it meets with, in the 
case of the inhabitant for instance of Holstein or the Palatinate or Upper 
Bavaria, — or as in Italy the Tuscan tongue is similarly modified, in the case 
of the native of Lombardy, Genoa or Naples. Many of these differences, 
however, rest doubtless upon rules of art laid down by the Schools. So 
far as we find here a genuine variety in the forms of the language, it is 
sometimes the Eastern, sometimes the Western tradition, which preserves 
the original with the greater fidelity. Naturally the more consistent of 
the two is the Western, which as a whole restores to us the pronunciation 
of the Edessans, in the remodelled form in which it appeared about the 
year 600 or 700, — that is, at a time subsequent to the golden age of 
the language. 

The conquest of the Aramaean regions by the Arabs brought the 
commanding position of Syriac to a sudden close. True, it lived on for 
sometime longer in Edessa, and Aramaic dialects long maintained them- 
selves in remote districts, as they partly do up to the present day; but 
Syriac speedily lost its standing as a language of cultivated intercourse 
extending over a wide region. The very care which was now devoted to 
the literary determination of the old speech is a token that men clearly 
perceived it was passing away. It can hardly be doubted that about the 
year 800 Syriac was already a dead language, although it was frequently 
spoken by learned men long after that time. The power of tradition, 
which keeps it up as an ecclesiastical language, and the zealous study 



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XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

of ancient writings, — had the effect of leading even the later Syriac 
authors, among whom were several considerable men, to wield their an- 
cestral speech with great skill. Besides, the influence of the actually 
living tongues — the Aramaic popular dialects and the Arabic — did 
not attain its prevalence with such a disturbing effect as might have 
been expected. But on the whole, for more than a thousand years, 
Syriac — as an ecclesiastical and literary language — has only been pro- 
longing a continually waning existence. 



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PART FIRST. 
ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONOLOGY. 



I. ORTHOGRAPHY. 

LETTERS. 

§ 1. A. The character most in use in Syriac printing is that of Form of the 
the West-Syrians (Jacobites and Maronites), of which the proper name 
is Serta (Serto). It has been developed out of the older one, which is 
called Estrangelo, properly crpoyyvkyj. This character also is pretty often 
employed in printing, particularly in more recent times. The same thing 
may be said of the Nestorian character, which comes nearer the Estrangelo 
than the Serta does. We accordingly give, in the following Table not 
only the Serta letters of the alphabet but also the old or Estrangelo 
letters, as well as the Nestorian letters. 

B. All Syriac styles of writing are Cursive', the most of the letters 
must be connected right and left within the word, — and thus several 
small modifications of shape arise. In the case of the Serta, we give all 
these forms; for the Estrangelo and the Nestorian character it may 
suffice to give the special final forms, in addition to the main forms. (*) 

The form, which is given here in European character, of the names 
of the letters, aims at representing the older pronunciation: brackets 
enclose the diverging pronunciation of the later West-Syrians. Second- 
ary forms, varying both in sound and character, are also met with. 

( x ) Cf. besides, the Plate of Alphabetical Characters by Euting, appended to 

this work. 

1 



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2 — 



§1- 



t: 

i. 

\S 

sj 

fflTJ 
o © 

H 


sual 

Char 

2. 

1 

- 

1| 

£& 

o 

o 


Syri 

actei 

3. 

1 

11 

el 
§ 
o 

o 


ac 
4. 

to 

*c . 

©TJ 

§ § 

O 


6 

Q 
G 

00 


1 

o 


Names, 


Sound- Value aud 
Transcription. 


i 

a 
o 

1 

"3 

m 

i 

a 


1 


i 


Jl 


— 





f* 


1 


aSt 


Alaf (Olaf) 


Spiritus lenis (') 


K 


1 


a 


Ck 


A 


cx 


3 


3 


twa 


Beth 


i>;v(/2) 


a 


2 


^ 


^ 


^* 


^> 


^- 


k 


^^ 


Gamal (Gomal) 


g (hard) ; gh (y) 


i 


3 


? 


t 


— 


— 


.1 


? 


fc^f or ^* 


Dalath orDaladh 
(DolathorDoladh) 


d; dh (o) 


i 


4 


©) 


Of 


— 


— 


CO 


OJ 


to) 


He 


h 


n 


5 


o 


a 


— 


— 


o 


o 


oo or ofo 


Wau 


w 


i 


6 


/ 


JL 


— 




\ 


♦ 


^/or~j, w{; 


Zain, Zen, or Zai 


soft s (z) 


T 


7 


w 


UU 


JU 


JU. 


A* 


4* 


tuA* 


Heth 


hard h (h) 


n 


8 


4 


+ 


4 


4 


\ 


V 


*4 


Teth 


emphatic t (t) 


c 


9 


w 


<* 


<* 


A 


A 


1* 


JO- 


Yodh (Yudh) 


y 


s 


10 


r 


r 


A 


A 


^* 


9 a 


.CI p 


Kaf (Kof) 


k; kh 


3 


20 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


A 


A 


^ 


Lamadh(Lomadh) 


1 


* 


30 


7» 


^ 


*3 


*Q. 


7»» 


p » 


tt*M 


Mim 


in 


& 


40 


^ 


* 


J 


X 


^ i 


v* 


v«" 


Nun, Non 


n 


J 


50 


02D 


an 


£X> 


A 


so 


J2> 


^^vxvi 


Semkath 


s 


D 


60 


NSc 


>^ 


^ 


* 


St. 


i. 


K 


C E 


peculiar gut- 
tural o 


y 


70 


id 


A 


3 


3l 


& 


4 


Is 


Pe 


p ; f, pli 


& 


80 


J 


J 





— 


-? 


S 


h 


Sadhe (Sodlie) 


emphatic s (s) 


s 


90 


JD 


%a 


JO 


JO. 


a 


o 


i&CUB 


Qof 


guttural k (q) 


p 


100 


* 


V 





— 


i 


& 


«JU* ? «Jk) 


Resh (Rish) 


r 


I 


200 


A 


* 


Jt 


Jl 


r. 


X 


*** 


Shin 


sh 


B^ 


300 


L 


fcs 





— 


* 


N 


ol, oil 


Tau 


t; th (#) 


n 


400 



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§2. - 3 - 

At the end of a word we can only have a form from the 2 nd column 
or the l 8t , and from the one or the other according as the preceding 
letter has a form connecting to the left (Col. 3) or not. Forms from 
Col. 4 can only appear in the interior of a word; while initial forms 
must be taken from Col. 1 or 3. 

Rem. The most judicious course for the beginner will be to impress 
upon his memory only Cols. 1 and 3. 

C. ^ with { is generally written jJ (Jl), but initial \ with^* thus, 2SS. 
For I ^ one sometimes puts ^L, and thus draws in this case two words 
together. In Nestorian script ^ is given for final in (ll). 

For a, J as single letters or as ciphers, one generally writes y*o, ^J. 

In manuscripts a and a are often mistaken for each other from 
their resemblance ; so is it with J and », and also with ju on the one 
hand and *j, u, i*, and ** on the other. Farther it is frequently difficult 
to distinguish ju> from a simple jl, and occasionally even **» from a simple 
**. Even in many printed copies a and a are far too like one another : (*) 
farther, ^ and **, and jl and * are not sufficiently discriminated. 

8 2. The pronunciation of the letters can of course be determined p* 011 ^- 

. . . oiation. 

only approximately. Notice the following: o ^$ o«dl have a twofold 
pronunciation, one hard, answering to our b g d h p t, one soft, aspirated 
or rather sibilated. Soft o is nearly the German w, or the English 
and French v\ soft ^= 7 (gh) is nearly the Dutch g (like the Arabic 
a) ; soft j = (5 (dh) is the English th in there, other ; soft ^a = kh, or the 
German ch in ach (not that in ich) ; soft *d the German, English, and 
French f; soft t «= & (th) is the English th in think, both. ( 2 ) On the changes 
of the hard and soft pronunciations v. §§ 15, 23 sqq. 

o is always the vowel-sounding English w, never the German w, and 
accordingly it quiesces easily and completely into a u. w has also more 
of a vowel character than the German j, being nearly the English y. 



(*) Translator's Note: The same may be said for a and *. 

( 2 ) Translator's Note: In the transcription followed in this Edition, soft c> 
will be represented by t>, soft u» by kh, soft * by f or ph, and soft i by th; while 
soft v^and ? will be rendered by y and I respectively. 



1* 



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- 4 — §3. 

; = z is a soft s as in chosen, German s in Rose, French in choisir 
or French z in zero. 

w = h is quite a foreign sound to us, an /i rattled in the throat 
(Arabic _). The East-Syrians pronounce it as a very hard Swiss ch 
(Arabic +,). 

^ = t is an emphatic and completely unaspirated modification of 
I t, in which the tip of the tongue is pressed firmly against the palate; 
jd is a similar modification of wo k, produced in the back part of the 
mouth. ^ and ud are employed by the Syrians as equivalents for the 
Greek sounds r and k, which at all events were quite unaspirated. 

j = s is an emphatic articulation of the sound of iflD s, by no means 
to be rendered as a German z (= ts). 

X = e is a guttural breathing, again quite foreign to us, which is 
formed by a peculiar compression of the upper part of the windpipe. It 
is nearly related to w, and even to the Spiritus lenis (J). Those who 
render it by the latter sound will make the least considerable mistakes. 

«* = £ is the German sell, the English sh, or the French ch. 

$ seems to have been a lingual-dental, not a guttural. 

The remaining consonants have nearly the same sound as the cor- 
responding German or English ones. 

DISPOSITION OP WORDS. 

Deposition § 3. Particles, which consist of only a single letter, i. e. of a con- 

sonant with a short vowel, are attached as prefixes to the following word, 
thus JLa^aaa bemalka, "in rege", not JLa^ao o, > ^jdo waqtal, "and 
killed", not ^£* o, &c. 

Certain short words, and to some extent even longer ones, which 
together belong to the same idea, are also frequently written as one, 
though not invariably. Thus JLdt or jJ &l af la "neither", "not even"; 
«ju^ or *juJ ^ bar nctS, "son of man", i.e. "man"; jsoAa or )&a* ^o 
kid ybm "every day"; ^»vi\o or p+& ^a kid medclem "quicquid" ; 
JLa,?oajl»o$, more commonly JL&?qjd wO$ ruh qiibSa "spirit of holiness", 
"the Holy Ghost"; even )<>.iYisfn.r,Y> instead of JLuujuo >xoju. v j^o 
maran Je^iC meSihd "our Lord Jesus Christ", appears. On* the fusion 



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§4. - 5 - 

together of two words, of which the one ends in ^,, while the other be- 
gins with { 0&), see above § 1 C. 

VOWEL EXPRESSION (A) BY VOWEL LETTERS. vowel ex- 

pression : 

§ 4. A. The letters I w o are frequently made use of by the Syrians (»>Byvowei 

letters, 
to express VOWel SOUnds. Actual use. 

{ denotes every final a and e, and in certain cases e within the 
word; that a was pronounced b by the later West-Syrians, and that e in 
part I. Thus J^o md {mb)\ Jk\v> malkd (malko), JLou&tt mamse\ ]t ne 
(ni) ; ^iJLs peran (plran). 

w denotes every I in the middle and end of a word, also certain 
cases of e in the middle: *jua 6^; va^; ^*j den] K ^ c en (in). For e 
there appears also wj: ^JLo or ^d ken (§ 46). In an open syllable e is 
frequently not expressed at all, e. g. U**™*> meskend (meskind) ; in an- 
cient MSS. it is sometimes unindicated even in a closed syllable, e. g. 
tjjJi heren. 

o in the middle and end of a word denotes any long or short it or 
o: ^qjd qum; JjLeiod purqdnd', ^oN^ neylbn (neyluri); {Asjuo^ai te£- 
toiWa (te$buMb)\ o*Ay> malku; o\ b. Only the very common words ^q-d 
A;o£, &wZ "all", "every", and ^o^*o mettol, mettid "because of are often 
in old times, and always in later times, written without o, thus ^a, ^^o. 
The Cod. Sin. frequently leaves out the o even in other words, e. g. 
"VinN for \sr» ocfy luqval. 

o and w farther express the diphthongs au and ai: oX lau\ Jk*a 
baitd] the diphthongs m and en are written a-: o*\^w galliu; 
wo*a*X^ neyleu. 

B. A final and originally short a in Greek words is expressed by {: 
in pronunciation it was doubtless always lengthened. Greek a in the 
middle of a word is also often written {, e. g. JL^a^oj or JL£J^a^o> toy- 
fJLCLTCC &c. Even the Syriac a is sometimes thus expressed, e. g. JJJL£ 
talld for the usual JL£. In the very same way w appears pretty often for 
i in the middle of a word, e. g. jboAflual (or jbonmfil) episkopd, 
sTTiGKOTrog; <m.np>.^p (<nnm .^o) xprjaig. In quite isolated examples this 
happens even in Syriac words, as fcA-s^tft^t^) gi$rd : l*^Jt (fc*^t) Si/re. 



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— 6 - §§5.6. 

Greek e and cci are in some writings expressed by ot , e. 9. «m « m noiS, 
X£|/£. The desire to render Greek vowels with accuracy gave rise to 
various strange forms of transcription among learned Syrians. 

Greek on the other hand is frequently left entirely unexpressed, 
e. g. «m»\»m^ BaaiXeiog, alongside of <mo>\»m^ ; Jftn crust, Journal 
alongside of JLsonm.W, JLaoAmai in/aKOTrog. Thus the placing of the 
vowel letters in Greek words is far more fluctuating than in native ones. 
Apparent § 5. A distinction is to be made between the employment of { as 

a vowel sign and those cases in which it has its place from etymological 
considerations, — especially from having been formerly an audible spiri- 
tus lenis: e. g. JLofba malakha "angel", from KD*6d; lHa bera (bird) "a 
well" from *nite (Hebrew l$o); ^Jbw 'alUn "enter" (pi. part.), be- 
cause of the sing. ^Jbw "a? el "enters" (sing, part.) &c. 

Vowel ex- 

preasion: VOWEL EXPRESSION (B) BY OTHER SIGNS. 

(b) By other 

■igns. § 6. This insufficient representation of vowel sounds was gradually 

pointe. made up for by new signs. At first, in some words which might be pro- 
nounced in various ways, a point over the letter concerned was employed 
to signify the fuller, stronger pronunciation, and a point under it to 
denote the finer, weaker vocalisation, or even the absence of vowel sound. 
Thus there was written (and is written) lp\ c evciba "a work", set over 
against i^>v 'avda "a servant"; ^b man "what?" and man "who?", ^> 
men "from" ; ^£Jb qatel "he kills" (part.) and qattel "he murdered" 
(Pael), ^j? qetal "he killed" (Peal); {ia* Sa(n)ta "a year", {Kia Mentha 
"sleep"; JLa^b malM "king", ji\y melha "counsel"; fa^tavd "good"; 
J^£ tebba "fame"; 061 hau "that" (masc), oca hit "he"; w6» hai "that" 
(fern.), wom hi "she"; ^QJot hanon "those", ^QJqi hennbn "they" &c. 
Frequently it is held to be sufficient to indicate by the upper point the 
vowels a, a, — e. g. in JbaJUoo seyama "setting", l+J aida "what?" (fern.), 
^yuujl dahhil "timorous", without giving also to words written with the 
same consonants the under point proper to them, viz: — Jbn*rn slma "set", 
l+J tba "a hand", ^*ju? dehil "terrible". Here too we must note the 
employment of 6t almost without exception to signify the suffix of the 
3 rd pers. fern, sing., e. g. 6^ bah "in her" as set over against ot^ beh 



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§§ 7. 8. — 7 — 

"in him"; 6»k\^o qetaltdh "thou hast killed her"; and so also 6t**+A 
qehdmeh "before her"; cnAfln.1 neqteUh "he is slaying her" (Impf.), &c. 

In the latter case this system has already in part given up the 
exact, and relatively phonetic significance of the 'points'. That signi- 
ficance, however, came to be abandoned in many other cases besides, as 
when, for instance, one began to write yirp sdm "he placed", because it 
is a Perfect like ^^o qetal. Other considerations too mixed themselves 
up with the matter; thus it became the practice to write the 1 st pers. 
sing. perf. with — — over the first consonant, e. g. As^jd qetleth "I killed" 
(interfeci). The points, upper and under, — particularly the former, — are 
often wrongly placed ; thus +a^ is found for t^Jk, *dved "does", and 
«n\n> for «n\m sdleq "ascends". 

§ 7. Farther, a second or third point was often added to distinguish combina- 
more exactly between verbal forms in particular; for example, there was points. 
written !»*>S. c evdeth, !»*>v or (East-Syrian) i^a^ e evdath "she did" ; 
aiso manu "who is?" compared with oiab rndnaa "what is?"; l+± here 
"creatus" as distinguished from J^a herd "creavit" andka bare "creat", &c. 
This complicated system, often fluctuating according to districts and 
schools, and seldom faithfully attended to by copyists, still maintained 
a footing in many forms, even alongside of the employment of a more 
exact indication of the vowels. 

§ 8. Out of this punctuation then, there was formed, with the system 

of vo^tgI" 

Nestorians first of all, a complete system of Vowel-Signs. To be sure it marking 
never attained to perfect consistency and universal acceptance : even the by pomt8 ' 
appellations of the vowels fluctuate a good deal. The system is used in 
Nestorian impressions, on the authority of good manuscripts, after the 
following scheme: — 

— - a Pethdhd, e. g. o bd. 

— a Zeqdfd (or according to Nestorian pronunciation, Zeqdpd) : o bd. 

—- e, i Revdsd arrikhd or Zeldmd peSiqd: *a be. 

-— e Revdsd karyd or Zeldmd qatyd: *a be. 

w l Hevdsd\ ua bl. 

o u, it "Esdsd allisd: od bu. 

6 o, b 'Esdsd rewihd: da bo. 



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- 8 _ §§9. 10. 

Rem. This orthography, — which otherwise is tolerably consistent, — 

substitutes in certain cases — for — , for no reason that can be dis- 

.. 

covered, e. g. in Passive Participles like JUa "built". In old manuscripts 
— is largely interchangeable with — r or — . w is also found in isolated 
cases for w, particularly for an initial i. — — is also written for — . 
For other variations, v. §§ 42. 46. 48. — On the representation of ai 
and an v. § 49 A. 

sy«*em § 9. Much clearer is the system of vowel designation by small 

of vowel- 
marking Greek letters set above or below the line, — a system which grew up 

letters! 6 among the Jacobites about A. D. 700. Unfortunately, however, this 

system represents in many parts a later pronunciation of the vowels, 

which had become prevalent at that time, so that we cannot in the 

Grammar altogether dispense with the other system, — the Nestorian. 

The method practised is as follows : 

— a Pethbho. 

— o (older a) Zeqofb. 

— e Revoso. 

— l (partly for old e) Hevbso. 

— - °* u (partly for old o) 'Esoso. 

Rem. Sometimes /' or / is found for — i. e. H, y, following later 
Greek pronunciation; for — or — there appears #, and cc too for o. 
This cc has been in use with the interjection hi "0!" from very ancient 
times: a later and disfigured form is ol. The diphthongs au and ai are 
written o— , w— ; o— is an earlier form for o— ; and similar forms 
occur for other diphthongs. 

Mixed § 10. A combination of a modified point-system with the Greek 

system is in favour among the later West-Syrians and in our own im- 
pressions. In this usage 



— and -7- without distinction = — . 

w, **— or merely - % = ~— , -^-. 

6 or o without any certain distinction = o— . 



system. 



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§§11—14. - 9 — 

§ 11. Rem. No one of these systems carries out a distinction Marking 
between long and short vowels. The designation of vowels by the Syrian vowels. 
Grammarians as "long" or "short" rests upon a misunderstanding of 
Greek terms and has nothing to do with the natural quantity. Thus the 
first and certainly short e in neyle is directly designated as "long Revoso", 
and the second and long e as "short". The original o is for the Jacobites 
a "short 'Esoso"; for the Nestorians on the other hand it is "broad", 
while u is for the former "long", for the latter "compressed" ; and in 
neither case is the quantity of the vowel considered, but merely the 
quality. 

§ 12. No established sign has been formed to denote the want of Marking 
any vowel (Sh e va quiescens), nor yet the absence of a full vowel (Sh e va of'vowei. 
mobile). Here and there the sign — (§ 6) or -^- (§ 17) serves this 
purpose. 

§ 13. A. Examples: Nestorian: .b<A*? £l*» ;S>vA No- suth lemille Examples: 

^ ' " T186 of VOW* 

lemalka 'bilhon. Greek: ^oot^? j^Yy? $£** l©j suth lemele hemalkd ei signs. 
Zilhun. Mixed : ^pot^*? J*i\y>? JjSfrV ioj. The blending might be con- 
trived in many other ways besides, for instance, jLI*&" lo| &c. 

B. From practical considerations, we employ in this work the 
Greek vowel-signs almost always, using however, — in conformity with 
the practice of the East-Syrians, and in general of the West-Syrians 
also, — the sign — - for that vowel which is pronounced e by the East- 
Syrians, and i by the West-Syrians, and in most cases discriminating 6 
(original o, West-Syrian a) from o — = o (original u). 

O. Syriac manuscripts are commonly content with the indication of 
the vowels given in § 6 : only occasionally do they give exact vowel signs. 
But Nestorian manuscripts, in particular, are often fully vocalised. Many 
Nestorian manuscripts of the Scriptures produce quite a bewildering 
impression by the large number of points of various kinds employed 
in them (cf. § 14 sqq.). 

OTHER READING-SIGNS. 
8 14. Very ancient is the point which never fails in genuine Syriac Diacritic 

point in 

manuscripts, — that which distinguishes $ from $. ; and 5 . 



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10 — §§ 15. 16. 



Bukkakha § 15. The soft pronunciation (Rukkakha) of the letters a v^? 



A 



and 



Quwaya. ^ (§ 2) can be expressed by a point placed under them, the hard pronun- 
ciation (Qu$$ayd) by one placed over them, e. g. h^epj nesavt "thou 
didst take", tk^mj nesbeth "I took" &c. (For farther examples v. in par- 
ticular § 23 et sqq.). In the case of & the hard sound is commonly indi- 
cated by a point set within the letter, something like *s ; and by & is 
represented the sound of the Greek tt (§ 25), which diverges from this, 
being completely unaspirated (*) and peculiarly foreign to a Semite. Others 
set down d = /", & «= p, and fi = tt. We shall however denote the 
Syriac hard p also by i. 

This system, of which certain variations appear (such as jL , with two 
points, instead of I) is only carried out in very careful writing. In Nes- 
torian manuscripts, however, particularly those of later origin, and in 
Nestorian printed matter, the system is largely employed. At the same 
time these points are usually left out, when they would interfere with 
the vowel points, e. g. {ILo, not &*a; J^»» not l^i*. 

piurai § 16. A. From the oldest times, and regularly, plural forms, 

points. 

of substantives in the first place, have been distinguished by two 
superscribed points — , called SeyameC): thus Jln\v>, ?kH\\» malke, 
malhatha "kings, queens" are distinguished from the singulars: — JLa^a, 
{ki\v» malM, malketha. And so also wo»o fi\v> maXkau "his kings" &c, 
although in such a case there was no possibility of mistaking the word 
for a singular. 

B. Substantive plurals in ^ commonly receive the sign - 11 -, but not 
those of the predicative adjective, thus, ^oo( ammln "cubits", but ^u\ m 
Mrrlrm "(are) true". 

True collective nouns, which have no special plural, must take -^-> 
e. g. JUl** 'ana "a flock", but we have lyi^ baqra "herd (of cattle)", be- 
cause a plural (fAd baqre "herds" appears. 



( x ) Answering to the representation of r by ^ (not by 1) and of k by x (not by **). 

( 2 ) The Hebrew appellation in vogue, — Ribbui is naturally unknown to the 
Syrians. It was borrowed by a European scholar from the Hebrew Grammarians, 
and means "plural". 



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§17. - 11 - 

The feminine plural-forms of the finite verb and of the predicative 
adjective take -^ e. g. ua^a "they (fern.) wrote", ^£&&J "they (fern.) 
write" (Impf.), ^% "are good (f.)". Only, these points are generally 
wanting, when the 3 rd pi. fern, in the perfect is written like the 3 rd sing, 
masc. (§ 50 B). 

With the numerals there is a good deal of fluctuation. The rule that 
only feminine numbers of the second decade, — because they end in the 
plural in e, — are to be supplied with - 11 -, is seldom strictly .followed. 
Numerals with * generally take -^j farther, all which end in ^, — in par- 
ticular ^jl, ^Vl "two". The plural sign is the rule in numerals which 
have a possessive suffix (§ 149). 

C. Generally speaking, a tolerable uniformity is found, — and that 
in old manuscripts, — only in cases under A; in cases under B, these ma- 
nuscripts often omit the sign -^-, where it should stand, and employ it 
instead in other cases, but without consistency, e. g. in the masc. of the 
finite verb, as ojuJjjlI "they (masc.) found" ; v ojtt-i>£sj? "that they (masc.) 
may be sanctified".^) 

D. The. position of the points -^ was not thoroughly determined : 
most frequently they were permitted to rest upon, the third or fourth 
letter from the end of the word. Much depends here on the fancy of 
the writer ; the position most favoured is over those letters which do not 
rise high above the line. With the point of the letter i the plural sign 
generally blends into V, e. g. l\o-j& "lords" ; ltf+*> "true" ; still there are 
found also ^tH** "revered", ^m&, "twenty", JL?ai> "villages", and 
many others. 

§ 17. Here and there a line over the letter is found as a sign of upper and 

_ under line. 

the want of a vowel, e. g. o^Okd peley "were divided", as contrasted 



with o^^vy "distributed"; uvjmS lahm "my bread". Oftener this - = - 
stands as a sign that a consonant is to be omitted in the pronunciation, e. g. 
{&L*a9 mehitd "town", i^a bath "daughter", toot wa "was". The West- 



(*) The sign — is even set improperly over words, which are singular, but 
look like plural, e. g, over J|£l "night" (sing. abs. st.) and over Greek words in I— - 
y like JlSai vky. 



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— 12 — §§ 18. 19. 

Syrians employ in this case partly - z -, partly -3- especially in more re- 
cent times; and this use of the linea occultans is followed in the most of 
our impressions. But commonly in MSS. such a sign is altogether 
wanting. (*) 

In contrast with the use of the upper line - 1 -, the Under line - z - 
is made use of, especially with the Nestorians, to denote a fuller vocali- 
sation, that is to say when a vowel is inserted in order to avoid harsh- 
ness, e. g. l&y\$ a» = {lL*.a£ for {kvi n ft "wisdom" (§ 52 C) &c. So also 
v q^JUj = ^JUi for ybflf} they ask (§ 34). 

INTEKPUNCTUATION AND ACCENTS. 

interpunct- § 18. The oldest interpunctuation, which is frequently retained even 

in later times, consists of a single strongly marked point • after larger or 
smaller divisions of the sentence, for which, in the case of large para- 
graphs, a stronger sign •>, or the like, appears. But even in very ancient 
manuscripts a system of interpunctuation is found, of a more or less formed 
character. Later, alongside of the chief point JL&ojnd (•JLa^ao), the main 
distinction made is between "the under point" JLkjul (•^4^ 9 )> "the 
upper point" JL 9 V> (.JL^ao), and "the equal points" JLoJi (;J*i\v>), — to 
indicate different clauses of the sentence of greater or less importance. 
To some extent other signs also are used for this purpose. The tests 
of the usage are not clear, and the practice is very fluctuating, at least 
on the part of copyists. 

Accents. § 19. In order to signify with accuracy, whether, — in the recitation 

of the sacred text in worship, — the individual words of a sentence should 
be associated with more or with less connection, — and also what relative 
tone befits each word, — a complicated system of "Accents" was employed 
in Syriac as well as in Hebrew. This system however appears only in 
manuscripts of the Bible, and in a grammatical point of view it is of 
very slender importance. In isolated cases, signs taken from this 



( a ) Sometimes the under line is found in still wider employment as a sign of 
the want of a vowel, in Western MSS., e. g. JluU henino "who has obtained favour", 
as .contrasted with JLi£ "rancid". 



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§§ 20. 21. — 13 — 

system are found also in other uses : thus, for instance, we may meet 
with an upper point lending emphasis to the word in a summons, a 
command, an interrogation. Such a point is not distinguishable in all 
cases, so far as appearance goes, from the points treated of in § 6 sq. 



II. PHONOLOGY. 
1. CONSONANTS. 

• GENERAL STATEMENT. 

§ 20. Every word and every syllable commences with a consonant Beginning 
That no word can begin with a vowel sound is expressed clearly in Se- x^e. 
mitic writing by { [preceding such sound], e. g. tyl dthe, or rather 'athe 
"comes"; JLuta? y urhd "a way"; l^+l ^a "hand", &c. In cases like >&4I 
"knew", the word is spoken as if it stood >fc£J| 'i%a\ and so it is even 
written at times (§ 40 C). 

No Syriac word begins originally with a double consonant. Yet 

such a consonant seems to have been produced by the falling away of a 

• • • • 

very- short vowel in {Asjt, ^Njl Ha, Mm (as well as JkjtJ, t*kJM) "six", 

"sixty" (in East-Syriac also, j^AjL* "the sixth" ; cf. the forms for sixteen 

§ 148 B) ; in the later pronunciation still oftener, and even in other cases, 

as perhaps in JLold Use from kese "covered". 

§ 21. The West-Syrians appear to have lost long ago the original Doubling. 
doubling of a consonant] the East-Syrians seem generally to have re- 
tained it: the former, for example, pronounce K&y "people", Jba^ c amo, 
the latter J&i^ ^amma. Nearly every consonant then is to be held as 
doubled, which is preceded by a short vowel and followed by any vowel, 
thus "^&£ "murdered", r» mi "takes" are pronounced qattel, nessav. 

The absence of doubling may be relied on only when a softened 

9 

consonant continues soft, e. g. Ill 'etha "came", not 'ethfhd, for this 
softening, or assibilation, is inadmissible in a doubled letter; while on 
the contrary the hard sound in such a consonant after a vowel is a sure 



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tion. 



— 14 — § 22. 

token of doubling, e. g. .n«9ii nappiq "gone forth". How far the gutturals 
^ and ot underwent a real doubhng is a matter of question; but the 
treatment of the vocalisation for the most part is the same as if such 
doubhng had occurred (cf. Hebr. 11D, TJJD). The case is similar with $, 
which also the East-Syrians at a pretty early date had already ceased to 
double, but for which they occasionally at least turned a foregoing a into a. 
In many cases the doubhng has entered in a secondary way, as in 
totSS allaha "God", ouof{ eddabbah "I sacrifice". 

B. The doubhng at all events very early fell away, when merely a 
sh e va followed the doubled consonant, e. g. in M^L \ "desire", properly 
reggethd, then regthd, and even very early through assimilation (§ 22) 
reWhd\ so UJL» bezzefha "booty", bezthd, besthd. Thus JLjljl^J^o "it is 
touched", properly methgaMeM, was early pronounced like methgaMd or 
even methgaM. 

C. A very ancient dissolving of the doubhng in the case of r, with 
compensation in lengthening the vowel, appears to occur in IfJk^^ra 
"arrow" from garrd\ fj'JLu here (herin &c.) "free", from harre; l&f'V* 
berydthd "streets" from barrydthd. Thus perhaps also ^*J (wo^ojij &c.) 
"with" from sadd. 

D. Consonants written double were originally separated by a vowel, 
though very short, e. g. Jbaa&£D (f>dpjuafcoc samdme, later samme-, UX^ 
"waves" galale, later galle\ \\+^ "wormwood" geddde, later gedde. By 
a false analogy even )ivivim (f)dpjucc/ca sammdne is accordingly often 
written instead of U*ifiD, and in fact JbaaxfiD for the singular instead of 
JbofiD sammd\ and similarly in like cases. An actual exception to that 
rule is furnished only by cases like ja*d»UU or ja^fioU etteslm "was set"; 
;^atf or u±»U ette'ir "was awakened" &c. (§§ 36. 177 B). 

In Greek words letters are sometimes written double, even when 
such doubling does not occur in the original, e. g. <mo9i«NN>ft ^ikiTTirog 
often instead of uoDoa^*d or uaooAa^^B 
Asaimiia- § 22. When two consonants came together in the living speech, 

and still more in the somewhat artificial recitation of the Bible in re- 
ligious service, the first consonant was frequently modified by the second, 
so that a media before a tenuis was turned into a tenuis, a tenuis before 



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§ 23. — 15 — 

a media into a media, and so forth. I; was pronounced like fcsflD (e. #. 
Jiija^J "vehemently angry" like JjjLcdo^*), for ) is a media and £D a 
tennis like I (in spite of the assibilation) ; .d; like aod (e. #. JLijLi "con- 
quers' 7 like jrimj; J^J?;? "of Zacharias" Uke JU^LcdJ); vice versa +co like 
\) (e. g. {fflouu "disgrace" Uke \\)J*). Farther &^ was given Uke h^ 
(e. g. fti^s^f\ "greedy" Uke JJl^Doii), and even &jd, with suppression of 
the emphasis before the unemphatic I, Uke k£ (e. g. Jj&dDoJb^ "sorrowful" 
like JjB^dqJLv). The East-Syrians went much farther in this process, for 

they prescribed e. g. t^t 2 ^ even for H? 1 ^^ " to break " \ s?fW^ for 
^pfojb "they burn" ; and they gave to * immediately before a, ^, j, the 
sound of the French,;, ge (Pers. '•)> e- g- in )i^tnn "an account". This 
subject might be treated at great length. Notice that such assimilations 
take place even when the consonants affected were originally separated 
by a sh e va (e). — The written language exhibits only a few traces of 
these changes.^) 

Hem. A very ancient reversed assimilation consists in &ud always 
becoming ^jo in Aramaic roots ( 2 ) at the beginning of the word, as the 
emphatic ^ corresponds more accurately to a than does L. Similar 
equalisations in all roots might farther be pointed out. 

RUKKAKHA AND QU§§AYA. SJ™* 

§ 23. A. The rules for Rukkakha, i. e. the soft (assibilated, hissing, ^andjiii 
or aspirated) pronunciation and for QuMayd, i. e. the hard (or unaspir- indi ^ du,a 
ated) pronunciation, originally affect all the letters a .^j .o d L [Be- 
ghadhkephath] in equal measure. But the East-Syrians for a very long 
time have nearly always given d a hard sound ; only in the end of a 
syllable have they sometimes given it a soft pronunciation.^) The 



( x ) The proper name *iT3 (Num. 25, 15) is written in Ceriani's Pesh. macdoa, 
where sb has the sound of zb. In Aphr. Ill, 6, and Ephr. Nis. 71 v. 65 (in one Codex) 
it still stands uaj«£. 

( 2 ) t|Au» "stone" would form an exception, but this word is probably of foreign 
origin. 

( 3 ) And in that case, apparently, they always make it quiesce into u. Even 
the best Nestorian MSS. are, from these circumstances, of almost no value for an 



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— 16 — § 23. 

following rules accordingly are not applicable to the East-Syrian 
pronunciation of d. 

B. These letters are hard in the beginning of words, e. g. {k*i 
"house", )|»^ "camel", &c. (but notice § 24 and 25). 

C. a ^ j Adl experience R. — (L e. take the soft pronunciation) 
after any vowel, however short, when they do not happen to be doubled. 
Thus after a full vowel ^^e, v^^», JIajl, JL&*oj£, ^V?> JJ4*P & c - 

On the other hand these letters undergo Q. (i. e. take the hard 
form) when they are doubled: ^^H? (^3p)» °1^?P CW)* • Jt f9 , *> Jj^°^> 
t^AA, {|JESuop 9 &c, and even after long vowels ^L f (rdggin "they 
desire"), {\i (bdtte "houses"), &c. 

Farther they take Q. immediately after consonants : ^>2U&&, J^m&, 
^q^aaI, &c. Diphthongs too have the effect of a consonantal ending, 
thus Uoaa, jfr»m, o^rn, ^f*A, &c. 

Exceptions : y*{ "as", which is pronounced akh. 

Even the mere sh e va mobile effects B,. just as a vowel would: 
^da-o (qevol), Jl^£D, ^^Vyiv», &c. Thus is it also when one of the par- 
ticles »^» J o is prefixed: 1&; but jjrfs, (lev due)] {|JL^> but tfJs^, & c - 
So too is it when several of these words or particles are prefixed, e. g. 
Jbi^: Jb2>-^a, J^>«^jf, W>^f??o; {Li: {Li^o, &c. Except upon 
the first consonant, these prefixes however have no effect, thus, jb»&Jb 

9 _ _ • * 

kethdvd, J^JSja^ lakhthdva, originally lakhefhavd, not lakhtavd &c. 

Regularly the sh e va mobile has a softening effect after a consonant 

9 9 

originally doubled, thus ^afi*» (p5#n»), fl^WJ (^1)* ^V^ mahMthd 
= manheihd), &c. So also, of course, when the consonant furnished 
with sh e va mobile is preceded by another which is quite vowelless, as in 
^foMnap, ?l^uf, JL^oaap, &c. 

D. But many a sh e va mobile fell away (sh e va mobile transmuted 
into shfva quiescens) at a time when the influence which it exercised 
upon the softening process (Rukkdkhd) was still a living one, with the 
result that the influence of the hardening process (QuMdyd) in turn ap- 



enquiry into R. and Q. of p. Besides even good MSS. and prints contain errors 
sometimes, as regards these 'points'. 



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§23. — 17 — ■ 

peared. On the other hand such falling away occasionally came about 
at a time when the influence referred to was no longer in being, so that 
Rukkakha remained effective even after the disappearance of sh e va 
mobile. Upon the whole R. has been abandoned more completely in the 
case of the falling away of an e that had originated from i (e), than in 
that of an e from a: compare )L}J^" scabies" from garava, with J&i4^ 
"scabiosus" from garivd. It makes no difference whether the foregoing 
syllable, — now a closed one (ending in sh e va quiescens), — has a long or a 
short vowel; cf. <Ami, ^.atk.£, {Lo^^d, and other derivatives from the 
act. part. PealO; t&Sona,, o»L;^J[ "I awakened him", &c. 

In the interior of words R., when it comes after an earlier sh e va 
mobile unpreceded by two consonants without a full vowel or by a double 
consonant, is now kept up only here and there, and that particularly in 
the verb : cf. even cases like ^J^JLi nelddn (nlldon) "they bring forth 
children", from neliian. For the substantive, — cf. cases like u nS » v> , 
contrasted with the Hebr. *pfy} from maldkhai (but v. § 93) and in fi\v», 
contrasted with nfife. 

E. The usage in the case of Fern. \\ is specially fluctuating, for the I 
here is often hard after a consonant, and often on the other hand soft. This 
I has nearly always Q. [i. e. it is pronounced hard, as if with Dag. lene] 
after syllables which have a long vowel, particularly I or u, e. g. ll^*>, 
lkju**> fijua, ?U*&, {La^Ld, lialj, {UJLu, li*l*J; {Uo£jd, lL»ofj, 
lUpf, {*^ok»,&c. Exceptions: — t&aaum, {ka&*|, &Aa( 2 ); {Aooa&i, and 
some others. With a: {AjuIj, {AuaIjod, H\jL+jdd, lhC±J>, &c; but l&oof, 

o 9 9 6 9 « 9 96*6 • 

{ik^^o, i&^jL*, fl^£, fV^P> Jk**'* ^V^' anc * a ^ ew others - Always 
Q. (i. e. Qu$8aya, or Dag. lene) after v*-L, e g. Ih^ak, {KJJ. After 
syllables with a, perhaps R. of I somewhat preponderates : f^i-aju, & vq9 >, 
IL&mj, ik^fa*, &?*»*> &**H?> l\*s*J> &c.; yet ttecgp, A****, 
{A Ak'y «v>, {AojjuL, and many others. With e Q. has the preponderance : 
JkaZSJ, {VsA g,, ttuiaXl, and many others; yet l^&P, and so too, forms 



( x ) Contrary to the Hebrew D^nrto, &c. A few exceptions, like *^*f 1 Cor. 
9, 13, are cited. 

( 2 ) According to the best traditions. 



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— 18 — § 23. 

9 9 9 P 

like t&ta&j&|, tfcon^jo (to which fl^tr?' ^Pf^ a ^ s0 belong). So ItpaJ* 
"anger", and the like. With u and o we have {&ub»o^ai, Jk^oiJL», 
Uiou^^, &c, overagainst {Kjuqj^o, {&> go a nr»{. Individual peculiarities 
are very complicated here, and the tradition occasionally varies. On the 
whole Q. is preferred after r, I, and 8, and R. after \ m &c, in the I of 
the termination {^ [i. e. I in that feminine termination, is generally sounded 
hard after r, I, and S, and so/i, or with assibilation, after c and m\ The 
analogy of words of similar form or meaning has exercised great influence 
here. Something will be said on this head afterwards in treating of the 
parts of speech. 

F. The quite peculiar Q. of {ft^jt, ^kji (along with lhsjL>[, ^t^l) 
"six", "sixty" points to the loss of a sh e v a in remote times [v. D]. 

G. Like {kauu "anger" we also have wkaoji, ^ootKa&ju "my, their 
anger" ; here farther, analogy in this way breaks through the old law, 
that Q. must stand immediately after a consonant [v. C]. Thus **aotj>, 
^po^oij "my, their gold", following J^oif "gold" (from dahava), and 
many others. Thus the I of the 3. sing. fern, in the Perf. (at least according 
to the usual pronunciation) remains always soft: oiJ^jJjd "she has killed 
him", yj&^$j» "she has killed me" (as against oiI^jJjd "I have killed 
him", &c). On the other hand the I of the 2. pers. in the Perf. is kept 
hard in all circumstances, thus A^Jjd "thou hast killed" (and bJl "thou"), 
as well as k^^"thou hast revealed", *Jbs^u^"thou(f.) hast revealed"; 

^p^u^^, ^V^^"^ e ( m - an< ^ £) h ave revealed" &c. 

In other respects too we find remarkable deviations from the funda- 
mental rules, e. g. in ^$Jb^&ij| (§ 149) "they four (f.)" or "the four of 
them", where tk might have been expected. Although the fundamental 
rules are still clear, they became practically ineffective even at an early 
stage; and thus it came about that entirely similar cases often received 
dissimilar treatment. Besides, fluctuations of all kinds in the dialects 
and in the school-tradition, manifest themselves in the matter of R.andQ^ 1 ) 



(*) Even the best MSS. are not entirely free from error in their use of these 
points. — And in one or two cases, a distinction, founded upon R. and Q,., has been 
established between words consisting of the same letters, — just through arbitrary pre- 



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§§ 24. 25. — 19 _ 

H. Original doubling in the termination preserves Q. in oi (like 
J&J) "great", ia^ "a pit",ck^(J£^from J&jl^J "side", ft "place" ; 
so too hJl at — att from ant "thou" ; so also «*A*V leb "my heart" (like 
J^^ lebba), ^r^gad "my good fortune" (like l|4^) and the like. On 
the other hand we have kugu "six" (its doubling early disappeared), «^-i^ 
"side" (also uai^ "my side") and verbal forms like ^-ja, "lowered", 
^j "longed for" (and also in the plural ^^* &c). 

I. Secondary doubhng, which causes Q., we find regularly in the 
l rt sing. Impf. when the first radical has a vowel, as in +>0}{ "I tread", 
a$hl "I tell lies", y*\J>{ "I bless thee", ?^{ "I hunt", &c. Farther 
in the Aphel in some verbs middle o: ^h{ "made ready", ^^i{ "mea- 
sured", as contrasted with ^U "gave back", &c. (§ 177 D). 

J. Words, which are otherwise like-sounding, are often distinguished 
through R. and Q., as &-^s^ "thou hast revealed", and 1^|*^"I have 
revealed"; &*£ qeSthd from qe$8gtha (f. of Hebr. tf)j) "stubble", and 
fkjLD (n#£) "a bow", &c. 

§ 24. R. appears in the beginning of a word, when this word is r. and q. 
closely associated with a preceding one which ends in a vowel, thus assorted 
lilj J&, John 16, 8; oot J|o, John 16, 16; 0$ J5?o **% J&t, John 10, 38 words - 
(Bernstein) &c. The shghtest pause, however, interrupts the softening. 
Similarly, two closely-associated words, of which the first ends in the same 
consonant as that with which the second begins, or a consonant like it, 
are so pronounced together that a doubling appears, which is indicated 
by the Q. of both of them : J&J& Amy massabbappe (instead of >^mv) 
J&J&) "playing the hypocrite"; J&J& Ami "hypocrite"; \Lo~i k*a 
"ink-bottle". 

§ 25. According to the prescriptions of the. Schools, Greek words are Greek 
not to be subjected to the rules for softening and hardening. Thus JL&6jV&? 
AmarsoTra (7tp6a(Mrov)\ vttdaA^ ^> "from Philippos", &c. (where & is 

8cription on the part of the Schools. Thus against all rules, they would have us say 
^i^J U I dye", but ^Aa^l tt I dip into" ; farther **fj*l "shut", but ^p*{ "hold", although 
these words are identical. The distinctiou, besides, between 2K*L» "resurrection" 
and IK^Ia "share" was hardly known to the living speech. In addition to these 
examples there is a medley of cases resting upon the caprice of the Schools. 

2* 



words. 



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— 20 — § 26. 

the Greek or, § 15). o is made the equivalent of the Greek /3, } that of 
B, I of #, ^d of x> & of ^ ; ^ generally that of 7. Thus for instance 
*flp ovTV D yka/JLvg, Moll &sccpia, uBDQ..NV»m*% Ba<7/Xe/0£, JL^j^p^^ 
ypaju/uarifcq, &c. £ has to be caii, e. #. JL*dmi>{ h%opia\ yet tm^ appears 
frequently, e. #. East-Syrian JLco-&£ ra£/£ (West-Syrian JnpV^)). Ge- 
nerally speaking we find here too, — especially in words early introduced, 
— transformations, of a genuine Syrian type, e. g. J&-sl£d{ tyy/M*, H^i 
(f>&opd, JUdom avjufloXy, &c. 

Other foreign words too, in individual cases, vary from the rules, 
as regards R. and Q., e. g. JUo^k* "word" (Persian), where one would 
expect a hard v^. 

DENTALS AND SIBILANTS. 
Dentals and g 26. A. The I of the Reflexive changes place, according to a 

common Semitic fashion, with the sibilant immediately following it (as 
first radical), and is altered into ^ with j, and into j with j, thus v^fcuoDj 
(for ^-^U) " was thought", from ^-od "thought"; **%&*>{ "was taken 
prisoner", from J^*; ^V ^ "was crucified", from *a^j; ui?/£ "was 
justified" from **i)f. 

B. This I is assimilated to a following si and I, becoming hard in 
the process: JL*^i( (pronounce ettaSSe) "was concealed"; *aii£ (written 
also i~»l>L{, l£»U»{) ettabbar "was broken in pieces"; so too, before a J 
furnished with a full vowel, e. g. u^.d;&j neddakhrdkh "remembers thee". 
A j without a full vowel, on the other hand, here falls away in pronun- 
ciation, after the I that has likewise become hard : +*il{ ettekhar "re- 
membered'^ 1 ). A like assimilation takes place, when an initial } or I with- 
out a full vowel is pressed by a foregoing prefix upon a following ?, t 
or ^. The J or I is then written hard ; ko\\* "and who is like", ^-o^of f^t* 
"to persons or things, however small"; tOjLo "and thou dost skip" ; 
Jlfo "and who abides"; ^oLio "and repentest", JLf^lo "and hidest": 
and the pronunciation must have been waddame, wattus, &c. 



( x ) Thus there are found in MSS. sometimes, forms like JjuIAu for JL£;&>* "is 
pushed" and even tlou^Uoo for lloiLfK*, tloiLtUoo "capability of being judged". 



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§ 27. — 21 — 

• • 

An ^ or | falls away before the I of a suffix in cases like ik^A^, 

c abbita (or c abbiUa?] West-Syr. doubtless 'abito) "thick (f.)"; &■&*** 
"simple (f.)"; spi^Jt "ye despised" ; L^. "thou didst curse", wSuk^jtJ 
"gavest him power" ; ll^ "Church" ; d r J* "net"; \\^^ "work"; x>\£{ 
"ye (f.) perished" ; ^a^ t^-9-d "I commanded you" ; l»^v "didst", and many 
others. In just the same way a pair of I 's coalesce, in words like ULo*.at 
avhet for avhetht "madest ashamed": . llo*.a{ "madest us ashamed" &c. 
The marking with B,. and Q. varies ; in effect, in all these cases only hard 
I remains. For Ui^> hetattd "nova", one writes fi*ju straight away, and 
?lo£u "bride" for {Uo^>. 

Radical ? falls away before I in U{£, *^^' *i°^f** : P ronounce 
hatha &c, "novus" &c. 

C. A final 1 has early dropped off in the absolute state of 
Feminines: a coming from ath, u from uth, I from ith, e.g. J^jJJ "bona"; 
o-4^ "bonitas"; ~fol "confession"; in their construct state the I re- 
mains : -NV^, Loa^, k»»|ol ; and so also in the singular case of k,» iX 3 
"a certain (f.)", and in many adverbs (§ 155). 

D. Unusual is the assimilation found in JLa^"wing" from gehpa, 
as also the falling out in J5A "this" from habena, and in other pronouns 
(§§ 67 Bern. 1; 68 Rem. 2). 

LABIALS. 

§ 27. kd and ka are sometimes interchangeable. Thus {kaj LaWais. 
frequently occurs for \\*f "pitch"; and occasionally on the other hand 
e. g. JiA<dQ-£ is found for JSkao^ "happy", and (k^o^ for {kaot** 
"Friday". The East-Syrians have, from remote times, pronounced o quite 
like © (Wj u) ; av accordingly becomes au, and uv, u, e. g. JLuaoji Suhd. 
They also pronounce *d like o, in cases where they leave it unusually soft 
and do not turn it into p (§ 23 A). Generally this transition is found in 
^Vo* "magni", J&Vo* "magnates"; o$o| "made great", for p?^, ^?*V?3> 
2^;n (§ 146). Compare (iviin; "an ant" from )Svi«n; (§ 31). 



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— 22 — §§ 28—30. 

Liquids. LIQUIDS. 

w. § 28. N, as first radical, is almost always assimilated to the con- 

sonant immediately following it: Jzldl "brought out", from anpeq; ubo&lj 
"goes out", from nenpoq, &£*? "brings down", from manheth; »»6jl 
"plantest", from tensov, &c. Exception is made when o* follows: pot-u 
"roars"; $c*ij "grows clear"; ic*i*p "lights", &c. (yet jo*j "thrusts" from 
nenhaz), and in other very rare cases (§ 173 A). 

As second radical, n is assimilated in some nouns: JLi^ "necklace" ; 
?L^ "oppression"; J&[ "face"; J&^ "side"; li&( "occasion"; li^ 
"foundation", from 'enqd &c, — as against JAjLp "congregation"; J&joj, 
(&JL)o? "tail", which originally must have had a short vowel after 
the 7i, &c. The n that falls away is still written in ol^ "side", and 
?iftj{ (pronounce attd § 26) "woman", construct state tAj|; so in JbuJ, 
f. Jbj[ "thou", pi. v okj^„ f. ^kjj. 

Farther, n loses its sound in many cases before ll of the feminine 
ending: Iftdj-^ gefettd from gefentd "vine"; ?k^^ "cheese"; tkAX 
"brick"; {k^, "a field-measure" ; ?LU, tltO "fig"; and with n still wiitten, 
in {kju^aa "town"; {KUkcD "ship"; l&&>) "a time"; tkl* "year"; and in 
{AJoSS, "incense", the n of which is still pronounced by others. 

In lifiJU^gabbdra "hero", the nasal which serves as compensation 
for the doubling has been stroked out later. 

On the dropping off of the n in the Imperative v. § 171 C, and in 
certain substantives, § 105. 
I § 29. L falls away when next to another I, in )JS\ny mamla 

"speech", written also in fact Jbaao; and in JJLSL^y matld "covering". 
Thus most Syrians say JI\abo qovld "countenance" (others qoveld). 

It farther falls away in many forms which come from ^Ji{ "to go" 
(v. § 183), as also in forms from %a^j» (v. same section), 
r. § 30. E falls out in i^a "daughter", construct state — (but not in 

the emphatic state l\+2>)* 



(*) Thus, with hard t according to the best tradition. Probably the sing, of 
fub* "corals" was pronounced as tK*&a (Talmudic KJVD3). 



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§§ 31—33. - 23 — 

§ 31. We have unusual abbreviations in several nouns wliich are unusual 
formed from the doubling of a short root ending in r, 7, n, m: thus tions^wuh 
J&^aa, li±**± "chain", from SeUalta (cf. JUdi "tape-worms") ; J|k^^ Llquid8, 
"wheel"; {^V^j^ "throat" from gargartd] |ua.f, JLqua "plough" from 
qenqena; B&afiy.Q) "an ant", probably from )iv>«na, and one or two 
others. 

8 31 b . n beginning a word becomes I in several foreign words, like »» becoming 

l in foreign 

JlvKiS., along with J^ooJ, from vovjujuog, nummus ; Jt^Q^ with J^a&J, from words, 
the Persian namat "carpet". 

GUTTURALS. Gutturals. 

§ 32. I for the most part loses in Syriac its consonantal sound. Failing 
As an initial sound it falls away along with its vowel in many words to ^itiai°l. 
which it belongs: ou? or *i, JAJ?, ^ii?, ^Jj "man", "men", &c; ^yJi or 
^jju,.{L^>I, &c. "another"; JL^ or JL^u "last", ©JL^uI "his last", &c; 
|? ?-4 "related"; JBl or Jj in certain cases for Ji{ "I". Even in writing, this 
{ is without exception wanting in }1;jl> "end"; *£, (Jju "one" (m. and f.); 
{jLju "sister"; lhU> "pocket" (bag), and "bearing beam" (rafter) (v. nn«); 
q* ot, &c. "come"; V, *±h &c. "go"; Jjo, l\)0 "goose", from Kgg; 
^? (properly "there") =■ ]*jg. 



§ 33. A. As a medial, { disappears completely according to the Treatment 
usual pronunciation, when it immediately follows a consonant or a mere 
sh e v a ; and the vowel of the I is transferred to the preceding consonant. Thus 
(a) &l%*£ matev "makes good" for mafev, ^JLji "demands" for neS*al\ 
{Jim "hater"; IJbp^ "unclean" f. (constr. st.) &c. (b) oJL£ "was good" tev 
for t&ev\ %*fLm.Ma "demanded" (part.); {JLs "beautiful" ; JLJ& "beautiful" 
(pi.); {iM "blaming", &c. So too after prefixes: J^f "of the father", 
from J&l + j; Jl&ojl "to the artificer" himmana; "^ilo "and ate"; ?|^Jb 
"in what? (f.)" &c. In writing, such an { is always left out in ol*£ "bad", 
from B^frO, in «££*>*, >9>^1 "teaches", "teachest", &c. for *)^K», &c; 
farther, generally in' the compound ^a? for ^l &l "although". 



(*) This vocalisation with au is much better supported than that with u 
(JUm*). 



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— 24 — §§ 34. 35. 

Although this falling away of the { is very ancient, yet the East- 
Syrians frequently retain it as a consonant in such cases: thus e. g. they 
prefer to punctuate ^JUj, tlj», without pushing forward the vowel to 
the preceding consonant, as if it should still be read ne&al, b&atha; but 
all this without consistency. 

B. Between two vowels { receives with many Syrians (always?) the 
pronunciation y, e. g. il\ byar "air" (West-Syr.). This pronunciation, 
which occasionally finds expression even in writing, e. g. JLy for {{j "de- 
filed" (§ 172 A B), has however not been general. 

In the end of a syllable I always loses its consonantal value : &^JL*> 
"I demanded", is in sound the same as &!^§,; ^o-oji "eats" = ^,q^j; 
■ r^J^ "are growing old" = ^iy, &c. Etymology alone can decide 
here, as in many other cases, whether { is a mere vowel-letter or an 
original guttural (Arabic Hemza). Such an I is now no longer written 
in cases like **^ap from saggf (cf. (JL^a, ^JL.^£p, &c.) "much". On 
the changes of vowels at the disappearance of such an I v. § 53. 
Auxiliary § 34. An {, which in the beginning of the syllable ought to receive 

of The I a vocal sh e va, — according to the analogy of other consonants, — retains 
a full vowel instead ; but in the middle of a word it gives up this vowel 
to the foregoing consonant (by § 33 A) and loses its own consonantal 
value. The vowel is — or — , and the latter even in many cases where 
it was originally a. Thus pp{ "spoke", compared with ^g^o "killed" 
3. s. (originally amar, qatal)', **&i[ "spoken", compared with ^-^o 
"killed" (from qatil); ^a3j| "eat", like ^cl^jd "kill",— ^*lk» "is 
being eaten" (like \^jotob "is being killed"); JCdU^o "angel" = fcO$>e; 
JL^J&gr "afflicted" macheve (East-Syrian JaJLai*) &c. The Nestorians 
occasionally write in these cases - Tr (§17) e. g. ^ojkaa, which is even 
improperly used for regular vowels, as in ©w»{bsjt = ot^fiptk* (§ 45) 
"her foundations". An o (perhaps lengthened?) has been thus maintained 
in ll&'jpl (Plural of JLWol "manger") from orawatha. Such an I with a 
sh e va disappears without leaving a trace in ^oo^JL^oao, ^o^^-oo "their 
multitude" from {JL^cuao for sofa. 
ortho- § 35. Seeing that a radical \ frequently thus falls away in pro- 

Note on I nunciation, it is often left out also in writing, and that even in the oldest 



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§§ 36—38. — 25 — 

manuscripts, e. g. [K\o nv> for {J^a^A* "food" ; ^cloj for \oo|i 
"eats"; {kd for lt|s "face". On the other hand {, even when# mani- 
festly superfluous letter, is yet placed in words where it should not have 
appeared at all, — as in oJLqol* for omy "to take"; <a^»tt for ^£*4 
"ye enter"; JLaJ^ for J&£ ' "report" ; ^Jb for <o2Lu& "stand" (pi.); 
JLtaot for JLotoL "delay"; Jioo(j, JMooj and even Jf{oo{? for jtfoo'j or 
(West-S.) jBioj "pity", &c. ; or it stands in the wrong place, like {tottjL£ 
for liojbtt^ "uncleanness"; M* for flojl "question"; JLa{ for JLJ£ 
"demanded" (part.) &c; or it is doubled instead of being written once, 
as in tJLaJ for JLLj "comforts", and the like. The superfluous { is a 
good deal in favour in certain causative forms, particularly in short 
ones, e. g. K»kff = JLuip "gives life"; UhJT "injures". 

§ 36. In certain cases a vowel-less 1, followed by an (, blends with 11 becom 
that letter into a hard 1 doubled and generally written It (pointed It, 1DB 
11, 11, 11, which all express the same sound, § 26): in older days it was 
often signified by a single 1. Thus, regularly, in the reflexive of Aphel 
^gjDll{, "H*tt{, for eth'aqtal\ jlSiI[ "was established" (^-ual?) v. 
§ 177 D &c. Thus, besides, in ^tU "was held" (^M) for eth'ehel, and 
occasionally in similar forms (§ 174 C). A single 1 is almost always 
written for It, if another 1 precedes by way of prefix, e.g. j&*5tt, ^11, 
instead of ja-uottt, *juttt. 

§ 37. Even before the orthography was elaborated, a ^ followed *>• 
by another ** in the same root became ( (JL^Ss "rib", from J^N> ; J&>»| 
"doubled", from J-kv^, and many others) (*) : In like manner, with the 
West-Syrians, a ^ coming immediately before ot becomes { and is treated 
like it in every respect. Thus )&*» "remembered", — pronounce *&{, 
from jopw; JB$oto& "recollection", — pronounce tyotol ; jo^JL& metheheb 
for jo^J^o, &c. This change, which becomes noticeable even in the 
fourth century, and is occasionally indicated also in writing (^*orf, v*o*{ 
for ^fot^, W©*** "to be in heat"), has however remained unknown to the 
East-Syrians. 

§ 38. ot, which as an initial letter had, even in ancient times, often m. 



(!) Cf. J^ii "mentha" ['mint'] from KWJtt. 



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— 26 — §§ 39. 40. 

passed into ( (e. g. in ^j[ secondary form of ^qjA "they", and in the Aphel 
^^-o{ from haqtel, &c), falls away in pronunciation in many forms of 
the suffix of the 3 rd sing, masc, e. g. wotoji^ap mdlkau from malkauhi, 
"Ins kings"; wS^oa "built it" (m.); >.cHQ.V&nj "kills him". The personal 
pronoun — o©i "he" or woj "she" — loses the ot, when it is enclitic, e. g. 
oot^tgdD qetalu\ oo* otS. or oo^. lehu; woj JLo manai from mana lvi\ 
oo» J& from mana 7m. In fact ojl&, ojjA, «H?->]! are °ften written for 
oo) Jfoo, oS JT&, oo) JLau(. So always d^, "not", from ooj JJ. From oca oot, 
wot wca come oiooi, yJo»: but wo* wot is occasionally written even yet, 
though we do not so often meet with ooi oot. 

The ot of toot "fuit", falls away when employed as an enclitic: 
{oo* > ^$x>, ooot <j^u& (§ 299), &c. 

The ot of the veiy common verb «ac** "to give" falls away in the 
Perfect in all cases where it had a vowel; thus o^, A^ot*? ^pkaoj*, 
oiKac**, &c. The East-Syrians suppress the ©• even in cases like 
kito**, &c, and similarly in k»o\;l{ # , &^©*a, &c. 

For (fo6V "Judah", JLfooV "a Jew", &c. (from K*NiT s , «n^ T : » &c -) 
one may say also ?fob*£, A*$oo*i Yuba, Yubaya. JLjcw &c. are written even 
without o). 
Greek w». § 39 t l n Greek words otf is often written to express the aspirated 

p, e. g. Jbooot* PoojU7j, JLodo*^, JLaDot^d (along with |.nr>,^, jLm*HJLd 
and other forms of transcription) irapprpia, &c. This o* has no con- 
sonantal value, and only in mistake is it treated occasionally as a true 
consonant. 

vowel-Let- THE VOWEL -LETTERS o AND w. 

ters o A *.. 

Usual 8 40. A. W beginning a root becomes y in Syriac, as in Hebrew, 

changes. ° 

when it is not protected by certain prefixes. Root WLD thus yields 
(f^j "child"; if\ "she bare"; but £*o( "he begat"; {?Vi* "birth", &c. 
The initial w is however kept in o, o "and" ; JJo "it is becoming" (and so 
JUL^i f.; M^& "decently" &c); (f^o "an appointment" (and thus 
t^*o "to appoint", ^o^( "to agree upon"); {{Jk> "vein"; add the inter- 
jection w£ "woe!", whence JLo "the woe"; so too ftoio "bee-eater", and 
JL£o "a kind of partridge", which two words evidently are meant to re- 



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§ 40. — 27 — 

produce the natural calls of these birds. Other words beginning with o 
like l\io "rose" are foreign or uncertain. 

B. o and w have both of them too much of the nature of vowels 
to be able to stand as true consonants in the end of a syllable; they 
always form in that case simple vowels or diphthongs, thus: JLfooji 
"promise" (with wfo^u Saudi "promised") Suddyd, not Savdaya, for it 
was frequently even written with just oneo^); d^, laa "not", not lav (from 
la-u, Idhih § 38); o^o (East-Syrian o'jjd) "called" qeraii] o^^ "revealed" 
(3 pi.) gallia (not galliv)(?)', {&*£* "house" baitd; »»vi>6 "rise" qdimin; 
tk*4ti6i "Edessena" Orhaitd, &c. 

C. w without a full vowel always becomes i in the beginning of the 
syllable. In the beginning of a word wj is often written for it; thus 
o%J, ok*{ ithev "sat", from nry;; >a^p, <*J$+[ tba f "knew", from PT : ; ti^P, 
t&s^,f»{ "knowledge" ; ou^I, uu^f "month" (emphatic state JLu^») ; farther, 
ok»*o or «aUo, Jk^t-*? or {k^^fy &c. In later times the { is not so 
often written in such cases as it was in earlier days. But still the { is 
always found in 1%L>{ "honour", l 9 r { "hand", jba&J "day", and thus in 
t£*JL£, Jba&*jjJ &c. On JLfooti along with j^foo^, and oo^ instead of 
ochJ v. § 38. 

So too, within the word, oo^Ij "is given", from 3iT.ru; ^6om*£ 
"their breast", from )1,T : *]n (A?t^) ; flL*r»o£ "cap", from KiVip'D; v 6o^a^t 
"their commotion", from JUUta^t, &c. 

In a closed syllable ye or yi becomes I in &J "exists", and in the 
foreign names ^flm .? or ^^m7 "Israel" ; ^^oju] "Ismael" (both 
with orthographic variants); ^*^,*jLj (for ^KJT|P.); and uqjuXqJ. Quite 
exceptionally, other forms are found, v. § 175 A, Rem. 

For ^oi^ "Jesus" the Nestorians say >xqju I8o\ 



( 1 ) Vice versa, — because oa* was pronounced like **, the words pronounced 
Sukono, Hudolo were in later times written Jloo**, Ijo**, where the doubled o had 
no etymological foundation, since these words in their fundamental form are Sukkdnd, 
Sudddld, and belong to Sdklcen "presented", and Saddel "enticed". 

( 2 ) The barbarous custom of pronouncing 1 in the end of a syllable like a 
German w or indeed an f, instead of giving it a vowel sound {e. g. V2K a/3iu, vste 
meldkhdu), should be given up in Hebrew too. 



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— 28 — §40. 

D. In the middle of the word, ya becomes I in the adverbial ending 
dith, from and along with ayath (§ 155 A), o, which appears as an initial 
letter without a full vowel only in o "and" (A supra), is sometimes 
treated within a word just like w. Thus from remote times there appear 
as alternative forms {Lo*L haiwethd and (taiL hayufha "animal"; tiojju 
and llo£l> "joy" (§§ 40 D; 101; 145 F)( a ): forms with u in these cases 
have become more usual; while other forms, — for instance, {ioJJ along 
with {io^ (Kr)}*6) "weariness", ^ojuo^if (East-Syrian) along with ^oJ^om 
"that they may have room" — occur only in isolated cases. 

E. A w after a, and before another vowel, is pronounced by the East- 
Syrians like (, thus JL^ju "lives", &&A "at last", like hae, heraath, &c.( 2 ) 
(thus the converse of § 33 B). Perhaps old modes of writing, like ^Ju>o* 
for^Luo* "spiritual" (pi.) , are founded upon this. If the vowel succeeding 
w, after a or a, is e or i, then the difference between the highly vocal y 
and { is hardly perceptible. Whence come the interchangeable forms 
JLj&p and Awjbp "dead"; «JL*ia "remaining" and **JLa (§ 118); «.i.J*fi«{ 
and s+H&m,\ "give me to drink" (§ 196) &c. : Thus old MSS. have &~;^jl 
for MVt* "truly" (§ 155 A). 

F. In the same way awu and ahi are scarcely distinguishable by 
the ear. Accordingly we find, for example, ^ooaoi or even ^oojboi for 
%oUo* "they threw" (§ 176 E), wotooju* or wOtooJLu* for wotoJLuao "they 
struck him" (§ 192), &c. Similarly, loo^s as well as tto^o "matter". 

Gr. w serves in rare cases as a mark of a vowel and a consonant 
at one and the same time; e. g. in JU£j neviyd "prophet" (in which the 
conclusion must have a sound differing very little indeed from that in 
lJLi<| "come", &c); l^oiiL hyidha "form"; and in the before-mentioned 
uOiAjtJ aSqdyin. Similarly ^Vqjo for ^lVojd qaryayin "rustici" (to avoid 
the triple w). 

H. The Greek /«, ioo, &c. are sometimes treated as monosyllables, 
sometimes as dissyllables, for instance: j^d*?St Ihccr^g] JiixLoj £swa, 



(*) With the old poets these words are sometimes dissyllabic, sometimes tris- 
syllabic. The Nestorians prefer the dissyllabic pronunciation of il*** at least. 
( 2 ) Accordingly they like to put a small I over such a *.. 



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§§ 41—43. — 29 — 

^g«o;v> Map/aw, together with v o-uopj; JLo-k->? iice6^/oj (along with 
JLoJ^jf); ^a*|o^& irpaiToptov (and ^|o^a) &c. 

§ 41. In Semitic inflection a appears instead of a theoretical aya, • and - 

as reprei- 

or awa, e.g. qam(a) "stood", like qatal(a) "killed"; galat (Syriac gelath) enting the 
"she revealed", like qatalat: I instead of awl, e. g. qim "stood (part.)" ^dicai. 8 * 
for qawim, &c. 

But in these cases the question turns very little indeed upon actual 
sound-transitions. Of quite predominant importance here, are those an- 
cient analogical modes of formation, which mount up to a time long be- 
fore the separation of the several individual Semitic tongues. 

2. VOWELS. 2. Vowel.. 

IiONG AND SHORT VOWELS IN OPEN AND CLOSED SYLLABLES. 

§ 42. Long vowels in open syllables remain unshortened. Syriac fcong 

vowels. 

however has closed syllables with long vowels, even in the middle of the 
word, e. g. ^h^xi "ye stood" (2. m. pi.), ^okaa^uoi "ye raised", and later 
formations like flk*a.*fea (first from berikJietha) "benedicta", x^hht " s ^" 
(part.), otl^A^| "I awoke him", &c. The East-Syrians have a marked 
inclination to shorten long vowels in closed syllables, and accordingly 
they often write straight away ^>\ft\S» "eternities", for ^»^i\v, ^^l^*, &c, 
and so too in the final syllables of l\\ m for I'U "she came", (LU), &c. On 
the other hand they incline to lengthen short vowels in an open syllable, 
if these are exceptionally retained, and thus, e.g., regularly write oifcJwl 
"she threw it (m.)" for otlLaoij. 

Rem. — As they have ceased to notice that the — , which they 
perhaps write in ^*aAo but pronounce short, is a long vowel, they 
set down now and then — for short a, e. g. ^9iiN,*> for ^»9i\^h, ^>5\y 
"they teach" (part.). 

§ 43. A. Short vowels in closed syllables remain ; but in open short 
syllables short vowels have, in Aramaic, at a very early stage passed 
mostly into sh e va mobile. This occurrence is precisely what has given the 
language its characteristic stamp. Thus, for instance, ^$jd qetal from qatal 
"killed" ; oS*j from dahav (cf. J^oij) "gold" ; ^Nviy from mamlikhtn 



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— 30 — § 43. 

"are kings" (sing. J^o^p), &c. Then in Syriac even the sh e va mobile 
has often quite disappeared, as we are able in part to establish,- even for 
very early times, through the relations of Rukkakha and Qu§8aya (§ 23 D) : 
compare also the treatment of originally doubled consonants (§ 21 B). 

B. A sharpened syllable does not count for an open one, even 
when the double-consonant is itself simplified (§ 21 A, B). Thus the 
short vowel remains, with resulting hardness, in **»$ (rabbi, West-Syrian 
rabi) "brought up"; flLa* "interest"; jaju* (mahhem) "heats"; JJ^oi 
(quttala) "murder"; and so even^JLa "asked"; JJ(ojL "question" (for 
theoretical M'el, hC'ald). Here and there the falling away of the doubling 
in the pronunciation is to be made up for by lengthening the vowel. 

C. But still in certain cases a sfyort vowel holds its ground even 
in an open syllable: thus with I as the initial letter of a syllable (§ 34), 
e. g. JLaJUo for *0$6? "angel"; in the secondary forms )»Qlqj, jn«mi for 
po£j, j^au "stands", "sets" (§ 177 C) ; in many later forms like ^a&guo, 
^Jgi> (§ 158 D) ; and in the forms of the Imperative with Object- 
suffixes like v*JU^af "lead me" (§ 190), &c. So also is it in forms like 
©&*AjL "she revealed it" (§ i52), a recent formation from oi— + &*^L . 
The Nestorians (always?) lengthen the a in such cases (§ 42). 

D. Where there had been two open syllables with short vowels, 
one of these had of course to remain ; thus JL»o*$ from dahava "gold" ; 
l^of from dakhara "a male" ; &^fr# ^ rom Q. a t a ^ a ^ "she killed", &c. 

E. So too, when the prefixes a ^ j o come before a vowel-less 
consonant, their vowel remains as an a( x ), thus )f>*>7 from ^S* + a 
"in a king" ; t4^*» "to a man" ; ^$jd? "who killed" ; c^ouo "and took". 
With the words mentioned in § 51, which may assume an { as their 
commencement, the prefix o is given as a, and so with the other prefixes, 
thus lt&*$ "in the written bond" ; ikti^ "to the six", &c. 

Thus too, a appears in the corresponding case, when several such 
prefixes come together at the beginning of a word: JLa^aojo u et regis", 



(*) With • and \ a is the original vowel; perhaps a has just been adapted 
thereto by analogy, though originally it appears to have been bi\ and certainly 
analogy explains the treatment of *, which is shortened from dt. . 



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§44. — 31 — 

from JL&^* + ? + o ; ))&9^;\o "and to him that is involved in murder", 
from \Lfcj? + a + ^+^ + o; > ^Jdȣao from ^^o + * + a + o, &c. (but 
of course IfflQ^rV ^^ofa, &c). 

If the second consonant of such a word is an I, then the prefix 
usually takes the vowel: (Jboo "and a hundred" ivamd from warn' a = 
KKt? + l; ~JSjH "who wearied" doll from daVi; \U$l° "and put on thy 
shoes" wasan from was'an, &c. And yet, along with these are also 
found, through ignoring the I, forms like ^jL*o "and demanded" we$el 
= we + $el (along with ^J^o) ; thus, in particular, we most frequently 
have JUpJbao, JLttJio, airplay \, and other forms from v*x»{ "to heal". 

"When two such prefixes stand before initial {, the \ is generally 
neglected, e.g. JLJLm "and in whom or what?", from JL{ + » + o; y&jJo 
"and to thy mother"; ^jjft}^ "to him who remembered us"; tot^Jjjo 
"et Deo", &c. — More rarely with — : t*&o*{]L^k, "to him who neglected", 
from t*&oti[ + } +^; JLuioJ&f "he who is on the way", &c. The same 
fluctuation is found with w{, w, from ye : l+*)&l "who or what is in hand" ; 
^n r% n'ijL^o, withwo»o^|af, ^qjl^? (East-Syrian § 40 C); ot&^>£*£|>, &c. 
Hem. The old poets express themselves in all these cases either 
with or without the a according to the requirement of the verse. 

An w, originating according to § 40 C, yields with such a prefix the 
forms v*X, t*&, &c, e. g. <fe£»o or >&.£*|o "and knew", from ^p, ^f*| 

(= vr) + o- 

Hem. The Nestorians oddly give the vowel a to the prefixes before 
|;ooh, JL?oot*, &c, "Judah, Jew", thus JLjoot^w, jo©^, {jooiJo, &c. 



SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VOWEL-CHANGES. Some of the 

most im- 

§ 44. The a is retained with the East-Syrians, but has become b ^weT- 
with the West-Syrians. The former also set down — for the most part c _ han * e8 - 
to represent the Greek a, particularly in an open syllable, — for which the 
West-Syrians prefer to keep — . 

Before n the transition from a to o is partly found even earlier; 
thus in the sporadically occurring ^o*L, JifeteL, jiaakma, {K>innr>9ir>, &c, 
for ^*>l "there", JfoWL "eight", Juama "spices", ?K . Tm ?i r» "memtruans" ; in, 



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— 32 — §§ 45. 46. 

tdot = &l "also"( a ); still more usual are jBd*mj "temptation" (from 
p?mi though somewhat different in signification ["test or trial" 2 Cor. 2. 9]) ; 
Jjd-^^as well as JL&^ "revelation"; Jio*t* "vegetables" &c. (§ 74). 

«. § 45. a has frequently become e, e. #. NX^ o "she killed", from 

qatalath (cf. o£^£jp "he killed him"); l^B** "flesh", from basara, &c. 
Here and there the vocalisation fluctuates between a and e: the East- 
Syrians especially give preference, upon occasion, to the former; e. g. in 
jjfc alas for j^( "afflicted" (§ 174 A); ft^lk* for {in>{** "foun- 
dation" ; \i±& for t^h£ "cavern" ; J^ojj for J^ojJ "course, run" ; and in 
several others that have a guttural for the middle letter. 

A S, immediately followed by another consonant, sometimes occasions 
e instead of a : tjuA..a[, ouijdb instead of askah, maShah "find" (§ 164) ; 
{&*&*& "texture", contrasted with flL>5po "course"; (Lokiua "feast" (but 
JLfisjuo the same) overagainst {lo^po "chastisement"; {&*»ojlL "bed", 
{kjk&jii "service", contrasted with &*!&. j>L "covering", ik&A*ol "petition" 
(but tV**l "narration") ( 2 ) : notice farther^, ~k*>l U&*{ (§ 51 )« 
Similarly s in ikma "behind", from §Kflo + a, where according to other 
analogies ba was to be expected. 

e. § 46. Within the word an e has sometimes been produced through 

the quiescing of a consonantal {, as in ffJLa "well"; JUL* or JUt* "head"; 
poJLs "says" (§ 53) : and sometimes it has been produced in other ways, 
as in JLaJLp "stone", jBJLp, ^JLo, or ^, "right, just" (§ 98 C). In an open 
syllable e is, without regard for etymology, expressed freely by {, or 
even not expressed at all (and in the same way the Greek ai and s are 
dealt with: thus even JtaiJLo qersa = /caipog), while in a closed syllable 
w (or even w{) is set down by preference: In later times w is more 
prevalent; e.g. the old form jUJb&j, becomes later JULt&J nefe$d "refresh- 
ment, recovery"; and JLijba^ \i//£va "harbour" takes later the form 

)ft«ViSi , &C. 



(}) Uxovoa "Persians" is probably an intentional defacement of the other and 
still more usual form J^p-*»: The hostile nation was denoted by a word which 
means "pudenda". 

( 2 ) JI&A& "a pledge" is a borrowed word from the Assyrian, and accordingly 
does not belong to this class. 



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§§ 47. 48. — 33 — 

This e became to a large extent i with the West-Syrians: They 
said poJLs nlmar "says", jB>x>I herino "alias", tfui ri$d, JLaJLp klfo, ^JLa 
km, &c. " Yet they keep the — in ^o..dJj "eats", li^oij^. "food", 
J|Jl^ "arrow", &c; and there are found still in isolated cases JULJLfiLi as 
well as JULJLaj, Jbojbe as well as JbSbJbo (Inf.) "to swear", v?f^^ as we ^ as 
v o^i "are lost" (2. m. pi.), &c. (§§ 174 A, 175 B). {, ~{— or the 
defective form of writing i, — are (even apart from etymology) in these cases 
almost invariably certain marks of an original e. The style of writing 
of the East-Syrians separates — - e with tolerable consistency from w ify. 

In the end of a word the West-Syrian transition from e to I, ex- 
cept in JU (= Hebr. *o) appears only in Greek words in 7j, e. g. JLoJ&w? 
or even u£*k*f tiadyjKTj for JLo*Ki? of the East-Syrians. Otherwise — 
remains here: )|L^"reveals", JlniS,v> "kings", *&c. 

§ 47. The short — seems to have been e in the West, from an- e. 
cient times; in the East it was pronounced sometimes as e, sometimes 
as I. This difference has no grammatical significance. 

A short e may often be lengthened in the concluding syllable 
through the (original) tone: thus > \£$ "terrifies", &^*£*o "I killed" (in 
which cases the second vowel is written by the East-Syrians with — ) 
should perhaps be pronounced dahel, qetleth: It is the same perhaps 
with the monosyllabic v^kju (^b) "suddenly" and K* "six", for which 
^*jl and JLbjt are found in very old MSS. Yet this is not certain; and 
still less certain is it whether such a lengthening was generally practised. 
But beyond all doubt w^a "my son" (§ 146) has a long e. 

§ 48. The 6 (o) with the West-Syrians at an early date coincided 6, o. 
with o (o — , u). It has been retained only in the interjections of and 
w6j "oi" (for which others say wof). Thus we have otherwise 1Iq-&& qotulo 
for fta^oqdtold "murder"; Uo^j selutho forlicS^seldtha "prayer", &c. 
Moreover such an East-Syrian 6 appears not seldom to be only the 
result of toning down an original u, especially in the neighbourhood 



(*) Now-a-days the East-Syrians pronounce —7, — both in cases where it cor- 
responds to the — and in those where it corresponds to the — of the West-Syrians, 

for the most part very like t, and yet in another way than the pointed **. 

3 



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— 34 — § 49. 

of a guttural or an r, e. g. ^d*S (§ 40 C), lio±>) "small", (§6^> "hole", 
(K^daojt "report", JL^ojl "rock", and many others: so too in the neigh- 
bourhood of an n, e. g. JLioit "oven", Jjdi^"tent". In many cases 6 
may denote an o originally short, but lengthened by the tone ; so perhaps 
in ^o^aj "kills", oto^ "sanctuary" (§ 103), &c. Still, there is as little 
certainty about tins as about the similar case in § 47. 

The East-Syrians in particular distinguish also a short 6 (o) from 
a short o (u), but tins distinction is of little importance. Here too a 
guttural or an r frequently seems to bring about the 6 pronunciation, 
e. g. : (N*»ci^al "glory", lliol "manger", &c. 

It is curious that the West-Syrians have, besides the form ^i "all", 
the form kol, which accordingly they have to write ^u&. Is it a length- 
ened kbl? So too OjNA, y±&, &c. 

While even with the East-Syrians the sound o began pretty early 
to pass into n, the tradition varies a good deal in the case of 6 and o; 
but with respect to cases of grammatical importance there is no doubt 
whatever. 

Greek o and cc are with the AVest-Syrians either retained, — and 
then they are written o— , — , e. g. tflDoio|L, tfiDoJU frpovog — ,or they 
become u. There is a good deal of variation in the usage, e. g. <mo9i»X«^ 
and vttoa^i, Jia&^ot and Jjo&^o* ijysjuuiv &c. 

With the East-Syrians 6 corresponds to the Greek o and cc, in so 
far as they keep from altering the words more decidedly. 

As they cannot express an o without a vowel letter, they put - 1 - 
with defective-writing for the Greek o, cc, and pronounce it a, e. g. 
iflDoijoiL Theodciros for tflDoffotL Qsobupog. 
at and au. § 49. A. The diphthongs ai and an remain very steady, particularly 

in the beginning of a word, although in dialects the pronunciation e and 
b occurred. Commonly, however, simplification of the diphthong prevails 
in a closed syllable. The West-Syrians farther proceed (according to 
§ 46) to turn the e occasionally into t, and the b always into u (§ 48) : 
thus, along with &*a, k*? "house"; with JLuu, ^yuu "strength"; with 
)Lx, ^, "eye"; ^^° from mey attain, "they reveal"; ^Vi from terain, 
"two"; J&ojop, idda, &oJ* "end", &c. So by analogy from ^^» (in 



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§ 50. — 35 — 

oculo = coram) even in an open syllable wOj<iu\\, w5»nt\\ &c. coram 
eo ; but only in the prepositional use ; for example, otherwise, wo kii^V 
"to his eyes". 

^ootLo*, wLoio "their, my death", ^ci ni«v. "your eye", &c. form 
no exception, for in these cases it was only in the last development that 
the syllable became a closed one. Thus also is explained perhaps the 
retention of the ai before suffixes, in forms like y* g\v» (from malkaikd), 
^..a\v» (from malkaind) "thy, our kings", and in verbal forms like N.£k^ 
and ^Js^ (from gelaitd, gelaind) "thou didst reveal", "we revealed". 
In &£w "is not", from &J Jj, the diphthong is of more recent origin. 
On the other hand we have simplification in {U6L, li$ol "cow", from 
taurethd, and in East-Syrian JLNS , J«NN lei yd, lelyd, West-Syrian |?Vv, 
usually JUVv from laileyd "night". So too in tk**a, IK^a "egg" from 
batethd, pi. ]*», JL^. 

B. The East-Syrians for the most part write o— for o — , and 
much more rarely o— '-. So also in cases where the iv is virtually doubled, 
as in wGul» = wOx» ^n "pointed out"; {qjdL KJgiJ "thou remainest"; 
\6.£ = Iojj "windows", &c. Thus too in {Lo£* = \\b$* "Lords", and 
other plurals of that kind; farther in cases like wo*oJjqjJ = wotoJL£*t 
"give ye him to drink"; t*Jojd»; = oJoJL^; "they overthrew me" (§ 192). 

Sometimes on the other hand they write v*L. for wJ-, e. g. v-JAju 
for ^IAju "barefooted", and always in the Imperative woj >S. b flup = 
wo^o^jp "kill him". 

The West-Syrians also write an an produced by a and u coming 
together, — with the vowel-sign — , e.g. oo* JLa^o malJcau "is king", 
although the separate members are ooi + JL&s>y>. With them indeed 
oo+ JLfi^ab would have the sound malkbu. 

LOSS OF VOWELS. Loss of 

vowels. 

§ 50. A. Final vowels coming immediately after the original tone- 
syllable have all fallen away. This happened to a even before the settle- 
ment of the orthography, thus ^j* from land "to us" ; ftJ? from d(n)td 
"thou" ; fc^gja from qetdltd "hast killed", &c. (but JL&^p malkd "king", &c). 
Other final vowels too have at quite an early date thus fallen away, 



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— 36 — § 50. 

without leaving a trace. On the other hand many vowels of this kind 
are still set down in consonantal character, although they had ceased to 
be pronounced even in the oldest literary epoch represented by do- 
cuments (circa 200 A. D.)^), and are ignored in punctuation. These 
are: — 

(1) u of the plural in the Perfect and Imperative after consonants : 
e£t!gd3 qetal from qetdlic; oVfco, °^&^ ri\fifl.o; nuAji "they 
praised", &c. (but we have the full sound in c^^gelau, aJ^^gallia 
"revealed", &c). 

(2) I of the suffix of the 1 st sing, after consonants, thus: »n\» 
malk "my king" from malkl\ uiN,fljp "killed me"; ufv^w , uxj^L "re- 
vealed me", &c. (but u jSIy» "my kings" ; and also the monosyllables ud 
"in me", u^. "to me", in which no falhng away was possible: So too 
yloD, v^i "I wholly", "the whole of me" ["my totality"]). 

(3) % of the suffix of the 3 rd sing. m. woj with the noun : wotQj££* 
malkau from malJcauM "his kings", and with the Verb in cases like 
wo^V, wO)Q^^,nj, y^o^QJx, woioA^j, no doubt from (J el a tin &c. 

(4) i of the 2 nd fern. sing, in ~&j\ at from a(n)tl "thou" (f.) ; <>^^\v> 
malkekh from malkekht (both with e?)\ uL^ii; t*-a^»; w&^Jgja; 
wKurift, &c. 

(5) In the following special cases : in o^jl ^> "from quiet" = "sud- 
denly", absolute state of JL^jl. from $elt (like ^IB); in J^^{ "when?" 
from emmathai; «.«^&i( "yesterday" from eflimale; and the derived word 
uA&ftdtt "the day before yesterday"; lastly in the much maimed form 
w^pkjt£ (or ^jdKa,{) "last year". 

B. Even in very ancient MSS. the unpronounced w 's are often 
wanting: a similar o is more rarely omitted. Conversely w, which one 
was in the habit of so often writing, — apparently without cause, — was 
in some cases attached parasitically to words ending in a consonant; 
e. a. there occurs in old manuscripts wo*SS for ©CSs "God" (Construct 
State) ; udl for o( "August" ; <*x>o* for uuoi "spirit". Occasionally it is 



( 1 ) Even the hymns of Bardesanes seem to neglect them, as regards the number 
of syllables. 



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§§ 51. 52. — 37 — 

employed as a diacritic mark of the 3 rd sing. fern, of the Perf. e. g. w&S^*o 
for &^*p "she killed". Such an employment of w in the 3 rd pi. fern. 
Perf. has gradually come into full use with the West-Syrians; <*^§dO 
"they (f.) killed", for the old ^^jd retained by the East-Syrians (from 
original qetdld, not qetali). The employment of w in the 3 rd sing. fern. 
Imperf., — coming into view in rather late times, — prevails among the 
West-Syrians, though not quite so universally; uVo^ct, u^£$L "she 
Mils", &c, in order to distinguish it from the 2 nd sing, masc, ^oJgtoL, 
^!§jpL "thou killest" : the Nestorians are completely unacquainted with 
the w in this usage. 

NEW VOWELS AND SYLLABLES. New tow- 

els and 

§ 51. An I with a vowel is sometimes prefixed to an initial con- syllables, 
sonant which has not a full vowel. Thus ( in (&jt{ "six", ^k*>{ "sixty", fixed. (Aiaf 
alongside of &Jt, ^a; l%$*{ "a written bond" along with t^*, and pro8tbotic) * 
always w&jl{ "drank"; farther t-^-sf "already" sometimes for t-^-o. 
Frequently so in Greek words with ar, ctt, like jL^t^coi or JL^^od 

GTpOCTSlGC, 1\+Sl£dI and t^Att GTTSipOC, &C. 

The prefix, pretty frequently met with in ancient MSS. before i, is 
probably to be pronounced |; e.g. \za+jSil for Jb^uuV "Beloved"; l++$ 
for tf*f* "upper garment"; J^oiJ for i^&O "firmament"; K*J for J^J 
"contented", and many others. So too {As**jll»{ for {fcwOoJLu "a meal" ; 
{^A,J for Jf^s^ "ice". In the frequently occurring Uk^uptai the u of 
the rarer form (l^voo), tl^poi is brought to the front. The early 
adopted Persian word raza Itf, more rarely l)i, \)\h "a secret" seems to 
have been pronounced with a vowel-prefix, which however is ignored in 
the pointing. 

§ 52. A. The poets sometimes insert an e before a ^ j after a Auxiliary 
word ending in a consonant, e. g. vp©^ &J "is to them" ith elhon (with 
three syllables) = ^potX K>1 



( 1 ) jb*ju>;t is measured as dissyllabic like J^ju»* in Moesinger's Monumenta 
Syriaca II, 86 v. 152 et passim, but Jt-»i*f, °»t-»?'t as trissyllabic in Jacob of Sarug, 
Thamar v. 247, 251. 



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— 38 — § 53. 

B. Essentially the same thing takes place frequently within the 
word. Especially when a consonant without a full vowel follows one 
that has no vowel, a short vowel is inserted often between the two to 
facilitate pronunciation. Thus Jblifep = JLli^o "sunrise"; fl^£f =J^juf 
"fear"; ^n n\ ml = ^oa^jlL "you permit or remit"; ^v*.»ji = ^V*.»?l 
"thou fearest (f.)"; ^oiajb = %*&)$ "they buy"; also JUaoo^o = JL^oo^o 
"she swears"; It^o) = iL^o) "quaking"; and fkXJL* (= J^XJLjl v. 
infra C) "question". Particularly does tins occur when one of the letters 
is a liquid or^Ioiwo; on the other hand it is never found between 
sibilants and dentals. A marked amount of fluctuation however prevails 
in individual cases in the pronunciation of the various dialects and schools. 
With the old poets the longer forms, as indicated by the metre, are 
upon the whole rare ; they abound in the vocalisation of the Bible, with 
both East- and West-Syrians. 

C. The small stroke under the letter, called mehagydna "the ac- 
centuator", serves as a sign of the fuller pronunciation particularly with the 
East-Syrians; the one above the letter, called marhetana "the hastener", 
as the sign of the shorter (§ 17). Yet often the full vowel is also written 
instead of the former, thus K^a( or kjj^at = As^^jit "I empowered". 

The sign - z - stands sometimes too in cases where the vowel which 
is supposed to be inserted is an original vowel, e. g. in {&^a.o = &\g.q 
from qalqalta. Sometimes it is not easy to say whether a vowel is original 
or inserted. Here and there such a vowel alters the original vocalisation 
more strongly; thus from Ja*-o^ "scorpion", has come the West-Syrian 
JL»;j£^ and then the East-Syrian JL^;_a^. 

The inserted vowel is mostly e, but often too it is a, especially be- 
fore gutturals, and before q and r. 

The relations of Rukkakha and Qussaya suffer no alteration through 
this insertion, as several of the foregoing examples show. 

influence INFLUENCE OF THE CONSONANTS UPON THE VOWELS. 

of the con- 
sonants § 53. An t originally a consonant and ending a syllable in the 

vowels. middle of a word becomes, in combination with a preceding a or i, an e, 

0f which for the most part is farther developed with the West-Syrians into i. 



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§§ 54. 55. — 39 — 

Thus JUL* from Ktf$n "head"; ^>Jb "says"; ^d^li "eats"; pot "I say"; 
J^j "wolf', from KJJKV, JfJ^ "a well" (also written t^a § 46), and so forth. 

On the other hand the t becomes a in ]h^ "small cattle", through 
the influence of the neighbouring gutturals from fcONJJ; tk**^ "battle- 
ments" from NJVytW; )|^ "a certain thorny shrub" from N^NJJ; and simi- 
larly JLl> "bosom" from fcOKn for original KJJjn. 

In the end of the word we have Jb from na\ In other cases t— 
is retained here according to the analogy of corresponding forms ending 
in other gutturals, e.g. Jb*-£ "unclean" (§ 100) ; J^J "polluted"; JLa "con- 
soled" (§ 172), &c. 

§ 54. >x ot ju and $ as final radicals, especially when they close of the other 
the syllable, transform an e into an a; thus, >*4£ "knows" (compared and of r. 
with'o^j "sits"); ouaj "sacrificed", compared with^gjp; o*aj "arose", 
for neveh; p*JJ "leads", for nebcibber; x£*$°\ " we ma( le known"; ^oio^aj 
"you arose"; &*>*? " a bird"; ^t^j "you led", &c. (§ 170). 

In rare cases the transformation of an 6 into a, before these final 
consonants, has been retained from very remote times, as for instance in 
ouJ^AJ "opens"; compare on the other hand uuoa+j "slaughters", &c. 
(§ 170). In certain cases they have the effect even of transforming a 
folloiving e (or o?) into a (v. § 169). — On the exchange of a and e in 
words which have middle gutturals v. § 45. 

On the shading off of an a into e through the influence of a sibilant, 
v. § 45 ; and of a u into o, effected by a guttural v. §§ 48, 49. In like 
manner the gutturals, as well as other consonants, particularly emphatic 
ones, must have brought about a special shading of the vowels in still other 
instances, without the writing giving much indication of such delicate turns. 



3. STRONGER ALTERATIONS. 3. stager 

alterations. 

§ 55. We find these, for instance, in the blending of Participles and 
Adjectives with the Subject-Pronouns: e.g. ^K-^Jo^^fcsJj ^^o) from 
qatlin a(ri)ton\ ^i>N,^j& from ^u> ^^jS; wftj&*|» "benedida tu", from 
wfio? JL^=>; # &^d& from Kj^^gji (§ 64 A), &c. Blendings with kl{ 
appear in still other situations, e. g. ftot \Ao$ dahvat "thou art gold" ; 



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— 40 — § 56. 

Aj? JLa*i[ "ubi es?"\ fci? JL6;J> ^a bar bdrbyat "thou art the son of the 
Creator"; &j\ JLI>j dehayyet "vitae es", &c. Still in these cases the 
preservation of the separate portions is the more usual practice. 

Amongst other instances we meet with extraordinary mutilations 
in the numerals of the second decade (§ 148 B) ; and farther in certain 
compounds (§ 141). 

4. Tone. 4. TONE. 

§ 56. The Nestorians now put the tone on the penult throughout, and 
that very distinctly. The Maronites ( x ), on the other hand, put the tone 
always, or almost always, on the last syllable, when it is a closed syllable, 
e. g. ^Jf\ ozel, tN^p qetldt, t&£?jLi nezdqef, ^£o* yaumin, ^.o^ JeSvt, 
and so also in endings with a diphthong, e. g. ot{ etdu, wojoj;»\n\t 
talmiddu, v^ojo oa a> Sabqui, >^c*a*£a{ ebneu. On the other hand they 
always, or nearly always, put the tone on the penult, when the word 
ends in a simple vowel : l^{ eto, tijf nite, Jb£ sobe, toot; nehwe, J&^» c dmo, 
)1& me?e, t'^&£p so/re, ,JBA feowo &c. Occasionally a secondary tone also 
becomes perceptible. At an earlier time the final syllable invariably 
had the principal accent. 



(*) I am indebted to my friend Guidi, following the communications made by 
P. Cardahi, for the data on the accentuation of the Maronites. 



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PART SECOND. 
MORPHOLOGY. 



§ 57. The large majority of all Semitic words, as is well known, strong and 
are derived from roots which for the most part have three, but occasion- 
ally even four or more 'Radicals'. If the three radicals are firm con- 
sonants, the roots are then called Strong: but if one of the radicals is 
o or >^ (frequently appearing as a vowel), or if the due weight of the 
word is attained by the doubling of one of two firm radicals, then the 
roots are called Weak. On practical grounds we retain this method of 
treating roots, without insisting farther on the point that even with strong 
roots a radical is often demonstrably of quite recent origin, while on the 
other hand there is much variety in the origin of weak forms of the 
root, and while in many cases at least, the assumption of an original Waw 
or Tod as a radical, or that of a third radical with the same sound as the 
second, is a pure fiction. Thus we speak of roots primae oor^ ("ifi, "»&) 
[Pe Waw, Pe Yod] meaning those whose first radical is taken as W or 
T\ so of roots mediae o or >^ ("iy, ^9) [Ayin Waw, Ayin Yod], and 
tertiae w and mediae geminatae (w) [Lamed Yod, and Ayin doubled]. 
In addition we have frequently to deal specially with words of which { is 
a radical ; for this sound (cf. § 33 sqq.) undergoes many modifications. In 
like manner we have to treat of words which have n as the first letter 
of the root. The forms too, which have a guttural or an r as second or 
third radical, are, by reason of certain properties, brought occasionally 
into special notice. 



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gem. 



— 42 — §§ 58. 59. 

variation g 58. Weak roots vary a good deal in their weak letters. Thus 

of weak * 

roots Dion, Din, "ton, DH^ (to which is added another secondary form n&n) are 

essentially modifications only of the same fundamental root, which 
means "hot". In particular, roots ')$ and yy are very closely related. 
Thus also in Syriac they very readily change into one another: the sub- 
stantive belonging to Tifi "to err" (Perf. *a, Impf. *..kj) is tfoJ&, as if 
from TI&; and along with the frequently occurring pn "to pity" pn is 
found (Perf. ^£, Impf. ^oj&J), and with *)M "to bend", *p, &c. 

Roots med. g 59. Forms wierf. gem. in Syriac attain like weight with that of 

the strong forms, by doubling not the second radical, but the first, when 
it is possible, i. e. when a prefix ending in a vowel precedes it. Thus 
from M "to shear" jl^J aggez (answering to > ^^{); ja^J eggoz 
(=^<L£j&(); vot^J negzun, properly neggezun (= v 6^aj); ^Lzl "you 
(fern, pi.) love" (= ^fi-bt from MH) ; J&ju^> "boiler" (from DDH "to 
warm"; J|*>*, tN.i^p, Jl^ap "entrance", &c. 

Yet in some nouns we find the general Semitic method, — i. e. the 
method of either directly or virtually doubling the third radical, even 
with the prefixes mentioned : thus Jt^uu* "needle" (not J^uu») ; JL^a» or 
Jl^jo (East-Syrian) "shield"; tfc^ao "a booth" (metaUha, properly 
metalletha), pi. JU^*> (metalle); 1^*$* "sieve"; tl^o "a cave"; and 
)»6k», wotaa»6&t*>, &c, mostly used adverbially, "completion" (DDn), 
"continually". 

Two I 's stand beside each other like two different consonants ( x ) in 
Jj^io* "speech" ; JJX^op "cover, shelter" (g 46) ; and the quadriliteral 
form )|V»o,o "face". In these formations, however, the I is again dropped 
in the usual pronunciation (g 29), so that in point of fact the regular 
form makes its appearance. Add the peculiar form ^&**»{, NSVt? &c. 
"to lament" ( 2 ). The following appear to be later formations: Jfc^^odL 
"mockery", from ^of| (bbri) ; and from ^jl»t{, &*Hr*4 " a Player". Thus, 
farther, regularly in the Ethpeel ;i^{ "was shorn" (as compared with 
ji^"shore"). 

(*) JLA-a**, formed in this way Judges 3, 22 "a part of the abdomen" is pro- 
nounced marqd, but others read j£&t*. 

( 2 ) Vl^a "to finish" is a word borrowed from the Assyrian. 



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§§ 60—62. — 43 — 

In Syriac too the second and third radicals, when identical, are 
always kept in separate existence, if a long vowel comes between them, 
in the course of the formation, e. g. JLLJu> "pardoned" ; jLLLu "favour", &c, 
as well as when the first of the two is itself doubled, e. g. ^±A\ ethhannan 
"begged for pardon". 

§ 60. With roots of four radicals we also rank such as are de- Q*adriiiter- 

al roots. 

monstrably formed originally from roots of three radicals with well-known 
suffixes or prefixes, but which are treated in the language quite like 
quadriliteral forms, e. g. »*\\g. "to enslave", properly a causative form 
from *5^»; ^^Ai "to estrange", "to alienate", from ^.aQJ "strange", 
from *iDi, &c 

§ 61. Nouns, properly so called (Substantives and Adjectives), and Nouns and 
verbs, have in all respects such a form that they are subject to the scheme 
of derivation from roots composed of three or more radicals, although 
sufficient traces survive to show that this condition was not, throughout 
and everywhere, the original one. The only marked divergences in 
formation, however, are found on the one hand with the Pronouns 
(which originate partly in the welding together of very short fragments 
of words), and on the other hand with many old Particles. To these two 
classes, the Pronouns and Particles, — we must therefore assign a separate 
place, although both in conception and usage they belong to the Noun. 
The same treatment must be extended to the Numerals, which, to be 
sure, stand in form much nearer to the usual tri-radical formations. 

§ 62. Overagainst all true words, or words that express some fc^r- 

j actions 

conception, stand the expressions of feeling — or the Interjections, which 
originally are not true words at all, but gradually enter, — at least in 
part, — into purely grammatical associations, and even serve to form 
notional words. Thus >^o "woe!" is a mere exclamation of pain, and 
wad "fye!" one of detestation; but t^^V ^& "woe to the man!" or 
{^4^^> **^& "fye upon the man!" is already a grammatical association 
of words, and JU& "the woe" is a regular noun. ( x ) 



( x ) This subject might be treated at great length. 



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— 44 



§63. 



Nouns. 



Pronouns. 



Personal 
Pronouns. 
Subject- 
Forms. 



Such Interjections are o{ (§ 9), v 6{ "0!" *J, V "0!"; c»6{ "Ah!"; 
l&l "Ho! Ho!" (in mockery), &c. Also the demonstrative form & 
"Here!" "Lo!", which is greatly employed in the formation of Pronouns 
and Adverbs, is to be regarded as originally an interjection. 



I. NOUNS. 
1. PRONOUNS. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

§ 63. (a) Subject-Forms. 



Separate Forms. Enclitic Forms. 



$ 

.* 

3 



2 



1. pers. "I" 

2. pers. "Thou" J m ' 

( m. "He" 

3 - perS - { f. "She" 

1. pers. "We" 

2. pers. "You" J m * 

3. pers. "They" J m ' 



«'<H) 


JK <W), * 


Hi 


il 


ail 

>4 


JLi 




oo»,o(§38) 


v^O* 


— o» 


^ti" 


*J 


,6JJJ 


v *l 




«i 


^OJOt 


v?4 


<*« 


<d 



On oio©» "he is", yJoi "she is" v. § 38. 

JBem. The form ^ijuj?, — (originally anahnan, but in our hterature 
certainly no longer of three syllables, indeed seldom having two as 
dnahnan, and commonly being monosyllabic in speech, and merely a 
remnant of early orthography for ^ju>, ^), — is found only in old 
manuscripts. 

^qjJ, ^j[, besides representing enclitic Subject-forms or Copula-forms 
(§ 311 sq.), represent also for the 3 rd pers. pi. the Object, which is ex- 



(*) Notice the points (§ 6), which with many of these words are set down al- 
most without exception, even with the full vocalisation. 



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§ 64. — 45 — 

pressed by Suffixes for the other persons (§ 66). They also appear, 
though rarely, in other connections (§ 220 B). 

8 64. Enclitic forms of the 1 st and 2 nd pers. often coalesce with E»dMe 

b 7 forms with 

participles and, — though more rarely, — with adjectives; in such cases participles 
marked transformations occasionally occur. In particular in the plural, tives. 
the first portion [i. e. the participle] loses its final n, while the second 
[the pronoun] loses its h or a(ri). In the 2 nd pers. singular, the first 
portion always loses a short vowel before the final consonant. Thus with^lgji 
"killing" (f. JJL^di &c.) ; ^"revealing" ; vJ*jl "beautiful" : JLoj "clean" :— 
Sing. 1. m. ft ^%J> 'or U±%J> "I kill"; ft Jt^, J^^ "I reveal"; 
ft ;.9i ? "I am beautiful"; ft % "I am clean". 

l.f. |8^;JKJU^;«Iv^;*^ 

2. m. ftcL^jS; fts-ik^; ifr»ftg>; &+$}] or without coalescing: ^!§d& 

2. f. ~&^4; ~Lf*^; ~Mr*f>; ~L**J or separately JJ^jS 
wJbJj; Jb| U^; J**{ Uf**i -M M- 
Plural 1. m. ^J-^jS; ^^^; ^V***; ^h*»5 or written separately, 
though pronounced in exactly the same way: ^u> ^^-o • 

L f - td^ ^4f 5 e^ t^^; ^^ <r**; **** t*** < sa y ««*- 

lanan, &c). ( x ) 

• • • • 

2. m. v ok,«N..^jS ; ^oft^s^; yotu^iit; ^ok-^j; or written separa- 
tely, though spoken in the same way: — ^otsl? ^*£j&; 

2 - f - <¥^^"»<iv**(*) orwrittenseparately,^l t ^£; t: rs4^ 

B. Ifem. In more ancient times en or n appears also with the 
poets ( 3 ) as an enclitic form of the I st sing., and in fact this is often 



( 1 ) For the feminine form the masculine form yiA&J», &c. sometimes appears. 

( 2 ) When the participle or adjective ends in I—, the 2 nd fern. pi. form of the 
enclitic, and the participle are written separately. 

( 3 ) In homely prose I find such a form in the Rules for Monks of M* Izla, 
of the year 571 (Rendic. della Accad. dei Lincei 1898, 43, 10); <^>J> i. e. **£ "I be- 
seech". Ebedjesu substitutes for it the usual JUl |v±. 



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Possessive 
suffixes. 



Object 
suffixes. 



— 46 — §§ 65. 66. 

written uj, through confusion between it and the object-suffix: Masc. 
after JUL: ^jS = JJ{ JL^jS "I call"; ^foap "I acknowledge", yq^aloo "I 
point out", &c. : Fern. vj|^ = jii i%±± "I pass over" ; uj^o{ "I 
say"; v^|*km*> "I am alarmed", ^J^i "I wish", y^j^o "I am 
forsaken". 

§ 65. (b) Suffixed personal pronouns. 

Possessive 8 uf fixes. 



3 



1 1. pel's. 




w (§ 50 A) -my" 

£— and after vowels y> "thy" 

» » „ **V"thy" 



wot "his" 
6* "her" 
- "our" 



f m. v 6c* "their" 
3 - PerS - i f. ^ "their" 



§66. 

1. pers. 

2. pers. \ m% fc~ " 

3. per, m f ff " 



Oty'ecf suffixes. 
and after vowels ui. "me" 
y 9 "thee" 
***- "thee" 

w©», wo^, 'and woio (§ 50 A) "him" 
©t- "her" 



1, pers. 

f m. v o-o "you" 

2. pers. ^ ; / „ 

I f - *-? vou 



3 pers I m ' The enclitics vM* t^f serve instead of suffixes for the 

' P ' [ f. 3 rd pers. pi. (§ 63). 

For the method of attachment of the Possessive Suffixes v. §§ 69, 
145, 149, 157, 199; and for that of the Object- or Verbal-suffixes v. 
§ 184 sqq. 



(*) Masculine forms from strong roots are very rare. 



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§§67—69. — 47 — 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 
§ 67. (a) For what is nearer ; "this": masc. ^&, JBA — fern. If A: Demon- 

. ' • strative 

Plural ^>»ot (m. and f.). pronouns 

Bern. A rarer secondary form from tf& is j&. 

We get ojot with oot (§ 38). For {fot comes a tfo* before woi, thus 
w©» ($ot 7m(5ai (hoboi). 

(b) JPor if/*a£ is more distant, "that": masc. och; fern, wch; Plural 
masc. ^QJot, fern. ^*jch. 

i2em. i. <Qj6t ; ^jo* "iZ7i, i??ae" must not be too closely associated 
with pot "hie", merely because of a casual similarity of sound. The 
forms for "tins" are compounded out of den, dend, de, Men with ha 
(§ 62); those for "that", out of the personal pronouns hu, hi, hennbn, 
hennen with ha. 

Rem. 2. Only in very old writings there appear in isolated instances 
the farther forms yo^o* Hill", y*Xo* "Mae", and yoso* "Mi" (a fern, 
form corresponding to the last is not known) ; the three forms given may 
be pronounced something like halbkh, halelth; hdnbkh. Very rarely 

9 

indeed there appears also ^o* = *^^©» "hi, hae". 
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

§68. £"who?". JbJ>, <j2>, v O», Juo "What?". Interroga- 

With oot, wot:ai*, and fern, w©» ^> "who?, who is?", oiab "what nouns' 
is?". Barely b** for Jjlo (§ 44). 

JUL? "which?" or "what?" m.; IfJ "wliich?" f.; PI. <^J "wliich?". 

Rem. 1. ^>, ^oao, JLli, jbo* have sprung from ma + den, den a; 
Jbu?, W, ^»t from the interrogative ai with dend, da, Men. 

Refn. 2. |LJ, &c. is often improperly held as a demonstrative, be- 
cause, like other interrogatives, it stands as correlative to the relative (§236). 

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 



§ 69. The relative pronoun is \, \ (§ 43 E), which has a very wide Thereiative 
range of use. The older form dl still shows itself in the Separate pos- 
sessive pronoun, formed through its composition with the preposition ^ 



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— 48 — § 70. 

and the possessive suffixes (§ 65) ; w^-j "my" ; ^*f "thy" m. ; ■■'f^-t 
"thy" /".; oi^-f "his"; 6£j-j "her"— ^-f "our"*; V <i-^M "your" m.; 
S^M "your" f.; v 6o^-? "their" m., <»o£>~! "their" f. 



thfZtlr 2. NOUNS IN THE STRICTER SENSE. 

sense. 

(Substan- (SUBSTANTIVES AND ADJECTIVES.) 

tives and 
adjectives.) 

A.a«*r, A. GENDER, NUMBER, STATE. 

Number, 

State. 

General 



§ 70. Every Syriac substantive or adjective has a gender, a number, 
statement: and a state. The indications of all three conditions are very closely as- 

Faradigm t m 

of the simp- sociated together, and almost interpenetrate one another. We shall 
therefore deal here with the three, at one and the same time. 

Syriac has two genders, Masculine and Feminine, two numbers, 
Singular and Plural (*), and three states, Absolute, Construct, and Emphatic. 
The Emphatic State is formed by appending an a (originally ha?) which 
possessed the significance of the Article (the Determination), but this 
meaning has for the most part been lost. The Construct State is the 
form of the noun immediately before a Genitive. A noun, which has 
neither of the States named, stands in the Absolute State. The Emphatic 
state is of by far the most frequent occurrence in Syriac substantives. Many 
are no longer met with in either of the other two states, or only in quite 
isolated cases : accordingly substantives at least are presented here through- 
out, in the Emphatic state, as being the form lying next to hand, even if 
not the most original. The other two stages have no special ending for the 
singular of Masculines, nor for that of Feminines without the feminine 
sign. The termination of the Emphatic state (a) combines with the mas- 
culine plural-ending to form aiya, which again is generally farther blended 
into e. The usual feminine ending in the Singular, was at, which has 
maintained itself as ath in the Construct state, but has become a in the 
Absolute state. The plural-ending for Masculines in the Absolute state 



(*) Various traces of the Dual are still met with, but this Number has no 
longer a life of its own. 



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§ 71. — 49 — 

is In, and in the Construct state, ai: the corresponding endihgs for 

Feminines are an, ath. 

We give at this point, as an example of the most usual formations, 

the Adjective *jl*£* "wicked". 
Singular. 



St abs. St.constr. St. emph. 
m. <ju£ uua JULa 

f. JUL& bsJUS* t&tA*2t 



Plural. 



St. abs. St.constr. St. enlph. 
^Jua t*J££ JU^=> 

^fc£ &JL& (&JL& 
JBem. Notice that the absolute state of the feminine singular and 
the emphatic state of the masculine singular for the most part sound alike. 
On ti and ?L v. § 23 E. 
§ 71. Certain words insert a y (or i, v. § 40 C) before the feminine insertion of 

t w before the 

ending:— feminine 

(1) First, those words (in all their forms) which terminate in the suffix endin &- 
an, on, (tin) :e.g. from ^N^gno "murdering", the feminine sing. abs. state is 
JLb£fc*£jp9, the constr. state lk*^.I, the emphatic state hLJL^-1; the feminine 
plural abs. state ^?r\ ', the constr. state &> ZiS, ', the emph. state lk ?iS. ' . 

So from jSda^p regnlus, we have the feminine ?K«lo Vs>y, &c. This analogy 
is followed in such old borrowed words as JLLuoo? rsyyirig, and JULiAmy tttwxtj, 
pl. ^i^ririy, iiliimy (but emphatic state fern. ik±Amab). — Exceptions, 
Its*!**] fern, from JLLU>{ "related", and {ISoJLsL fern, from JLLLit secundas. 

(2) Next, the adjective Jd^/ "Uttle" in all its forms (fern.), except 
in the emphatic state sing.: JUd^;, &*$d^j (but tUd^j); — ^*Vd^»j, 
bJie±>) (?), tM>d^/. 

(3) Probably it is the same with Nomina agentis of the form ^d^d. 
For the singular we have JL»}6po "rebellious", and the analogously-treated, 
although Greek, word l.^nmj &admj\ for the plural of the absolute 
state, only ^^om(. The abs. and construct states of these Nom. ag. 
almost never appear. In other cases [emph. st. pl.] there occur t&Jjuo*flp 
"destroying"; {l^Vo^v "transitory things"; t&£Xd£j& "murderous", &c. 
Forms like J^dii "mortal" &c, without y, are of less frequent occurrence. 

(4) So too, in the plural of feminine forms of Diminutives in ifloo 
({&£d6$? "yard [court]", pl. tl^JbXJDoVf) w is inserted, as also in the case of 
a number of other substantives, which before the feminine ending have 



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— 50 — §§ 72—74. 

a consonant preceded by a long vowel, a doubled consonant, or two con- 
sonants. Thus l\u*ko "bundle", pi. {1^^J&; JLUj> "tunic", pl.^JULLdA, 
{ftjjLtQ^; tj^io! («n?n) "place"; pi. ^J&oj, (klioj; {*Ajoj "tail"; pi. 
{NAVo;, and many others. This formation is of more frequent occur- 
rence in later times. Some have secondaiy forms, e. g. Jjulxap "knife" ; 
pi. (IsJjLarp and (KlLLafip (as well as (i'larp). 
pi. emph. § 72. The plural-ending in the emphatic state was properly aiya 

st. m atya. ^ YOm a ^ + ^ . ^j g en( Ji n g jj£ i s still shown in the short words JUia "sons" ; 
JUU* "years"; Jlj) "kinds"; j£fL "breasts"; JLfc>{ (— «JT : § 40 C) as well 
as fc| "hands"; j£it "curtain" (= J£<| "face"). For all these words 
v. §146. 

Aiya appears farther in the plural emphatic state, — through blending 
the final vow T el of the root, — in adjectives and participles in e and ai (yd 
in Emph. st. sing.), with the emphatic ending: JUjd "hard" (Emph. st. 
JJLtf), JLU*; JLL^JL (st. abs/J^JL) "fool", JU!gJt; *#*> "lamed", JL-«*> &C - 
So with the substantives JL*^ "kid", JLf^; JLLtip "a talent 
(weight)", JLUab; JL'jjd "reed", JLLjlo; JL^p "bowels", JU^ib; and so with the 
Plur. tantum J&o "water" (and JUaoji, U*t* "heaven" § 146); farther 
JLio^ "young (of animal)", 1*-^^ (later formation ^ojo^ § 79 A) ; 
JUaoo; "image", Juajj "price" (later formation JL*>o? "images"). — But not 
with the abstract nouns — JLJj "a rent", JLVj (as against JLJj "one who is 
torn", JLVj);^^ "cold", V^.. 
Abs. and § 73. In the absolute state of the plural, such substantives have 

antes' (cor- ^ so f ar as they appear in it at all: ^f^; ^**>; ^i©; t***5 t* 2 *' Thus 
too the pronunciation of the very rare word ^vi* must be Hniln and 
not Semen. But the Adjectives have en: ^o; ^5S^; <t** (from l\*x* 
and from ^tHJ^ ) ^ c * 

In the construct state of the plural, such Substantives have ai: 
t**p;; oJjab; ux>; o^aa; but the Adjectives, yai: uJb; *+*^i "herds- 
men"; ^t-o "criers"; u»ojum "pointing out", &c. (cf. with this section 
§ 145 K infra). 
piur. from § ?4. The following Masculines form their plural from enlarged 

enlarged^ f orms j n # n# They are to some extent words of closely related 

forms inan. J J 

meaning: — 



respond' 
ing). 



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§ 75, — 51 — 

J&{ "fruit"; %*{ (l^f § 21 D), seldom j&.ft 

Jbkcp <f)dpjua/cov', J&£p (jba&£D §21D). 

J^nri? "fragrance" ; )t^im^ (also ffoVim^ § 44) and Jbon^. 

JLSu) "scent"; \LL+i. 

l^L "frankincense"; Ji^ and fc^C 2 ) 

JL^jl* "salve"; JUutib. 

t^aX> "wine"; {(•{*£ (also JiopaL § 44). ( 3 ) 

Jia^J'colour" ; Jiio^, usually P<i^. 

J^oj "dyed stuff'; Jt*aoj and J*%oj. 

{^a^. "wool" ; P'i^a^ "woollen stuffs". 

t^ma "flesh"; Jj-^ma, together with ?ijma.( 4 ). 

Jbai^"race" (ySvog)] Juai^, also with JLcai^. 

JI*o£ "fohage"; JBJLsia£. 

j^N ? "ruler"; Jl&^Jf. and A$^*. From that form (RflvVfr) 
the singular Jift.N; has been derived anew. 

JLiLJLd "priest" ; JUL^JLp, usually JLa^lS^o. 

J&J "teacher"; JS&V (very rarely indeed a sing, from it occurs UaJ); 
JLtfog "magnates" (v. § 146).( 6 ) 

8 75. Feminine substantives in Jk*_ have u_ in the absolute state Fem « in 
of the singular (§ 26 C). Thus H^cLdL "garment", utti)L; ?V^* "J our " 
ney", >^ft^p; ^Vt^ "beam", ~iJ&; JJ^*4f "usury", v*a|. In the construct 
state J^*-L: [K»Njii "narration", Ik^jtL. But in adjectives, e. g. Ik*** 



ttha. 



(*) The East-Syrians say abbd(§ 45) &c, with a. The abs. state is Qfrtfrl: So 
far as such state appears in the case of the others, it is dealt with in a correspond- 
ing way. 

( 2 ) Singular JJ^%. is "tar". 

( 3 ) Thus the Plurale tantum JUtt?^ "spices" clearly belongs to a sing. 
JL$*& ; and so JiWf> "herbs", and JTfe»Vj "seeds, plants" must be plurals of JLo^» and 
i^») (also a pi. JL**vj). The singular of JTi'rpg "a certain wedding dainty" is prob- 
ably icp^ . 

( 4 ) tl'taa^ "fleshy layers", "membranes" is not however a plural from f^**?' 
since it is feminine. The singular would probably be fl»*«pa. 

( 6 ) Some few are uncertain. Perhaps several others of those named have 

simple plurals. 

4* 



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— 52 — §§ 76—78. 

"pura", the absolute state is JLLdj, the construct, ^f. In the plural all 
have the consonantal y: &*{'££, ^*£?, &c. 
FemSnutha. § 76. A. Words in ?Lo— . (purely feminine abstract nouns) have 

a— in the absolute state of the singular (§ 26 C), and to— in the con- 
struct state, while in the plural they have for states abs., constr., emph. — 
\&> ti, (U. Thus for instance, fi^Sy "kingdom", iofrvy, fyo frvy ; and 
in plural ^S\y, i& H\y, fyA H\v>. — a& "a request", Lo£&, fyo^a; 
plural, ^&&£, &c. — J^omp "chastisement"; l^i??*, &c. 

From i^oJtal "healing", there is formed (from an old ground-form 
lloAl) tyLa>l or (§ 40 C) §&£&{. Even from t£a^* "half", tyo|oM» 
"testimony", t^ol^ "inheritance", the plural is l^^S^, t^?oM», tyiUf- 
still there is also found, conformably to the original formation, ?1&^S.9> ? 

From |^o;a{^ "manliness" comes the plural tiov^^" wonders". 
B. Notice specially besides : ll***) "image" (La&{, a&j) ; pi. t^oaij 
(,&£{). It<4j "thing" (ioij, q4j); pi. ^4%J ( v &Sp. ^oii "animal" 
and tyo$& "joy" (for and with tla-u&O, llo^ § 40 D) form regularly 
to-uu, lo^I*, 1&+L ; Plural being, of course, ti&uu, llo+L. 

Femsn'othh. § 77. Feminines in othd( 2 ): tio^j "prayer", constr. state, Lo^j, — 

pi. U&^j, ^j. So tiopu "thigh", tL&-£»; {iova, (Lfrga "sawdust". On 
the other hand Uqju* "stroke", abs. st. t&ju>p: in plural ti&juap, y&-^og 
(without a before o). 

Tem.inatha. § 78. Feminine forms in dtha( 3 ) (in the singular occurring nearly 

always in the emphatic state) have in the plural awatha: U^o "thumb", 
tL&£A; t&l* "portion", {j.&i*>, \£-i*> & c - Similarly ll&kg (for KriJKfc) 
from (tjbp "a hundred". Some of these words in atha form the plural 



( x ) But of course the Abstract Noun ll*£X* = «nvn "liveliness", which is 
formed by *£ "living", combined with the suffix uth (§ 138), — although in outward 
appearance it coincides with I ZoJL& = Rfivn "animal" — has oiJw in the Abs. st. and 
lo£& in the Constr. st. 

( 2 ) The Singular-forms not adduced (st. abs. or constr.) I cannot vouch for. 
The corresponding Plural-forms (in an and dth) are easily supplied. 

( 3 ) IKia, pi. i}o}£, properly an Abstract noun, is masculine, when it means 
"associate". 



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§ 79. — 53 — 

as if the L belonged to the stem and they were masculine: thus Ufa* 
"seeking for", {l^S; Ufj "dirt" (for «n«? § 33 A), {tjj. 

tl^oo^p "oath" (Abs. st. j&o*, constr. st. ftoooap) remains unaltered 
in the plural, (&ooatt; or from a secondary form* {l^oooy, it forms 

ikz "sister",— plural, IUjuI v. § 146. 

§ 79. A. A number of masculine substantives in JL» form their plural PHnwatta. 
in tt£— , instead of following § 72. (*) 

Thus in particular: 

JL'JoJ "manger", (UV6{( 2 ) (§ 34); JL« "Uon", (U*>{ (§ 146); JUaa£ 
"pipe", U&ao£; JL^ "breast", {L&p (and JLfi;); JLo£ "serpent", {Uo£; 
JLLoto* "crane", {U^Vai; JL^»*o* "throne", {Ujp>d4; JL P ^ "heap", 
{1*$*; JL^. (ior'laileya § 49 A) "night", ?UNvN,; JL^fc "bowels", 
{t&^S, generally Jl*» (§ 72); JL»j "rent", fUjfj (as well as V*J); U^p 
"extracting-fork", (L&^bp; J?****™ "horse", ?t&flpcu»( 3 ); the compound 
JL^ma "pillow" (§ 141), with the irregular plural, ti&£m»( 4 ); and the 
substantive participles: JL^| "shepherd", U&^j; \l£c>\ "physician", 
{Ui»(; JLpi "Lord", tU^fr (§ 146); jUnJL "cup-bearer", tUiUL 

So also the feminine JUaj "sheep", tf^j; and JLL>* "mill", (L&£¥ 
with JUju>\ 

Farther U&jfo_D from JLjjq..d "a mule", for which others give f L&jjq-d 
(not so well authenticated). ( 5 ) 

Besides, it is common with Greek words,- — particularly feminines : 
JLjda> juobiog, U>&f*>; JL^Aa TrXarsTa, tlA^Vft; JLio^/cw/a, (t&Jd^, 
and many others. Also with other terminations: kcoXov, U&S.oj>; 
^di^ao! crabiov, JIo^jddJ; VldJ^b juyjXOCvtj, {LojldJ^o, and many others. 



( x ) I adduce those only which are well attested. 

( 2 ) So the later formation flova^for JL-^(§ 72), where the short u is treated 
as long. 

( 3 ) A late formation is JLiba£. 

( 4 ) This form appears to be the only correct one. 

( 5 ) Later formation, — Jjfifc*. Along with it there is found (from the rare 
JJ ? o-o) the fern. lA>4&o, plural I*J*4ii. 



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— 54 — §§ 80. 81. 

The vocalisation is not always certain in these cases: occasionally 
secondary forms are found besides, as from JL^d*, JL**> (§ 72). 

The peculiar JLlat "pot-stand, hearth", properly a plural-form, forms 
a new plural, (LddL: a secondary form is JLldL 

B. In addition the following words, not ending in yd, form plurals 
in l\i:— 

(1) Masculines, taking — before the o: {fit "place, ty&fLi^f) JJ-uk 
"strength", %&±J* (and \LZ)~ J&^ "heart", ^a^. (and j£*); tfo^J 
"river", ?L&J©^; ?|o^J "midday", tL&¥ot^. In the later speech there are 
a few additional examples. 

(2) Feminines, not taking — before the o: lk*ol "folk", l\b*{; 
{L»t "wall", l\i&a>{ (usuaUy U*{ § 80); ^{ "sign", ty*t£ {k& "village", 
ll**fc&; {*JL{ "fever", l^oKJL? (§ 114); IfoJ "lire", tyiVoJ (also Ijfoj); 

?\^»"Kp^il*k»(§i46).( 1 ) 
Feminine- § 80. In §8 78 and 79 B we have already had several feminines 

ending # # 

treated as- which treat their i in the plural as if it belonged to the stem. So, farther, 
ara tKjiabJL, tkjuAJL "twig", ^KaS** IV*S^> lk**°1 "sweat", "exudation", 

IkSLOj: ?Ll '"bag", "beam", (&£; (^fcp "tribute", lll^o: perhaps too 
ll^oj "sting, prick" ( 3 ) belongs to this class, with pi. {KjdJ: perhaps also Ikflp 
"stem" with pi. t^Jap. Several plurals of Abstracts like ?&Ja], as pi. of (kdj 
"care", are doubtful (lli6* "contention", "litigation" is regular: ty}6t). 
{LJLflp^p "a balance" has, according to some, the pi. tiJUaao, but ttJLcn^p 
is better (for massedthd Ytteft). 
Failing § 81. A large number of feminines, particularly names of plants, 

away of 

fem.-ending have a feminine termination in the singular, but not in the plural. 

inpL Thus e. g. lLo{ "ell",' *$, Jbpi ; lka>{ "wall", Jb»{; lk±*ot (commonly 
l^fM§51) "a patch", 4x>of;^i!i^ "garden", J^; \L>* "egg", 
k>£ (along with lk£a "vaults") ; {fcoJifla "ship", \LAtd (with (MiAflD) ; 



(*) The simple pi. is given in ^-»vl! %ia "in all places", — "everywhere". 

( 2 ) Notice with regard to the foregoing sections that the East-Syrians write 
J14— for ttf-^ (§ 49 B). 

( 3 ) This (with J) seems to be the correct form. If, however, the t is hard, as 
another line of tradition represents it to be, then it belongs to the root. 



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§§ 82—84. _ 55 — 

IjkaJt "hour", J££; I^Ijl "year", JLU* (§§ 72, 146); ?i^» "word", Jbp; 
ti^$» "tent", "hut", ]jl$* (§ 59); U^o "pit", {-«*»; t*A^ "grape", 
4i^; ?4^ "wheat", J^; d^ "barley", {<£»; tU (JUL) "fig", Jbtt 
(§ 28) ; 4^ "a kind of thorn", JL^S>, &c, &c. 

Notice — {paaaju "vertebra" (and ?t^90x>), fc^ici & (secondary form 
?i-,-Y»a.o) ; {£*aaa^ "charcoal", J*^oa^ (later additional forms l^jaaa^ 
and {IS^VoA^ § 71); ?k%^ (secondary form Jido^) "vine-shoot", 
JSSo^(§ 28); ?k^"cheese", J&o^; lt£± "brick", J^^. 

The foreign word &Aa (na#) "sabbath" (whose t is properly a 
radical) is treated in this way: — ^Aii, I%a; in abs. st. sing. JLLjl 

8 82. Other feminines do not have a feminine termination in the Assumption 

° of fern, end- 

sillgular, but take one in the plural. Thus, for instance JLutat "way", ing in pi. 

Ih^'iol, K« "earth", M; J^aj "soul", {*JL*J; J^°* "wind* spirit", 

HSuio? and JLuo*, &c. 

Several separate the forms of the plural according to the signifi- 
cation, e. g. JL^ "eye, fountain", J^j* "eyes", — W*J^ "fountains", &c. 
V. in §§ 84 and 87, the words concerned. (*) 

Of masculines, only jboo^ forms its plural in this way, {k&o^ (rarely 

the constr. st. &&Q-*; — before suffixes ^oojiooo^, &c.) along with jboo-* 

(but absolute st. only ^abo*); similarly [with double forms] {^ot&ii 

"names", together with (opiaii, from J&jl; and llo&l "fathers", together 

with l^kl from JLil (§ 146). 

§ 83. An old feminine ending ai appears only in the following Feminine- 
ending : at. 
words, which are no longer capable of inflection and always stand in the 

absolute state of the singular: — 

wo\rp "quails" ; u'j 100 "a kind of bird" ; v*dJLy "a kind of gnat" ; 
o*!^uv^ "spider" ; >-»<*jL "condition (terms)"; u^ci% terror"; i,mio^ 
"concealment" (only ingyjio^d "in secret"). 

8 84. A large number of feminines do not have a feminine termi- Li8t of 

° J ' ' ' feminines 

nation in the singular. I give here a list of ascertained words ( ) of this not having 

a fern. 
• ending. 

Q) Very frequently a transferred meaning takes athct; while the word in its 
proper meaning takes e. The latter is properly a dual form in this case, 

( 2 ) Some doubtful words like JJio^= D^ I Kings 6, 9 — I have purposely 



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— 56 — 



§84. 



kind, — though of course not complete, — arranged alphabetically, keeping 
out Greek words, except a few that have been greatly altered. Those 
which always take the feminine-ending in the plural I mark with "athd" ; 
those which form the plural in both ways (§ 82), with "atha and e". 
The others form the plural only after a masculine type, so far as a plural 
of theirs can be authenticated at all. 

KJ bowl - 

Jij[ ear, atha (handle &c.) and e. 
JLotat way, atha. 



I r | hand (Plurals v. § 146). 

jLkrib. 

JLaSS ship. 

Jbo£ mother (Plurals v. § 146). 

Jl&{ cloak. 

lih^l GTaT7Jp. 

JLsJ (properly pi. or rather dual from 

JpK "nose") face. 
Jbfc&[ hyena. 
J^ii| earth, atha. 
JLLjl? stone (*) (testic). 
l^ll field, <■> 

JiiJ she-ass. 
ftJLa spring. 
JLa*o£ knee. 
fcj^herd.( 3 ) 



?fa^ troop. ( 4 ) 

Kjo^ stick. ( 4 ) 

Jlso^ vine. 

(JaJL column in book. ( 4 ) 

Jl^-^wheel. 

JPjs^wady. 

JLli^^ north. 

JLkjo? tail. 

JudJ side, rib, atha and e. 

JLoJ a skin, bottle. 

jbidoJu handful. 

Jbujl> axe. 

ItjA httle finger. 

UaI» field, atha. 

?^J bird of prey. 

?t^u£ finger-nail, claw. 

fr«vi» right hand. 

fto;^ jackal. 

J^JLo stone. 



excluded. — The number of such Feminines may actually be a good deal larger than has 
come under observation up to the present time at least. The same remark holds 
good of tye fluctuations in the matter of gender. 
( x ) Besides, !W(, pi. U&*{. 

( 2 ) Besides, tl*W , pi. IK*-*UI (§ 71). It is a foreign word. 

( 3 ) The feminine 1?;^ "wormwood" (§ 21 D) no doubt had a sing. Jl^and 
accordingly belongs to § 8L Exactly the same seems to be the case with \}±xb 
"sedge-grass". 

( 4 ) Rare in the masc, and not so well supported. 



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§84. 



— 57 — 



&H Hver - 

JLoa (JloJLo, &c.) ark (probably a 

foreign word). 
li&jj bee-hive. 
jbuloLD tunic (pi. v. § 71). 
?t-^«5 talent. 
JLa\$ raft. 

I^Lo wing, dtha and e. 
J&$ handful, bowl. 
J^o;»3 body, belly, d£M. 
Jbw^o shank. 
J&V? shoulder, a£M. 
J*»n>k tablet. 
JL^P sickle. 
Jbi^o shield. 

JLuj^y rising (of the sun), east. 
JU&oap load. 
JlAAaov) calf. 
JL£uuao needle. 
JLu^b salt. 
j^o copper-coin. 

la^ipgoing-down^fthesu^jwest.^) 
J*a3 fire (pi. § 79 B). 
JLlj, JLjlj thread (seemingly Xivioc). 
Jjublj soul, af//a. 
JLqj sheep (pi. § 79 A). 
|i»,Vnp knife, dtha, e (and {KliAip 

§ 71, 4). 



(^a.£p shield. 

Jka.£D left-hand. 

1$^ locks (of hair). 

Ipooi bit. 

Ijl^ goat. 

)*>&> side, hip, dtha. 

JtOk, eye, a$a, (source, &c.) and e. 

tf^^ storm. 

JLjl^w small cattle. 

|xi^ cloud. 

JffiK boughs. ( 8 ) 

)nK sprout. 

lr»nv heel, track. ( 4 ) 

|a;j^ (v. § 52) scorpion. 

Jbj^. trough. 

Jlm;^ bed, dtha. 

U&^V mist. 

^ yoke. 

JLa^d idolatrous altar (from the As- 

l^j finger, a£M and e. [syrian). 

Jb^j dish. 

fcij a Uttle bird. 

ft r $ pot. 

{^&o-o hedgehog. 

cL^-p cat, pi. ty&^i> (foreign word of 

unknown origin). 
Jbd^p louse, weevil. 
JL£*mo a liquid measure. ( 6 ) 



(*) More rarely IkN^y. 

( 2 ) The sing, of f&i^» "loins" was probably ffyg, 

( 3 ) Sing, is probably JLouLw "mane" ; the plural l&i*» also means "mane" ; there 
is also a"pl. fkfitv. 

( 4 ) (K^JLs. — "tracks"— belongs to the sing. tk-my. 

( 6 ) The ^ here is altered from 1 : the word originally had the fern. -ending. 



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— 58 — 



§§ 85. 86. 



Jjjjp horn, atha and e. 
^£t-p grated cover. (*) 
U^J foot, atha (bases) and e. 
JLutto? spear. 
jk^o? mallow. 
JLuuj mill (pi. § 79 A). 
JLaa»* herd (especially of horses, word 
from the Persian). 



Fluctuation 
of gender in 
names of 
animals. 



Radical 1 
treated as 
fem.-end- 
ing. 



jLftAOjt an enveloping upper garment 
(word appears to be borrowed from 
the Assyrian). 
IpkA, corpse (from the Assyrian). 
Jjljl tooth a&a (peaks) and e. 
1+a. navel. 
j^^oL worm. 
U*a~L south. 

Add hereto all names of letters, like «&&, Ao^a, &c. 
Farther, add feminine proper names, to which also the Hebrew 
words ^ali bin "earth", ^d^jt bktf "Hades", &c. belong. 

Out of the above list certain groups of significations may be readily 
recognised as mostly feminine, e, g. limbs appearing in pairs (but Jbwf j 
"arm"; JU'fi "breasts", &c. are masc), as well as certain simple utensils 
and vessels, &c. 

§ 85. Names of animals, which for the most part are feminine, 
appearing sometimes however as masculine, especially when they denote 
male individuals, — are: 



Jbtffot frog. 
hull hare. 
Jif bear. 



M<^> partridge. 
JL^oJu stork. 
Jia* pigeon. 



The correctness of using these words as masculines — is not quite 
established in every case. On the other hand, certain other names of 
animals, which have been noted above as being feminine, may occasionally 
be made use of in the masculine gender. (*) Conversely, the masculines 
Waa-^ "camel", (pax» "ass", when they have to denote females, are also 
employed as feminines. Also the word JLiLdV "horses" appears in the 
meaning "mares" as fern, (as well as {&JldV). 

§ 86. Nouns formed with the sign of the feminine, It, remain fe- 
minine, even when this termination is not so readily recognisable as 
being such a sign. Thus, for example \\\ "sign" ; &Jtl "fever" ; (Kju 

( x ) From cracli, a vulgar form of clatri or clathri, which again is traceable to 
Kkfapa "bars". 

( 2 ) Often we can by no means determine the gender by the name alone. 



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§ 87. — 59 — 

"sister"; {kjup "bow" (pi. lUULp); ?Li "bag" (§ 80). The feminine ter- 
mination is doubtless also present in the feminine {&jo "home", "village" 
(Assyrian word); |k*J "sting", (§^80); lk*J or {kaj "pitch". Cf. p. 57, 
Note (5). But lilj "dirt", and (K**oj "sweat", occur certainly as mas- 
culines, though very rarely. 

On the other hand phonetic analogy attracts to the feminine gender 
the following words, which have a radical i: — &jl? "ground"; III 
"glue"; lbs$ "mote (HflD?); (ka^t "anise" (foreign word); {io^a "cypress"; 
(taii "disposition" (XW); lift "leek"; {1L& "self-sown grain" (foreign 
word?); {&wojL "rust"; Jfc^DOjL "sediment", "lees". In isolated cases 
the otherwise masculine nouns which follow are employed in the feminine: 
iLu* (East-Syrian (LuA) "abyss"; li^oi "truth"; l^-4ji "adornment" 
(from which even appears a pi. fk-2%jp as if in accordance with § 75),( 1 ) ; 
ikt*U "terror" (but only masculine iAo$, and many others). (K* "being" 
is almost always fern. 

8 87. Other words are common to both genders: — JUjb^f, JL^pwi, Noun » of 

° " ^^ W4 ^^ w common 

"orange", m. and f., (foreign word). gender. 

l\*y~> "cattle", sing. f. and pi. f. ; yet also pi. m. 

Ji$o^"urn", "sarcophagus" (foreign word) m. and f. 

I^f "dwelling" (pi. fc*j, ll'++i); in particular when meaning "convent", 

always f. (and then too, pi. always li**j). 
\iaf "time" (Zeit) m.; "time" (Mai) generally f. (as also i&ia;, JMaji, 

"times"). 
?W^oJu "a rod" m., very rarely f. 
JLIaui (JLaui) "palate"; pi. J&Li m. and f. 
JLapu "sword", "destruction", m. and f. 
tAJLo "companion" m. and f. 
It^b "word", f. (pi. § 81); only as a dogmatic expression, 6 \6yog, 

(not in a natural sense), m. 
Jbusao "source", f. (pi. Jfc^ao, more rarely tAJ^aa) ; rarely m. 
{taMP "moon", m. and f. 



(*) It is of course possible that on the other hand the root is *2S, and that the 
n has only come from )&uo>.L into the new root rQ*. 



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— 60 — §§ 88. 89. 

JLauap "weevil", m. and f. 

JLuuuj "copy (of a writing)" m. and f. 

JLo^jo "quiver", m. and f. (foreign word). 

JLuo? "wind", "spirit", preponderatingly f., especially in the sense of 

"wind"; pi. JLio* and {ftsjioV (this only f.). 
J^yJo) "firmament" (Hebr.) m., rarely f. 

Jla-fu "stalk", f. (like the more usual {KSA m , pi. jj&ii) seldom m. 
tpx* "herd" (of swine and demons) m. and f. 
JUttJL "heaven", is employed as sing, m., sing, f., and pi. m. (in this last 

use almost confined to translations of the Bible). 
JUa&A, "sun", m. and f. 
JbdLiL "spike", "ear of corn", m. and f. 
JL&i, "leg", "stem" f., seldom m. 
JbdootL "flood" (Hebrew) m. and f. 
J&i "brook" m. and f. 
Gender of § qq # Greek words keep their native gender in the large majority 

words. of cases. Thus for instance the following are fem.: ?;nm "a letter" 
ad/cpoc] Jl^QD? (constr. st: > ^J^d?) "robe" Grokrj\ ffkdl "gastric disease" 
(f>dopd] {^&A£p "sword" aafJLiprjpa (this from Persian Mm$er)\ JLUN,9> 
(J)dXayya (Ace); and the numerous words in JL-, v-^1 {yj § 46). 
Amongst others almost all those in tfioo are masc, as also jmaob ^ rojuog; 
Jtapiod nppog; Jfipt-o tcabog; J^o^JLo Kaip6g\ JLodJo^? dypog. Yet many 
variations occur here too. Thus {&^£d{ crod is m. ; ^qjo^o 6 /cip/covpog, is 
fem. ; JL.1oAqd{ 6 anoyyog, is mostly f. ; lioj* x&pa, (also i6*o) appears 
too as masc. ; jt*a^ rijurj "price" is held as fem. in the sing, or as masc. 
in the pi. Jbo^£ (like the Syriac word of the same meaning J&pj) ; i{( dyp 
is mostly f., yet m. also ; Jm v ^-$ 6 %dpTrjg is m. and f. ; JU^o^od "gallery" 
avpiyya (f.) m. and f. &c. 

Greek neuters are oftenest masc. in Syriac ; yet sometimes they are 

also fem.: Thus is it with JM^ p+s* j3^/*a; \p^{L (^o^^i and other 

secondary forms) Giarpov ; J^tp (JJo, JLo) fijfkov = velum, &c. JJf^-p "hot 

water boiler" KOcXZdpiov caldarium occurs as m. and f. 

Greek § 89. Greek .words pretty frequently form Syriac plurals (parti- 

plural- m t .9 

endings, cularly when, in the Syriac fashion of their singular, they end in JUL), 



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§ 90. — 61 — 

e. g. Jbaidd nopog, pi. J^»Vdd; |La^ m. Tijpnjj P 1 - $¥t>'i ^-?i (East- 
Syrian), JLfioA^ (West-Syrian) m. rd%ig, Un'^ ; JL & « fc < No fckyp/Kog, J Ln4 « V o ; 
Jbo^tj £^r#oa, JhpVj&tji; but often too they receive Greek plural termi- 
nations. Thus in particular: — 

1 jL. = 0/: ojoLot.^o /xbOoboi; o?ootJoo> gwo&o/; am^ojoUo? dp0o&o£o/; 
n^r^^^ Sro/'/co/; ori^No Kkr^iKoi, and many others. 

2. JUL = a/ (accordingly not distinguishable from the Syriac masc. plural- 

ending) : JLa^ajaxao awdbt/cai (pi. of JLq^qjocd avvobtfcj "synodal 
letter") ; JLo*^? ^laQrjicou (from JLo.Jb~f , uJLk*f), &c. 

3. iflo— , t»{— = dg\ (ffinvL? haQrjKag-, ucdJLlcdoJ ova/ag, &c. Very 

often itto is used for this (properly ou£, but seldom answering 
exactly to this Greek termination) : «mo o >K»? ; vfloojLoJ^o/z^^^^ & c - 
So tfioojoL^, <nr>io,^ as pi. from uodqjo^ rovo^. This tcoo is 
customarily vocalised as ifloo— (to amend the old error), which 
is to be read as. So also *»— «= ag: <mn\9> nXd/cag; «my m o 
Ka/aap«£; tco^j asp«£; tcoo also appears for this, e. g. (■mot-v-ip 
Zetpyvag. 

4. iflft^ = e/£: <mvnn^^ ra|;s/£ (from «m.nnn^ rdfyg) ; <mvnrioo>\ X££e/£ 

(from <m«moo»\) ; im*jQD¥{ a/p&asig, &c. In rare cases only is 
*»— , itto) = e£ employed. 

5. JLL = a: U^^ol evayyihoc] (Jla* /cefdXaicc, &c. Add J$l, JL^JLl: 

JL^ao^o? ftfyuara; JL^Jboi^j tyry/tara, &c. 

The Greek terminations are often wrongly applied, e. g. o j>f 3n ^ 
rondpxou; imXo ^Xa, &c. 

Greek analogy is followed also in the formation of imi^, iflpjii^ 
(instead of J£^ § 81) from the Syriac ?ki^ "garden", and druVojo, 
iXabJLVojD (instead of JLVoJa § 146) from tK*^o "a town". 

§ 90. Proper names suffer no change in the plural in cases like Nouns 
p{( $L "two Adam's"; ;»,** ^ "four Mary's" ; iJL^« ^dX "many ^Z? 
Lot's" &c. So too for the most part is it with names of letters of the in pluraL 
alphabet, e. g. ^qj ^V'L "^ wo Nun's", although Jjoj is also found, &c. 
Thus too t-*^ «*^ & "five ^erV, i. e. five times the particle ger. Also 
^6 ^jt "two woes", as well as >-»£ *I> ; for which others have J££ ^$i as 
well as jf& ti. 



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— 62 — §§ 91. 92. 

Defective § 91. Many substantives appear only in the singular, others only 

nouns. 

in the plural. A good many, — particularly of those of the masculine 
form, — want the absolute and construct states, at least in the singular, 
or have these supplied only later and artificially, or at least they rarely 
appear in them. On the other hand a very few appear merely in the 
construct state or in the absolute state. 

certain ab- § 9l b . An Abstract expressed by the pi., is found in JLLu "life" ; 

pressed by Jbpj^V "compassion" ; liofj* "emancipation"; ?VoJbo "marriage"; JLp^a, 

vUu *- (East-Syrian Jjyi) "betrothal". 

b survey B SURVEY OF THE NOMINAL FORMS. 

of the no- 

^orma. § 92. We deal here only with forms consisting of three or more 

**®"™ inar7 radicals, and with bi-radicals which have become quite analogous to 
tions. those forms; — as j^oajfe "mouth", Ibsjup "bow", &c. (to which many 
others are added, that can no longer be authenticated by us as such). 
For the other bi-radicals, or for words in other respects very irregularly 
formed, — v. under anomalous forms § 146. Besides, in instituting this 
survey, we are in no way aiming at completeness. 

According to § 91, — in many substantives, particularly such as 
have not a feminine ending, we can only authenticate the Emphatic state 
in the singular. In most cases, however, this form is itself sufficient, 
particularly with words which have a feminine ending, to enable us to 
construct the other contingent State-forms. 

Alterations are sustained by the ground-form, through the approach 
of the endings, but, as a rule, in cases only where vowels originally short 
take thereby a place in an open syllable. The Construct state (with 
which, in words that have no feminine ending, the Absolute state coin- 
cides) exhibits words in most instances as still in their relatively original 
form, cf. N.j\y, *^*P*p' J*^!' ^ c > w ^ c ^ * n ^ e Emphatic state become, 
according to § 43 A, Ika^ap, J^my, J&jl»| . Many words of the simplest 
form are exceptions to this rule ; and in these words it is only the Emphatic 
state which retains the vowel in its own place (J.a\y; Absolute and 
Construct states, ^ao for malk § 93). In certain respects feminine for- 
mations also are exceptions, like Uio.^^; constr. st. ife^^, &c. 



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§§ 93. 94. — 63 — 

(AA) TRI-RADICAL NOUNS TJN-ATJGMENTED EXTERNALLY. <aa> th- 

radical 

THE SHORTEST FORMS. °^'.»Te'd 

fixtom&llv 

§ 93. Forms with short vowel of the first radical and absence of p re iimin- 
vowel of the second (originally qatl, qitl, qatl) coincide so frequently in ^ io ^ ier 
Syriac with those which had a short vowel both after the first and the 
second radical (qatal, qatil, qital, &c), that we can only in part keep 
them separate. 

The monosyllabic ground-form qatl, &c, when no ending is attached, 
throws the vowel behind the 2 nd radical, in the case of a strong root, 
e. g. yS.v> for malk, *jto^o for qn?)8. 

The insertion of an a after the 2 nd radical in the plural (Hebrew 
meldchim, maleche from malatem, malaJcai from malk) is still shown in a 
few traces. On this rests the double writing in Jboaa^, ](l£;L , &c. (§ 21 D), 
which springs from a time when the plural 'amdme was still formed from 
the singular Jba^.. Some few of these nouns, farther, 'soften' the 3 rd ra- 
dical in the plural as if it followed a vowel: thus J^mv "herb"; JKmv 
(East-Syrian) from c esdve\ J^Jo^ "theft", J^i'o^ (East-Syr. tradition); 
JLaS^ "thousand"; JLaSS, ^%SS; and {*o;j* "stock", IhJfif, &c. The 
influence of the original vowel in these cases is evident in some examples ; 
e. g. in |K.oikA "ways, journeys", from halakhatha from (k*a£wo* out 
of original halakhatha. But the large majority fashion the plural forms 
directly according to those of the singular. 

§ 94. A. With a and e of strong root: (a) Ji.a\y "king", absolute with a and 
and construct states y&*] pi. AVs.y, absol. st. ^A^y, constr. st. root. 
w-Vvy, &c. 

In the constr. and abs. states of the sing, an e appears in these 
cases throughout: Jbo^^"bone", pfe^; U*? "lord", ^a; JUtaji "soul", 
AfiJ. So ^flD^o "belly"; *aA* "servant"; *&i "evening"; jol^j "image"; 
)&^ "taste" ; ^auu» "rope", and many others. 

On the other hand, a appears before a final guttural and r (§ 54) : 
JbjJt "door", ^*i; f{^ "body"; vfj "morning", &c. 

With feminine ending: {kiSap "queen", abs. state i&^o (does it 
occur?), constr. st. N Vs,y> ; pi. {&>A^b, abs. st. > VS>\ft, constr. st. Ki^ao, &C, 



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— 64 — § 94. 



B. (b) With e: l^±* "half', abs. and constr. st. s^A ; pi. JL^ 
(the East-Syrians |^k& § 93), ^^t£, u^^A, &c— In the abs. and 
constr. states of the 'sing., here also e appears throughout, e.g. JJL^t "foot", 
^^*; «&xLd "silver"; r»m?w "herb":— but of course yma "flesh", &c. 

With feminine ending: &->$ "plant", ttOkjuf (l^*£ Jk^if § 52 B) 
"fear", &c. But also li^j "brook" (others J^X^J) 5 ^^^ " calf " 
(or t*^^ § 52), constr. st. **^, pi. l^Js^; &*^ for tto*^ 
"vine" (§ 28), and some others, — belong to this class. 

C. (c) Manifest traces of an originally short vowel after the second 
radical are farther shown by JLaotf "gold" (from dahava § 23 D), abs. 
and constr. st. a^ ; JLa^D "milk" ( x ) ; JLa^j "raven" ; JL*;jj "town" ; JLa*J* 
"bread", &c. ; and with transition to e : JL&JLp "wing" (from kanafa) ; J^-£f 
"dampness" (West-Syrian JL»-£$), and many others. That words like 
l^m "hope", ^isd; l^fi "mas", tip; l\J*a "flesh", ;jo**; J*j* "husk"; 
($JU^ "prey" ; li^ "earth" (as a material) belong to this class, can no 
longer be recognised by the form: on the other hand the a of the abs. 
and constr. st. of ]ko$ "beard", ^pj; Jfcaji "time", ^aj; Jba^ "camel", 
^aj*^, manifestly refers them to this class. 

D. The adjectives, which mostly . had e after the 2 nd radical, do 
not show any clear trace of it (§ 23 D): J&;4^ "leprous", *»tj^; J&»? 
"sleeping", y&y, Jt^C^ "stammering", ^^^; l\+£> "new" (§ 26), 
t£ju ; Jinnnv "difficult", >ncnv, and many such, a is shown in this class 
not only by those which end in a guttural, like !;nv "unfruitful", i-fj-^, 
but also by those in I : Jlajt "brought low", W (West-Syrian ^W) ; 
Jl£x "difficult", ^^ (generally "^g^); JLup "foolish", "Wo. 

There was an original e also in J&&*3 "shoulder", «9&*a, and in 
l^$ "Uver"; probably also in JKnv "heel" (still with softening). 

E. Various forms with feminine ending are yielded, agreeing in 
part with those under (a) and (b). Thus of words with originally two 
a 's: (&**&** "soul", abs. st. Jbk*j, constr. st. Aoojlj, pi. {Aooaj; {As-qjbli 
"expenditure", IbJx&J (also (ftuiaj); 5^^?^ "level place", (JkiLa»; Ibis*) 



( x ) With the generality of these words the constr. and abs. st. of the singular 
cannot be authenticated. 



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§§ 95—98. — 65 — 

• 
"time", ftda)f,&c. So. of adjectives: U^a* "humble (f.)", ?ki?o "hungry 

(f.)", !Um\ "difficult (f.)", Ufu "new (f.)" (§ 26); to which add (I^ju 

"socia", &c. ; all these have in the pi. I&^aa, &c, with a of l 8t radical. 

Other adjectives have always a with the l 8t : ?kfoi% "unclean (f.)" ; (&a;J> 

"waste" (pi. (k^£, with soft a) ; {k^L&J "modest" ; fk^=> or ?kj^£* 

(§ 52 B) "pregnant", &c. So the East-Syrians have {Aoltj, the West-Syrians 

Jfcsjju] "unclean" (f.). 

With e, {kerf "alms", IkSjJ; ftooofJ, {iopo^J (§ 52 B) "howling"; 
(V^* "course" (§ 52 B; the East-Syrians fl^4^*0)> lkk&£t, &c. So 
the adjectival tk^nj "a female", abs. st. J^oj, pi. &S qj. — Cf. {k^iiv 
"cluster of grapes", JVt\ (§ 81). 

§ 95. With' forms -from roots primae ?, section § 34 comes frequently with a and 

e of roots 

into operation. To this class belong, amongst others, l*^f "hire", constr. primae I. 
st - t-^J; M "earth", *J&— Jl»{ "mourning" ;—J^ "ship", aSk 

Feminines: IUaJ "testicle"— (knit "groan" (pi. will be fkiutf); 
lijzl "what is lost" (West-Syrian {ijaf, constr. st. tfaJ). 

§ 96. Primae >-» (o) : JLu^ "month", constr. and abs. st. v**i£, uuiJ with a and 

** * e of roota 

(§ 40 C) ; i^j "offspring", &c. — Feminines : ft^P "knowledge", "science", primae ^ 
f^Vfj ; {IkAJLi (West-Syrian Itkah) "loan", kdju, {kdju ; ikate "excrement". (o) * 
— o remains in l+±*o "an agreement" (§ 40 A), constr. and abs. st. wanting. 

§ 97. Mediae I: JU**, U* "head"; *»», a| (§ 53)— ?U» "well"; withaaad 
Jb?j "wolf; Jbjb "pain", <*Jb— &U, ?U "fig" (§ 28)— {Log "weariness", VeliaTl 
l ?^5 ^oji^"i!?m^"(onlyinpl.); fioJL&, constr. st. ioJLi "butter"— f^i* 
"question" (§ 52 B), {&*JLa. 

§ 98. Mediae o (and >-»). To the simplest formations with #, there withaand 
correspond forms like JL&orp "end", Ada (§ 49 A); J^a* "day", jdo^; m ° e diae°l 
{toL» "death"— ?L>» "house", k*a; )bu^ "eye", ^; J^lr> "summer". < and ->- 

With jboot "understanding", and the foreign word Jio^. "dye", the 
East-Syrians form the abs. and constr. st. ^ooj, \d^» the West-Syrians 
v ooi, <5^- — Feminines: i&tttQ-p "stature"; {kiom "twig"; but lliol 
"cow"— ll r $ "wild goat" (fern.), but {k*a, ?k**» "egg" (§ 49 A). 

With i: M "judgment" (jn); M "yoke", &c. 



(*) Similar differences of form are farther met with. 



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— 66 — §§ 99—101. 

B. To forms with two a 's from strong roots, correspond (§ 41) those 
with a, like JJL& "voice" ; aj», J^flp, f. ?&acd "an old person" ; i^ -^ 
(abs. st. JL&^, constr. st. k»Ai*) "distress", &c. But along with these 
appear relatively later forms having a consonantal w : {Kjuo* "free space", 
and {l^oj (East-Syrian (i±*Q) §§ 52; 49 B) "a quaking"; |io»ot (Jicaol) 
"amazement". 

C. A special class is formed by words with e © like J^JLp "stone"; 
JLuu* "fragrance"; ({J* "demon"; li)& "fruit"; ^Jb, ^, Jijb "just"; *a4», 
JLoJLa "deaf" ; [all "falsehood", and some others, which in part at least 
spring from roots med. o and follow their analogy. 

with a and § 99. With middle n. The shortest forms here in part assimilate 

t of roots «• •. « 

with the n, according to § 28; thus ifts^ "oppression"; Jidj "countenance"; 

mi e n * " " * "palate" (*) &c. But otherwise Jjulo "assembly". The constr. st. of 



Jjl^ "goat" is jL^. From J^J-^ "side" with ^a* comes the expression 
*ai^v ^** (the throwing out of n being only a later alteration), 
with a and § 100. Radical I in the 3 rd position still leaves its traces in {i)u» 

lr°LT S 4]u» for Kntofr § 34) "hatred"; (tj^ (?Ui$) "zeal"; (i)|ld "simile", 
parable", lijfs; and in the adjective Jbo-£ "unclean" (abs. and constr. st.), 
emph. st. JJbi^, f. U&%, ijbj^, (tjbj^ or djb^J (East-Syrian).— Other- 
wise the forms of tert. \ pass into those of tert. >-». 
with a and § 101. Tert. w (o)( 2 ): JL^L "he-goat"; JLU*J "mill"— Uj* "medi- 

of roots 6 * ^^ 

tert. w (•). tation" ; JUm^ "concealment", &c. all want the constr. and abs. st. ; only 
JL'Ng "rest" still forms an abs. st. ulf (§ 50 A).— With o: I&ju^ "seren- 
ity"; t&juuap "swimming"; ?&^a "ceasing"; &jl£ "look" (pi. {o)l£, ^ojui); 
and some few feminines l\o^L b ty*r& "joy"; Ho-uu, ?toii "beast" 
(§§ 40 D; 76 B) ; cf. {lojl and ttij^(§ 97). Perhaps also lio^p "share" 
(if it stands for nn}B&). 

To those with short vowel after the 2 nd radical, correspond several 
substantives like JLLlo "reed" ; \ ly\ m, (plural form) "heaven" (§ 146) ; and 
many adjectives like JLdj "pure"; J^o "hard", &c. Feminines: J^d* 



(*) The secondary form— Ja*£, usually in the pi. JLaaA, must belong to § 94 C : 
Probably also Jaia. 

( 2 ) On the plurals of these forms v. §§ 72 and 79 A. 



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§§ 102. 103. — 67 — 

(abs. st. JLLdJ , constr. st. &+&} ; pi. {ftdLof) ; {K-JLo, &c. Similarly the sub- 
stantives lhs+y* "creation", pi. Ik^a; Ifc^la "direction", t&slld; fk-^ 
(East-Syrian (V&) "fat-tail"; Ih^yy "village" (§ 146), and many others, 
which however, — at least part of them, — belong to the simplest forms. 

There are, farther, special forms of the second kind, in atha : il^a 
"seeking"; ?L&£D "smell"; ?t|J (for HJriK?) "dirt", &c, as well as those 
spoken of in § 77, like {to-Xj "prayer", &c, — to which farther belong 
tio^i "dung-cake" (J^a-D^) appears as its plural, with constr. st. **a-»), 
(Ldmao (as well as {kflpuo) "rennet — calf's paunch — for curdling milk", 
and {Ld*ji "wax". 



§ 102. Forms mediae geminatae. In those without fem.-ending, no with ° and 

e of roots 

distinction can be maintained between the first and second formations : mediae 
\sx± "folk" p±, ^S>, J*Snv (§ 21 D); J^i "brook"; J$ "dew"; 9eminatae ' 
oj, JLij "great"; JU* "priest"; out, JLi "living":— JL=^ "heart", o^; 
Jlaj "bear"; $;^ "wormwood" (pi.). With Fem.-ending ?l^a "bride", 
{iC^io; l&Ai u magna"\ Ih^L "viva"— 11^^ "cause", Ji**, Jfc^, l*^%, 
^Vv v ; ?1^¥ " wor d", Jl», k^» (pi. \te> § 81). — According to the second 
formation {&^*. "produce", &yv:L; {ixs„> (West-Syrian fk^) 
"lamentation", {&^£. 

§ 103. With u. The forms qutl and qntul were never so separated With u of 

strong root. 

as, for instance, qatl and qatal. Certain traces of a vowel after the 
2 nd radical are shown (in the softening of the 3 rd ), which vowel however 
can hardly be called original. The u frequently takes the second place 
(or remains there only). 

Of strong roots, and those similar to them: Jboita^ "body" 
Jb&JLa^, &c; jUtgObO "holiness"; JLojl»o* "remoteness"; Cx>ajL "bribery"; 
JLoJot "length"; Ad*o£ "knee"; J&*ai> "desolation" ; JLa*oi "strength" ; 
JLuua^ "trembling" (without assimilation of the n), &c: abs. and constr. 
st. ^dcl*^, «*6t-o, ?Q^aa,, feO* A ? *»qjdI. So also the adjectival JJio& 
"uncircumcised" (originally formed differently, it would seem), ^6^,; 
as well as JJ;a^ ajuforepobifyog, and fc*^^ "limping", "claudus" ( 2 ). 
But JLuJo? ,'way" and J^io{ "meeting" have sj^ipl and >^|o?. 

(*) Others read J^a. 

( 2 ) If, however, this is t*^t& with Qussaya, then it belongs to § 114. 

5* 



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— 68 — §§ 104. 105. 

Feminines (to some extent at first formed differently) : j^i*»fl\ 
"whispering", ftJuid^; lhjA*& "blessing", fkiVoa; {fccLiof "tail", 
Ih^Jot (and ItsJi^Jot § 71); l^iot, It^iol (§ 52 B) "cleft"; {Kaaoj, 
1\jupj "kiss", fkAjLdj; ll^ol, li+Lol "riddle", ?tfuo? ; {*o>jdo> (per- 
haps (kvao*) or {kvaiol (§ 51) "patch", pi. J^aot and Jko^oVoJ &c. But 
{IkjuaA* "measure", JUWov>, KI«jlq.*o, IK^i^iv); {Liaa&^"coal", {^oo^; 
?Iki£ju "vertebra", ('^oolL and ?t^oai> (§ 81) ; {kaojj = {kijoj "tail", 
with u of § 104. iferfme o: JLuol, ouol "wind, spirit"; ftoj "lire", &c— With 

-weak roots. . .• 

6: {jd^ "owl".— Feminine lUej "form". 

Ter£. ? : {JIL<Lcd "multitude", constr. st. with feminine ending iJL^o-fio. 
Tert. >->: JL*6? "manger" (pi. § 79 A); JL»o^ "young animal", 
VtfO§ 72 )5 J^°? "likeness", U»j (id.).— Feminines: {k^dj "evil- 
speaking, abuse", {fcsJUioj; {Kimo.n "cap"; {fts^ol "wailing", t&l\.d{; 
JKlXdi "kidneys" (pi.), &c. (*). 

Mediae gem.:^bj>, ^i> (^*, ^i § 48) "all", emph. st. JIqld, JLS; 
JLdoj "place", yoj; JL^oi "bosom"; JLia^"pit"; ?;o£, "strength"; JLioi 
(or JLudao) "marrow"; JL^? "deaf person". — Feminines: (&*doj "place", 
JLdo|, Kaoj, pi. {kJ^oj (§ 71); (KjoJ "lamentation", 
with fai- § 105. We have the remains of a formation from prim, o w:i£7* 

of ist rad. falling away of the l 8t radical in ?Kia, "sleep", from ]&\ constr. st. Aula,, 
abs. st. Jjljl, as if it w r ere myyZ. jem., but East-Syrian still JLla,; farther 
{k*j "care" (also indeed i&£>j*, IkSjJ); ?ka&ju "wrath"; ?^t "excre- 
ment" (as well as {k^Ks). Perhaps also fkflp (for.Ji^») "stem" belongs 
to this class (pi. &JQp, ^k» as if from nnD). So &**oj "sweat". — 
Similarly from prim. J : ?L©t-D and (kjujj "breath" from ©*-aJ, ouaj ; and 
perhaps Jta&d "lot" and Jt^i "lot" and "strip, rag" (it must have Greek 
7T § 15); farther {fcsda^ pi. jL&cL£ "drop". — Of prim. \ in the same w T ay: 
\l\Jj. "end", constr. st. tfcx> (as if from Yin); and &.£ "pocket" and 
"beam" (for ?t^u from TIN), pi. tkui. It is obvious that the speech itself 
takes over these words into other classes ( 2 ). 



(*) Whether it is d or o here, — is not in every instance certain. 

• • • 
( 2 ) llf^. (lit**, llrk-) "church", which according to its formation belongs to 

this class, is borrowed from the Hebrew (rnr). 



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§§ 106—109. — 69 — 

WITH I AFTER THE FIRST RADICAL. With a after 

the 1st rad. : 

§ 106. (a) a after the 2 nd radical is or was found in the case of: with short 
ja^v, C) J*\>, J,vi \v , v ;yi\-v "eternity", world" ; )&UZ "seal" ( 2 ) ; and m »!*" 
perhaps JU^-i "axe" (East-Syrian JL^-i). The usual form of the Act. Part, 
of the simple stem of the verb has e after the 2 nd : jaj&j "loving"; J&juf, 
^fejuf, J^juV, &c— ou^a "flying"; i*l "breaking" (§ 54)— pJLo "stand- 
ing", 6 <*xJ>; J^p "hating", Ik* u ^ter, enemy" (§§ 33 A; 172 C); ^ 
"revealing", ^^; tJL "beautiful", ^JL— ^JL*. "entering" (bbv), <*XJ^ 
or JS>n> &c. Sometimes the Participial form is purely substantive, thus 
l|^o "a fuller", jbjJ^ "doorkeeper" (which have no verb supporting 
them).— Feminines: Abs. st. JbLuf; JbSwi; JU\^, <i^; JLJL, ^JL; 
ft J^w or JJb^, ^S,Jiv or ^>* In the Emph. st. mostly substantive : lH^pf 
"eating", "consuming"; H^i "column", &c— lh&J>. With the 3 rd rad. 
a guttural: t^tr? "bird"; tU)^ "island", &c. (§ 54); but so also with a 
l^jD^a "nape of the neck"; flbSV^ "waggon" (others tkN^Q. — lk+5) 
"whore", Ikjj); l^U> "beam", Abs. st. ~±d (§ 75), l*J*2, &c.— IIJUxd. 

§ 107. (b) With 6 after the 2 nd radical, Nomina agentis may be with 3 after 

9 2nd rad. 

formed from eveiy Part. act. of the simple verb stem (Peal): jJo^p 
"murderer"; J^oo*jd; JboiS^, &c. — Feminines: flkN.fi ^xi; liood-uo, &c. 
(on the plurals of the feminines v. § 71). We join to tins class several 
other substantives, like t>6^ "jackal" ; (taKd (with o according to exact 
tradition) "table". 

8 108. (c) Some few have I after the 2 nd radical, like JLa*;^ ™ th *f er 

» v ' 7 * 2nd rad. 

"weaver's beam" ; JUL&t "a marsh" — tfcsja*^& "a weaver's beam" ; ll^md 
"brevia" ; lk±J} "storm of rain" ; ?Ka^oj "club", &c. 

WITH SHORT VOWEL OF THE 1 BT AND I OP THE 2 nd RADICAL. 

§ 109. The short vowel must become throughout (except with \) a with short 

vowel of the 

mere sh e va (§ 43 A) ; it is in very many cases no longer possible to m and o 
determine whether it was originally a, i or it. Many varieties have met ° ad 
together here. 



(*) The Nestorians distinguish the Construct st. — hardly ever occurring in old 
times in the meaning "world" — artificially by the vocalisation y^.i. 
( 2 ) j£K£ is a very ancient word borrowed from the Egyptian. 



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— 70 — §§ 110. 111. 

For example we have Abstract nouns, particularly numerous No- 
mina actionis from verbs of the simple stem : J^oAjl* "confirming by seal" ; 
M^ "decision"; Jb^o "war"; 13^, "deed"; Jb^a "swallowing"; fcjLu 
"looking at", "regard"; JbaJLo "covenant"; Ifii "exulting"; JUL^j "in- 
clination" ; JL£<* "becoming" ; 1-+&+1 "honour" (§ 40 C) ; UL{ "pouring out" ; 
lv»{ (East-Syrian lvx>{) "fetter'^ 1 ). Also JU "help" probably belongs to 
this class. Add JI^jl "cough" ; Jbk^j "weakness of the eyes", and several 
other names of bodily ailments. 

Farther, Iv&ju "ass" ; tj^, "wild-ass" ; «tt, ou &c. "man" (§§ 32 ; 146), 
and lo^ "god". — Add to these, adjectives like >fc^jt "smooth"; ou^o 
"bald"; jLua^"baldheaded" ; ;^flo "hairy"; Jl&^J'hook-nosed" ; jxAm, 
"swarthy"; \Sj^t\ "worn out"; uIa "out of one's mind"; {joj "impaired 
in mind"( 2 ). — Feminines: {KaaJLo "resurrection"; {tauAjt "discovery", 
"invention"; lK*^o "appeal", &c. Farther, tl*£pJ "sawdust"; and several 
other words for "parings", "filings". 

With short WITH SHORT VOWEL OF THE 1« AND I (E, AI) OF THE 2 nd RADICAL. 

vowel of the 

utandi(i, § no, All Passive participles belonging to the simple stem (ex- 

ai) of the 

2nd rad: cepting those of tert. w) have % after the 2 nd radical (and originally a 
2ndrad. after the l 8t ); so also have many adjectives: thus — ^y^guo, JLQjd, 
li±J$j> &c. "killed"; u&{ "said"; k-^J "day-labourer"; JL%<| "sad", 
"an ascetic"; ^J "born"; jUJ^"shorn". From med. o: ++1 "caught"; 
"mild"; jx^Oi "placed" (f.ftkaa*i» "treasure") &c; but uuuo* "wide"; 
'blind". — From tert. I farther, the pi. ^JT»Tm, (j£Lcd, fern. sing. 
tijLIfiD "hated" (cf. § 172 C; the sing. abs. state would be *£»). Thus 
also many substantives, like )L2Ld "crown"; {tdu^oo "ship", &c. 
with c of § HI- An ^i which generally becomes I with the West-Syrians, is 

exhibited by tK»U "terror" ; JLaJL&j, West-Syrian IaJLbj or JLaJL&j, JLa*aj 
"recovering breath", "recreation" ; JiJ^old, Jju&d "ambush": Probably one 
or two others are to be met with. ( 3 ) 



(*) Perhaps belonging to § 116. 

( 2 ) I adduce adjectives here, without adhering to consistency, sometimes in 
the Abs. st.. sometimes in the Emphatic. 

( 3 ) The East-Syrians read /|» for JJjU "fulness" (IJ|a "flood" is an Assyr. 



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§§ 112—114. — 71 — 

§ 112. Diminutives were fonned by a u after the 1", and an ai with a« of 

A . 2nd rad. 

after the 2 nd radical. Whence we have in Syriac still J^C^a "young 
man", and f. l h vi Nv "young girl"; Ij-Ox* "sucking-pig"; and with it 
still JLJo^ "gazelle". SfATjpog "hostage" has been turned into a like 
form: ^V 2 ? ** 

WITH SHORT VOWEL OP THE 1 8T AND U (0) OP THE 2 nd RADICAL. 

§ 113. The short vowel was a, — predominating with the adjectives, with short 
or u, — predominating with the Abstract nouns. Here there seems to be i 8 tanduO) 
no specific distinction between the u and the o ; 6 is in fact a derived °* d the 2nd 
shade from Q— 

A few exhibit the signification of a Passive Participle (as in 
Hebrew): Jbooi* "loved", f. IkaooLi; l\otm "hated" m., lUoii», {tola* 
"an unloved woman"; {Aooi? "concubine" ("quae calcatur"), pi. IkioVj; 
{Kaot^ "thing stolen" 0; ^a&a "report", pi. Jl^oAa. Farther, 
JL^q^X "garment"; tbwotfa "virgin", J^otfa, &c; io^j "little" (§71); 
{^jkoto "synagogue", ^oio, {^Jloxd; {Ugl£jd "burial"; {Wojt^"cir- 
cumcision"; liofu (for ftlofu § 26) "bride"— JJo^ "ringlet"; jJds^t 
"skirt"; JJq^^d "bunch of grapes" — jL^oil "vomiting"; (Loi^ "name of 
a star-image". ( 2 ) 

WITH DOUBLING OP THE MIDDLE RADICAL. with doub- 

ling of the 

8 114. (1) With two short vowels. There are only a few cases; n"<idie 

. rad. : 

several can no longer be recognised by outward marks, and have passed with two 
over to other classes, probably at an early date. Some may have been y weis. 
originally quadriliteral, and the doubling may thus have been caused by 
the assimilation of an n: t*i>j "small bird", abs. st. ;isjj, pi. ^+£>j, I'^g; 



borrowed- word). East-Syrian JI^ju "chasm", "cave" instead of I^m is no doubt just a 
way of writing JfxU* — which also occurs— necessitated by leaving out the a. 

( x ) Perhaps this word, which has no known plural, has a short w. In that 
case it stands for t\^i^, and belongs to § 94 E. 

( 2 ) This seems more accurate than tl«£fe., for with the old poets the word is 
dissyllabic. — In addition to the forms given above, notice J/ol* (loaW) "matter", 
"mass", "sum" (properly "fulness"). 



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— 72 — §§ 115—117 

lifl "threshing-floor", % U*{ "wider", ^p[; liy^ "little finger"; Uk* 
"stalk", ^a with Jtekkji, pi. JliJL; {tsV^m "ladder"; kW "hedge- 
hog"; tt-a-fip "shield"; I^offi "bar"; ft^J "one who tows a vessel"; 
and no doubt several more. Perhaps J^io£ "raven", and Jb»9oi» "stork" 
also belong to this class. 

An old feminine form of this kind is also found in Ib^kl "fever" 
(f. from the Hebrew Htf«), constr. st. &£,{, pi. ttoKJtl. 
withaafter § H5. (2) With a after the l 8i and a after the 2 nd radical. Ad- 

the 1st, and 

a after the jectives of degree, Nomina agentis, and names of occupations, — through- 
out: o^dji "pure", "victorious", JUiji, lk+£>), &c, wji "contentious"; jxlo 
"firm", from Dip, but with iv, t|&I» "keenly eyeing, greedy"; J&LjL 
"thief ; lAf-% "butcher" ; J^JLD "tailor" &c. As nomina agentis these 
forms belong to verbs of the simple stem (Peal) ; yet there are found with 
the double-letter stem (Pael) Jfc^o "speaking" C^^p to speak); \LLu 
"destructive"; Jbf* "liar"; Jl^J "liar"; U^a "leader"; jb&Aa "babbler". 
— t^Li^"hero"(§ 28).— So too l+±L "pit"; Jb^J (others J^aj) "fly". 

witheafter § H6. (3) With e after the l 8t and a after the 2 nd radical there 

the 1st and • 

a after the are but a few : W^» "covering" ; )L^£ "shadow" ; jbL "smoke" ; i'J^. 
2ndrad ' "root"; li^t "roof"; ]iJ^ "tongue"; {Ipj "book" (pi. <Kl«Sp ; and the 



adjective »&£ "white" (l\LZ, |U«Li, HjLZ, &c.)( x ). 
withuafter § H7. (4) With u after the l 8t and a after the 2 nd radical, a nomen 

the 1st and 

a after the actionis can be formed from any verb in Pael or its reflexive, Ethpaal : 
2ndrad. ^ ^^ "murdering", from ^jd (he) "murdered"; UboJ "warning"; 
JL^do* "combining"; Jv. 6 .oo "supp oiling" ; JL^o; "pairing"; JMqJl 
"question"; JL&ot (abs. st. w&ot) "off-putting"; JLial "howling" (from 
wo^), &c. So also JL^^J "shipwreck" from v^JJ mvayeiv. — Farther 
the adjectives of colour: jajiol "black"; ja.&aiB "red"; *otai "yellow"; 
$jioj "reddish"; JL^Jot "party-coloured (?)"( 2 ) andjkuoj "hard stone".— 
Perhaps also jtaoo* "pomegranate". 



(!) jUup "left hand" is quadriliteral (= *6k&&). 

( 2 ) So too is formed J^i**, '4***> which, however, must be icvavsog. To these 
names of colours, hi* (§ 116) belongs. <£©J, tf*©J (f. st, abs. JLluioJ § 71) "artistic", 
"artificer" is probably of Assyrian derivation. 



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§§ 118—122. — 73 — 

§ 118. (5) With a after the l 8t and I after the 2 nd radical a large withaafter 
number of adjectives are formed, especially such as are found with intransi- - after the 
tive verbs as verbal adjectives or perf. participles (part of them being pretty 2nd rad * 
recent formations). Thus ja.«Ai "gone out"; ^;l "gone"; ++&1 "lost"; 
^A* "sitting" ("having set oneself, seated") ; *Jbk, "parted, departed" ; 
A+yz "near"; ja-ui* "far"; y+il "long"; y+*i "soft"; ^^ "mighty"; 
^op "much",t^ff, 4*^^*2^,^; 4l "come", t^U, ^U, 
IJblj; wSA "been", ^MoSr, M*> or k*2*> (§ 40 E) "dead"; ouujts, 
vAJu^d "fragrant", &c. To distinguish these from the form ^*^£ they 
are commonly written with the upper point (§ 6), e. g. y+scb = y*A*P 
"humble", compared with y»iv> or y iy = y^yo "spread under". 
The active signification is remarkable in lJU;ot, JLLJot "guide". 

§ 119. (6) With a after the l 8t and u after the 2 nd radical, appear withaafter 
many adjectives like ^oviv "dull, dark"; ja4l» "sour"; oojuji "lean"; ^ \™ t ™ e 
Io^jl "lying still", and many others:— {fa£> "child", f. fl?o^; {jo*** 2nd rad * 
"pillar"; j£a^A and tk*a^A "rod"; J5oi| "oven", "furnace", &c. So 
also ^o^jd "cucumber" (for KQ$«g) § 146. 

§ 120. (7) With e after the l 8t and a, o after the 2 nd radical there with e after 
are a very few forms, as tidaj "wasp", ItioAy "bee"; y.Q.*j& "dark", and t ~«, 5 after 
JLocuui "darkness". Thus some say (i*b&£ "throat"' (others (Ltot^). the2nd rad ' 
Also IIqJJl "disposition" (from nit? "to place") belongs, one would say, 
to this class. 

§ 121. WITH DOUBLING OF THE 3 rd KADICAL. withdoub- 

# ling of the 

The following seem to be thus formed: jLo^d "idol's-altar"; )Vv> 3rd rad. 
"stream" ; A-^jj* "millet", of which however the first is certainly, the others 
probably, ancient borrowed-words. Possibly {Lfo^3 "bridle", pi. i?o^^ 
is of this class. 

(BB) OF NOUNS OF FOUR OH MOHE RADICALS WITHOUT (bb) Nouns 
EXTERNAL INCREASE. mo'Tra*- 

§ 122. We class under this head also those nouns in which the outextemai 
multiliteral character is brought about either by the repetition of one, or y*™***' 
two radicals, or by the insertion of a formative consonant in the root. form8 - 



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— 74 — § 123. 

To the former belong e. g. Jj V»o o from ^p; jriVvNa from D^tP; J 1 **^ ^ 
from ^3:. to the latter liipol from nrfc; JuxuoaJu from DBH, &c. In 
the last resort indeed all multiUteral roots are reducible to those of three 
or of two syllables. 

Almost no adjectives are found among these forms. 

The vowels vary considerably. The chief classes are represented 
by the following words: J^^-^ "threshing-sledge" ; (KajDjjo "skull"; 
(&^p$( "widow"; — JJ/H* "iron" (originally with e of the z)\ (&^jVA "corn, 
kernel"— J^&*& "bugs" — JLLcd}o£ "throne", constr. st. t*£p*a£ (pi. 
ttAmtai); }^nov "mouse"; Jljtai "knuckle, ankle"; JJ^aai, U^aoJO 
(§ 52 B) "countenance"— Jl»^ "mist"— JlaoJuap "meeting" (from 
^nm, ^jD^mt)— l nr + "milliped" or "centiped" (lit. "hand-hand"); 
jjjp>>"hut", "tabernacle"; JJ^j. "storm"; {l;A-dDp "nourishment"— M°tf 
"ray of light"— feojJJ "a kind of locust"; ttot^d "crumb of bread"; 
]Jql£jl»$ "scarecrow"; jJoZ^kd "a slender thread" (forms of this kind have 
occasionally a diminutive signification) — j*i>9fS,^ "lentils", and many 
others. 

To this class belong also the forms spoken of in § 31, like tM*^!^ 
"throat" for gar garta\ JJ<^^ "wheel", from gilgela, &c: as well as 
^%Vo|, &c. from )*¥\y\ (§§ 27; 146), and perhaps JK003 "star". 
Abstract § 123. A special class, corresponding exactly to those treated of 

nouns with 

«-a. in § 117, is formed by the Abstract nouns in u — a, which serve as 
nomina actionis to all verbs which are regarded as quadriliteral. As 
JJl^ojo stands to ^gjp, so stands Jla$o£, "sifting" to ^ay.v, as well 
as |p\fli "subjection" to ^%g, &c. Thus e. g. we have t^\ol "in- 
struction"; IKVoA "perplexity"; J^o^oo* "exaltation"; )>mwif» "con- 
stancy"; ?$©*»ajL "haughtiness" (connected with reflexive *c*akjt{); 
JLmioi "nourishment, food" (with udbfL); jLfoojL or JL$qjL "promise" 
(with wfoA § 40 B, and retaining the 'hard' j) ; jbw)oojL "announcement" 
(exactly similar) ; jJJoo^. "kindling, vehemence" (with ^J^^) ; J-^°j 
(for JLjooj § 40 B) "twittering" (with wjoj) &c. 

Similarly have been formed J^cpool "addition" from *&£doLL£, 
Affioj; IfZot "brand" from fAoj; and JLii^ol "clothing" from *a2^ 
(cUk*^). 



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§§ 124—126. — 75 — 

§ 124. Five-lettered nouns have mostly sprung from the repetition Kve " 

9 lettered 

of the last two radicals. Thus the adjective yiS>\niS.a. (|frvs.*iS,a. &c.) nouns. 

"complete"; )K\^ * » "ivy"; tjoioju "cataract", "gutta serena"; jLo^o^a 

a kind of bird ("piper") ; (Kjuo^ju^ "spark". 

8 125. Among the multiliterals some old compounds may be hiding, as Presump- 
tive com- 
for instance (^o^u^d "bat", and the much mutilated form J^?*o( "frog" pounds. 

(the Aramaic original form being smsy). Besides, some of these nouns 

may be suspected of being foreign words, e. g. {fof^Jt "skeleton", "corpse". 

(CC) FORMATIONS WITH PREFIXES. (co For- 

mations 
WITH M. with pre- 

fixes: 

§ 126. A. As in all Semitic tongues, so in Syriac m is extensively with ™. 
employed in Noun-formation. First fall to be considered here the Par- 
ticiples of all derived verbal stems (Conjugations), like ^§Jitt, pass. 
"^gjcpo; > ^§ja*p, > ^}jackp; ^§doAop, &c. For these v. Verb infra. So too 
the Infinitives, like > ^a&, ci^flrno, &c. 

B. With ma are formed, besides, (1) words with short vowel after the 
2 nd radical JLuup, ^«y "tent"; tkjuap and liL&ap "descent" (nm cf. 
§ 26 B) ; Jl^my, >^my "taking" (SDi) ; J ft my, *AJaap "mounting", and 
so tfcuMftap (p^D § 183); fkaJ^p "chariot", "boat"; J^t-ap, >fc»^p 
"womb", &c— >xfap, J^ap "intelligence" (JTP cf. § 175 A); (k^fcap 
"a well-known person", "an acquaintance"; J^Loap "sitting", "seat"; 
{&a£»aap "gift". — J*&^up "drink"; J^?**>, constr. st. ?f^p "journey", and 
so IMt-*, abs. st. wfpo (§ 75)— fcooa^p "oath" (§ 78)— \IU** "hazard" 
(Kfett §80). To this section belong also JLjJbo "eating", JLIJ&, and \^A\& 
"coming", ty\* and tkXJJbo "going"; }is*£JUb "cooking" (§53).— 
{^jLj-a^o "besom" (East-Syrian {k*JLaap). 

From forms med. gem., Jlxtp and t&^yp "entrance" — )|\^ay 
"speech" (§ 29)— Jl^o, Jl^o "shield" flu); %** "hone" (p*) (§ 59). 

From middle o are to be brought into this class forms like Jjyi6v> 
"station"; tfts^ao "washing-tub"; (hsl^o "city"; ji r po "net", &c. 
The last may have been originally a participle, as is certainly the case 
with jNni«v» "nurse" (for {knj.y). (*) 

(*) IKJLi*, i Jbuuui* "sacrificial bowl" is a borrowed Hebrew word. 



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— 76 — § 127. 

• . 
A short u occurs in ib^oojbo "food", abs. st. JJLdJm, pi. i£^oJ.» ; 

^oioo "lasting", "ever" (§ 59); so too ttSttta£uu* "an acquaintance", 

and several others. jLoioAtt (according to others JLoioAttl 1 )) "comb", 

"crest", is a special, secondaiy form. 

C. (2) Words with a after the 2 nd rad. JL&V? "weight"; {^Jkp 
"magician" ; JLuaid "a pencil for staining the eyes" ; l+£p*p "saw" (nfett) ; 
{^o» "birth"; tov^p "rising (of the sun)"— pi. from ntt; fiUmJUb 
"bundle" and many others. . 

D. (3) Words with u (6) : KoJLb "fountain" (jna) ; jL>a&* "bellows" ; 
JJoJuum "storm"; JJqjL^o "stumbUng", "offence" (the last two also with 6) ; 
JLodmap "gush", "torrent" (*]D1) ; {K^ajD^op "weight", and many others. 

E. Me appears (apart from the cases cited above of J^, Jta from 
ma") in IkJ^A* "web"; V+l^& "dwelling", "house-story". 

H. With mu: jjfjivo^ (others say JJjb^o*>) "spindle". 
G. With ma: JjoJUo "nourishment" (Jit); Kqjuo "cistem": a few 
other doubtful cases might be added. ( 2 ) 

WITH T. 

with /. § 127. A number of Abstract nouns occur, which mostly belong to 

the Pael or its reflexive, in part also to the Aphel : Sometimes they bave 
taken a concrete meaning. Such formations, amongst others, are : 

lwp4 "help" (^); JL^l "roof" (Hk$; tJ^jl "ornament" 
(fco$); U^lj "disciple", f. ji, > v>N I "female disciple" (VrfV); Uxjtt 
"vexation" (tJ^jtl); J^rbot "something added" (Acpot): — Jao&J* "com- 
pensation", "hostage" (^Si); lio&*l "flattery" (»%JL) ; Uo£al "combat" 
(a^oU); J(o^>t "object of disdain" (v^cdJ):— JLa^ol "settler" (otol); 
{Viol "remnants" (*lof). 

With short vowel after 2 nd rad., and feminine-ending: { Nii jul "be- 
seeching" (<Jl£1{); tte^<*i "mockery" C^*J); f^o^l "pollution" 
(*9$; \t^4\ "groaning" (^itU for ouijt? §*174 C):-0^t (East- 
Syrian lljajuul) "shame" (^Lll) ; t^aj»ot (East-Syrian {Kjai»ot) "ad- 



(*) JLo*m£ also appears (§ 52). 

( 2 ) Ijiju* "city'* (nn) seems to have been borrowed from the Assyrian. 



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§§ 127*. 128. — 77 — 

• * 

dition" (AflDol) ; — tfcucttJtt "service" (****) ; — (fcoudajtl "glory", "praise" 

(ouo^), pi. Hui&j^ liio&>l "wonder", "miracle" (*a*l[), H$*}1; 

lUa^t "trade" (V^jU), tL a ^^. To this section also belong probably 

{UoJLst "urine", and {fcsaoot^^^t "skeleton": — With vowel originally 

short, also — iLfbl "clothing" (um^); t&*»*l "education" (v*a$); 

lh~±m,l "narrative" (*-^k*J), JkI*jLl; lM©|j "praising" (w?©J); Ib^oil 

"foundations" (**Ji(), &c— ?K»o*l "camp" (wO},). 

So perhaps (La^iL "atonement" (v*^Jl?) and {lornv>l "corruption" 
(v*maof), if they stand for *{Aua£iL, *JK>nmv)l and do not take the ab- 
stract termination utha (§ 138). 

A few others too seem to be formed with a t, but of a different 
sort, — like J^-ol, {Ka^ol "worm". 

§ 127*. OTHER PREFIXES. Other pre- 

fixes. 

Some of these are matter of doubt. We have : 

(1) <*, I in JLa*&, "\k»ot "palace"— tksoJn»{ "threshold" (here I 
is perhaps a mere starting sound, in accordance with § 51), {£sAAfib£; 
JLaoa| "flute" (Mi) ; l^^l "manuscript" (from ou${, root HTO) ; tkfli? 
concentus (ao|, root *)p}). 

(2) ya, as it seems, we have in J^oa^ "jerboa" ; {ia&juu "a land 
of antelope"; JLio£^* "mandragora" ; tioajuu "smoke"; {fo;„a* "toad"; 
{j « vi v> "thorny rhubarb". 



(DD) FORMATIONS WITH SUFFIXES. O (dd> For- 

mations 

WITH AN (ON). fi^: 8Uf " 

§ 128. A. In this class appear many Abstract nouns and common ^ m 
nouns (a) with a after the l 8t rad.: \ilo* "plague"; JbL&^A "residue"; Ab8trac * 

v ' r 6 >* l ° ' r ^ 1 A ' nouns and 

Jlo*J2 "error" ( 2 ); Jii2 (nno) "rock", &c. ™™ » ub - 

• • 4* stantive. 

(b) With u: \>$\ol "oppression"; Jijtoi "gain"; Jjfx>a3 "command"; 
Jtk^oi "doctrine"; Jij|aa> "refuse" (tert I); and many other abstract 

( x ) In part with prefixes at the same time. 

( 2 ) JlfjJ, for which also occurs j^al "perdition", "the nether world", is per- 
haps borrowed from the Hebrew. 



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— 78 — § 129. 



4 



nouns; but only a few forms from roots tert. w, like jbUbooi "wedding-gift" ; 
fr?~fcfi< "swelling" (along with )b^>). 

(c) With e JbUUa "building"; JilL^j "harm"; ]kJ^i "thought"; JH^S* 
"pronouncing" ; U-Laj "will" ; and many other abstract nouns from tert . 
w. — So also Jjojuu "look". A few besides, like JbujJ "distinction"; lC^^ 
"sloth" (perhaps Jif^ "time" for KyjljJJ?). 

ifem. Of such doubling as we have in )Hj?B, JT^H, no sure trace is 
any longer to be found. So far as we can settle it, the 2 nd rad. is always 
soft, the 3 rd hard. 

B. Instead of an we have an old ending on (tin) in Jid*mj "tempt- 
ation", "affliction" a secondary form to fr.?mi "experiment", "trial"; 
IMaSi;^ , JilI^l "revelation" ; and, according to East-Syrian pronun- 
ciation, Jidoj (dawona) "pity", West-Syrian JB&oj (duwonb = duwana); 
v. §44. 

C. Of substantives with prefixes in this class: — frNnay "decamp- 
ing"; Jj^o "entry"; (fAm^p (p^D § 183) "ascent", &c. So too, JijJU* 
"girths". Perhaps also JiL^ol "alarm" (from ^?)C). 

Adjectives. § 129. tin (f. anya, dnlthd &c. § 71) is attached to a great variety 

of words, to form adjectives. Thus ^3i[ "earthy, earthly" ; v |oj "fiery" ; 
^ilfV "talkative"; JifJUt "one who is possessed" (from IfJL* "demon"); 
and so Ji&*$ (from the Persian {o*£ "demon") ; ^oji "heavenly" ; ^J>+% 
"slanderous" (from rapa%^)\ t&>inpft;» "menstruum" (from Jmfto 
"menstruation"); <Joj& "whitish"; a feminine from it is tfcsjJjQju "white 
poplar". So ik.iV% "shadow". 

Prom tl^^ "throat" is formed ^^^^ "gluttonous" ; so ^&£ 
"spotted" from {iXd*£ "spot" (pi. ih'^); JbJjOJ (JLLao^) "comet" 
from J^*Jof "fimbria". — In other cases the I of the feminine remains 
before an, as in %li&* "quarrelsome"; <&>*&£ "given to anger"; yk ^ aj 
"womanly" ; %&>*l "angry", &c. ; and even from substantives without this 
ending, similar forms in <JL are derived, e. g. v l^a^ "happy" (along with 
^a^) from \k<H^ "health", "happiness"; v V>tr* "warlike"; <!&**£, 



(*) The meaning of the word in Is. 16, 3 is not quite certain: later writers 
employ it according as they severally understood this passage. 



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§§ 130—131. — 79 — 

^jft^ft (§ 52 B) "strong" ; ^jLo "painful"; ^vi^m| "indicating a cxyna" 
(JbaiuODl), &c. 

Specially in favour are adjectives of this form like v Ik\aaa "in- 
telligent"; vi' a ^i " an g r y"; \&- CD °t? "crafty" (from J^»$ad, 7r6pog, like 
iflD^dll "to be cunning"); ^K^oiJ "anxious", and many others. In these 
cases no Abstract noun like Hs.XnnJp can any longer be pointed to as 
the fundamental form; and with the most of them such an Abstract 

9 

noun has never existed. — So too, JjKjloAju^, "flatterer" (juuu^. "to 
flatter") (*). 

§ 130. Farther, Nomina agentis may be formed by the suffix an Nomina 

agtntia. 

from all Participles which begin with m: and so participles from Peal 
are alone excluded. Thus JbiAajpp "one who praises" (from uuajuo); 
Jj|oM*p "enlightener" (fonap); JjJk^Pp "one who provokes" (A^^p); 
)8*miv» "tempter" (Up**) ; frflaN.afr "one worthy of praise" (ouakjufc) ; 
Jb^a^i&l&oo "one who has to be ordained" (j^-j»lftop), &c. 

In some quadriliterals the m thereupon falls away. The ascertained 
cases of this sort are Jiaa^ji "interpreter" (along with Ju&^Attt); 
Jj|ot^jfc "braggart"; Juio+*? "bloody" (together with Vao) — (otherwise, 
however, )i^p^v> "refractory", &c). 

§ 130 b . The following appear to be formed in In: JLaojL "file" with Tn. 
(from «jw "to rub down"); )bui3ai "turtle-dove", f. I^iiiyi ; jbuiadjs 
"lark"; jbuj^o "hoar frost" (not quite certain; a secondary form is \*]y&), 
and a few others. Cf. § 132. 

DIMINUTIVES. Diminu- 

tives. 

§ 131. Diminutives are formed at pleasure with on: e. g. JBo «Ay with on. 
"regulus"; JBoot&t "minor god"; JidaK* "little book"; Jid^J "little 
boy"; Jio^a "little son", &c— Feminines take tk*36 (§ 71, 1), e. g. JLa23S 
"ship" (f.): (KJd^s; tkJdjjt "little ear"; Ik-JdaJLo "small stone"; 
tfcs*ib.mpk "a little bed", I of the feminine termination is retained be- 
fore this suffix: {K*Joftu*;p9 "small town"; (ft^Jol^w "a small church"; 
{KJbl^l { "a short letter", &c. However, we have {KJd^a "ane- 



( x ) On the termination «JJL v. infra § 136. 



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— 80 — §§ 132—135. 

mone" "little bride" from fk^j) and )iciN^k (to be pronounced no 
doubt as )ioSi^fc) "curricle" from ttsN^v,. From the pi. £ao (sg. ?&^») 
appears in this way JJo^ao "short words". 

with™. § 132. Rem. in may also be a Diminutive suffix: U~V^]? secondary 

form to \io&$ "small bird". Yet it is not to be held as altogether 
certain. 

With »»• § 133. With os. Not so frequently met with as on : thus e. g. 

J^pd^J "hatchet"; JLcdojoj "small fish"; JLcdoa£ "little boy" (without 
any ground-form in use); JLmou\% "little boy", &c. — Feminine forms 
have tAoso, pi. (KIodo (§ 71). t of the fern, termination falls away before 
the suffix: (Kx»6$j "small court" from {Uf ; i&mo^L "small garden" from 
*VW; IKiiSHi^JS "small bowls", "cups" from ?VW^ ; ^ JsjDDd ^ i 
"little girl". 

others. § 134. Rem. iKm*\ao vbpfoioj from t&S»QjD likewise appears 

to be a Diminutive. Besides these we still have traces of other dimi- 
nutive-endings, notably in secondary forms of the more familiar 
names. Compare farther § 112, as well as Diminutives formed by re- 
duplication of the 3 rd rad. § 122. Add thereto, although not attested 
by very old authority, tkXdM "a little hill", pi. {6d^dM, from JU 
"hill"0, alongside of JKJdM. 

with at. WITH AL 

with ai § 135. With di (v*«L, JUlI, {Ka_1, &c.) corresponding adjectives^) 

were formed at pleasure, from substantives, and more rarely from other 
nouns; notably national appellations. Thus e. g. JL?$QJ "fiery" from fjQJ; 
f?*>\v» "kingly"; JULca oiKsiog- U^, |JLL2ja£ "foreign" from \J^ 
"foreign country"; JL^oqj "foreign"; JL^^;^ "naked" (from the adjective 
^%Pj>); JL^a "external"; JL2*^ "internal"; JLjdju^ "alone" (from the 
adverb ?6ju^>); JL.^*f "belonging to", "proper" (from ^»f § 69), &c. — 



alone (ndi). 



( 1 ) Is JAa*, LkkM.{ (in Arabic dress JJlSj) "street" p\tfj.yj by any chance an old 
Diminutive from Jj»o* "broad street" irkartia? 

( 2 ) This mode of formation for the derivation of appellatives was much less 
frequently employed in remoter times than it came to be in later days, in the scho- 
lastic style of learned translators and imitators of Greek writings. 



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§ 135. — 81 — 

JUSa. "Greek" (noun and adj.); UfcjJ "Alan"; JUjoo^ "Jew"; JLo^jA 
"Hindoo" from the Persian Hindit] Jio?;jp "man of Kardu" from Qardu\ 
JLoL^a "Parthian" from Parfhau. 

From the feminine (K^cd "old woman", JLLjK^qd "old-womanish"; 
but from IKi^v>, — JLlL^d, TroXiriKog] and thus appears JU&jlsI i/ciaiog 
from {^dAoL. 

From JLL^. "night" (§ 49 A); J,? N.N, but also H\\. 

From plurals are formed: JLaj "effeminate" (JLiu "women" § 146); 
JL<5pol "maidenly" (tl<$pbf "maidens" § 146); JLo^l "fatherly" (te^l), 
together with JLif "patrician"; JL<Spo( "motherly" (llopo? § 146); JL£pajt 
"nominal" (to^aJt). Cf. with these § 138 A. Similarly JLLtfoi "rustic", 
from JbVai (§ H6). 

From (LqIju "booth", and Hql^L "banishment", are formed jL^Lo 
"host", "innkeeper", JL&\^ "exile", "outlaw"; so JLo^i. (JLo^a?) "be- 
ginner". From fk-^o^j "glass", U^o^; "glazier". 

From name of month^j^ : JUL 9 ;.,*! "Teshrin (as adj.)", or "autumnal". 
So JlAnip "monk", especially "novice", from JL^cLlo koiv6j3iov. 

Final e or ai falls away throughout before the suffix. Thus JL&6o» 
"Roman", from J^oooti Pco/*^; JLlLjojo "clerk", "sacristan", from Koyyr\ 
("choir"); JL?JLa& "of Moses" from |f,a&; JUoxJ "Ninevite" from fai-J; 
Jl I N^ya from U^^ (name of a place) ; JL?kap "from the convent of St. 
Matthew" (wkJ ~;i). Similarly JL&*o{ "of Edessa", from w<Mo{; Uif I 
from 'And/isicc: jL^*Jt from ^pa* "Samaria". But JUla^^ "northern" 
from JUi^. 

Short vowels have fallen out originally at the approach of the 
suffix, to the extent required by § 43. Thus JLLoo^a "Persian", from 
iflpffi (which itself is of course nothing but a more convenient pronun- 
ciation of Pars); JkN-jA "Babylonian", from ^%a; U&il "Aramaic", 
"heathen", from the original Aram (*) ; JUay\> "Arabian", "Arab" (still 
with soft a, v. § 23 I>) from "Arav\ JLL^joap "from Mausil" '; JLA** 



( x ) The West-Syrian schools arbitrarily derived JLL»$I "Aramaic" from >»?!, 
which is a copy of the Hebrew D^K, and they left the genuine JLl&;t with the signi- 
fication of "heathen". 

6 



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— 82 — § 135. 

"of Garmaq"; Ulj*V* "barbarian" from fidpfiapog; JLL&jl${ (along with 
JLajliJ §§ 42 and 52 B) "royal" from the royal name yjk.il Arsaces\ 
JL 9 .vi rffr "from j&djfc*." (locality-name); cf. JUAflDa&$ "from Damascus" 
u»dmao$? ; and JLd&?dAjp "from JLaTnrcc&o/cia" . A Uke mode of formation 
will probably hold good also in other cases, which we can no longer 
settle: Thus the national appellation from f&i is doubtless JL»{a»{, not 
JU^bl, &c. But in other cases, the need of having the primitive word 
clearly recognised may have had an influence here, — even at an early 
period, — in defiance of phonetic rules. Thus Jl> 9 v»o\^ "from Delom". 
From <^oAv> come JL^iv* and JL^a^\ti. 

More decided abbreviations we have in JLlJj*; from ^|*$ (river at 
Edessa), as well as from ^j*f V* (Bardesanes); A*it-»j from v £*j (Sidon); 
JLli^I* "from Harran", v ^u; JLdLa »Ji (also JL^JJ), from ^^p; Ui?Pp 
"from ^f^p"; JUip^Jo^ "from ^^^ i*%". 

The following are also irregular: 1 1 ^ ; rp . j "Israelite" from ^^mJ; 
and |.Nynai| "Ishmaelite" from ^^oju{. 

As shown by several of the foregoing examples, the ending may be 
attached even to compounds : thus, — to give farther instances — .M^-^^ 
(late formation) &\s(f)dvTWog, from JL5 )»t^"bone of the elephant", i. e. 
"ivory"; JLULyuj "from JL*» oui", &c. Yet along with these we have 
JL?$otJ "Mesopotamian", from ^£otJ k*?* JU|jotaj, from ?f?£»oJ V^5 
JLK^jl "overseer of the refectory" (WkaA^a); JLlij*? "of Bardesanes" — 
v. supra. 

Many names of cities form their gentilicium first from a form with 
n. Probably the ending was originally dndi, but pronounced ndi in 
certain words. Thus JLJjqju& "from Ijojuao", and probably A*iAv*£^^ 
"from k*£^l" ( a l° n g w^li ft> but occurring more rarely, M^*£^l). — 
From kptJj comes jLja»t-a (probably Karmondye). 

In the gentilicia of foreign names of localities, the forms of the 
foreign language are sometimes made perceptible, e. g. jL?)of*p "from 
o^p", after the Persian form Marwazl\ JLj&l»J| "from wi", after the more 
ancient Persian form Rdgik. — Many more transformations too, which 
cannot now be checked, appear assuredly in such gentilicia. 



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§§ 136. 137. — 83 — 

One Abstract noun in ai, which however is perhaps of different origin, 
is J ? S » v , more rarely JL^;a^, "blame" (constr. st. u ^v ). 

§ 136. The compound, made up of an (§ 129) and ai, which we with Jnai. 
had even in the gentilicia, appears often, and especially in the more 
scientific diction, in derivatives from appellatives : the I of the fern, is almost 
always retained before it: Thus JLLi|oJ "fiery"; JUIaAlj rpv^LKog^ JUL&of 
TrvevjuaTUcog; JLUL^ "ecclesiastical"; JLlJ&aA "yearly"; JULiN^iaa 
"blessing"; JUtf La& "begging", &c. : With the falling away of the feminine 
ending, however, in JUI\jut "chain-formed", from {is^jut. 

As an even by itself is used in this way, — which assumes a w 
before the feminine ending, — it is not always certain whether, for instance, 
a form ending in (K-a- is to be read {N.JLL or {K*LL. There are 
actually found variants like tN.«t^$t and {KJ^J kniyeiog (f.) Jas. 3, 15. 

WITH I, Y. 

§ 137. These forms are, it may be, of much diversity of origin; in with ;, y 
part of them at least the I may have been originally identical with that 
which has coalesced with another ending into the ai of the preced- 
ing sections. 

To this section belongs the i of feminine forms like IN > Is »(, jLftdx/, &c. 
(§ 71). So, farther, we have Ih^l^ "bee", pi. lK»daf; Ikioim 
"swallow"; lk*a£j "dog-fly"; tK*©aju "female snake" (JUo£ "snake", pi. 
Hooju § 79 A); ik-aaJtA, "dinner"; {Kl^ "streets" (§ 21 C); tt^Vft 
"cancer"; {N»^^n "shivering fit in ague"; (KjjLu "a breaking out"; 
(fisdbOo^ "a breaking out"; tkiaoaV, tkiaaaVt "bubo (in the human 
body)"; {K*£ojl>j "purple"; (K*qjl^ "stomach of ruminants"; }K»6^ 
"sliivering fit in ague; tk*a<ft\ii "flame"; {K*foaa^p "baptism"; {k*£6;uttp 
"flute" (and others of this form), &c. 

Farther, many masculine abstract nouns, like JLl&a^ju "robbing"; 
JUwv<& "oppressing" ; JL»afl>J "fettering" ; JLLdoboi "overturning" ; Udo&v 
"embracing"; J ?\o^ ^"formation" ; JLLucSL? "sadness" 0, &c. 

Perhaps also words Uke JLSa^^ "north" might belong to this class. 



i 1 ) Some of the Syrians have foolishly turned the form llcoai^ "affliction", — 
fashioned according to this section, — into a form il« all, as if it had the Greek ending ta. 

6* 



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— 84 — §§ 138. 139. 

WITH UTH. 

with uth. § 138. A. This suffix serves to form Abstract nouns from nouns of 

all kinds (for inflection v. § 76). Thus e.g. tici Vs,v> "kingdom"; {totii^ 

"heroism" ; (JLo JL;J "inheritance" ; (Lo td**> "mortality" ; {toi^a* "externality", 

"exterior"; {LoAjZ "goodness", "good"; ?iofiN,»j "property, attribute"; 
• • • 

(LolAdftudb "abandonment" (from ^Aaftudb nomen agentis from j^Kjl{ 
"was abandoned" § 130); {toi^JsA "revelation"; {Lola** "consent" 
(aaI), &c. So even lto&» kaj oi/covojuia. The extension of this 
mode of formation is unlimited: particularly in scientific diction new 
examples are constantly appearing. Many of these forms, however, are 
very old, such as ?iaaL*% %Apig\ ?lci^«m "extreme old age"; {LojL*k*ot 
"belief, their primitive words being no longer extant. Infinitives in o — 
also belong to this section (v. — 'Verb'). From plurals are formed (taoti^t 
"fatherhood", alongside of ll^l u $atrodnium v \ and {Loopot "maiden- 
hood" (cf. herewith § 135). 

B. From roots tert. w there are formed {La*OA "equality" (from 
{ajt, JLSaA); {talo* "purity"; {taljL^ "magnificence" ; (toll) "fornication" 
(from Ji), JLLi)); (Lo*jL^tt "childlessness", and many others. But, along- 
side of these, there are other forms also which follow a more ancient 
method, — that of omitting the last radical: (Lo£J "innocence" (from JLoj) ; 
}td£^ "banishment"; (tot* "a meal"; {Lo& "petition".— In flLo&j 
"form", and {to£j "thing" (§ 76 B), and likewise in lloy^o "correction" 
(ottap, (tor^p); lUJUap "censure"; lloAmzo "watering"; llopo "fight"; 
{Lofitjk& "banquet", — it is not quite certain whether or not the abstract- 
suffix belonged originally to these words: and the same question arises in 
the case of (La^iL "atonement", and Ho mv)l "corruption" (§ 127). 

Traces of § 139. TRACES OF OTHER WORD-FORMING SUFFIXES. 

other word- » . 

forming Traces of suffixes, like dm, el, n (Jx^Ua3 "flea") are still repeat- 

suffixes. ** 

edly met with, but the words concerned no longer form an established 
class, and they may be regarded as multiliterals. 



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§§ 140. 141. — 85 — 

FOREIGN SUFFIXES. 
§ 140. The suffix apiog, current in later Greek, but originally Foreign 

f suffixes. 

Latin, — which appears in several words, like i^ia flaviapiog "bath-master", 
and some others, — has also been joined to the Persian but adopted 
word Jjo-^cdI "pillar", the Persian JLa*j& "falcon", and the pure Syriac 
JLaSS "ship", thus: (%SoL^flo{ orvX/rjyj; fciuj& "falconer"; (^aSS "ship- 
master". The Persian Jean is added to the Syriac (pSuu "ass"; ftp;v>*» 
(properly Vlo^cuu) "ass-driver", and to the Greek Jjo^ud koitqov: 
jbu&jd^*ip "chamberlain". So, in addition, we have oJj^o^p j3orpvcc- 
^yjg from the Syriac JJqk^d "a bunch of grapes". From u^Jbatl 
"played" is formed, after the fashion of Greek words like evQyjvia or 
acccf)ijV6ia, Jk'ivkiit "a game". Cf. jLj^xaot "luxury", "wantonness" 
[I Tim. 5, 6] CTprjvog (or rather a secondary form — not yet, it is true, 
otherwise authenticated — GTpr/Vsia) . 

C. COMPOUNDS. c.com- 

pounds. 

§ 141. Several words, regularly and closely associated in a genitive oenitive- 

com- 

connection, are treated as a single word, and attach to their second pounds, 
member those endings, which the first (standing in the constr. st.) should 
have received. Thus Kjl (constr. st. of (AsjlI "ground" § 146) forms with 
Ih^eol (pi. JLiibf) "wall" a firm compound (KisdJKjl "foundation", of which 
the plural is JLcpIk-a,; from this quite a new verb then originates, «£dKjl 
(also written «xao(&jt) "he founded". So too are treated several compounds 
of Kxa "house", e.g. JjoAjd Kxa "tombs", "graves built inside"; Kx» 
Jmfto "storehouses" ; (-JX* fcsxa "houses of nativity", i. e. "constellations 
of nativity" (ysviasig), &c; and also other compounds, such as JAA»Sv~» 
("lord of..."?) "enemy", JKA^SyS "enemies", ti^Ny^ "female 
enemy", {LoA£t^o "enmity"; JL&v^j «**? "beginnings of a month"; Jii^ 
l*a^ "capra montis", "steinbock", pi. (ja^ jLp* "steinbocks" ; (^ jl±^ 
"wild goats"; JMU^ "sentence" ("judicial decision"), pi. JLj-»fVjt^; 
JU«yp ) ax ^° "punishments"; and thus also several others, though 
not a great number of them, — while, in cases quite analogous, the 
ordinary procedure is followed, e. g. JLo i*» "filia vocis", i. e. "word", 



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— 86 — §§ 142—144. 

pi. JLofiuLa, and so with all compounds of +z> "son" and t£a "daughter", 
however close the combination may sometimes be. 

Some compounds show a more decided blending of sounds. Thus, 
for instance, JL^xna "pillow" ["cushioned couch" — "pulvinar"], pi. 
{lo?m^ (§ 79 A), of which the first portion is equivalent to k*a, while 
the second is a form nearly related to (|i»[ "foundation". So JLU|^ 
'name of a tendon' = fcOBfa T3; {*f,kjo£, ^ao-ld^), pi. I*aoad or even 
(tJtLoJLD "navel" = Ife ^axs "basis (?) of the navel", and some others. 
Cf. § 125. 
Gender of § 142. The second member of such compounds determines even 

such com- 
pounds, the gender and number. Thus Ih^jL &*» "dornus (m.) sabbatis (f.)" 

i. e. "refectory", and (Lo^j fcsxa "chapel", "house of prayer" are fe- 
minine: Jaoo-* lo^Ny "half of the day", "mid-cTay", is used as masculine: 
JL^Jt &d| "face (f. pi.) of the door (m. sing.)" = "curtain" is always 
masc. sing, 
compounds § 143. A special class is formed by nouns compounded closely with 

JJ "not", like a&*£ JJ "immortal", f. {U«Lo2> Jjf, pi. {U*i Jjl, (Ud^i Jjl, &c; 
(totd-i JJ "immortality"; towtjtib JJ "non-arrival", &c. 

Kemark on D REM ARK ON THE TREATMENT OF GREEK 

the treat- 

™»* <>' PROPER -NAMES. 

Greek 

proper- g -j^ Greek proper-names in og and ag are used either in the 

nominative- or vocative-form: <m<fcko.ft; tfiDOj^d; txaPo^ifnANS; tiaofot 
(Qsvbag), &c; or (used, however, also as subject &c.,) (lad; ^t^?*? 
Jj r LCp-a^S; liofoll', {joi; Jb^^l; &c. The East-Syrians however write I— 
for this I— and ( — , or even (-f— without any difference in the pro- 
nunciation. 

The termination log, siog very frequently falls completely away: 
sometimes there still remains of it a w: *A*>oa» alongside of tflcuAu$o*o 
Mavpi/aog; ^U^l ^lyvdnog; \^m~», ^*floJb, uVmJLa BccoiXeiog; ooi-;, 
oqj{j, *slu) TaYpofSiog (also i£do^qjO); ^joJ), u^joJJ Asowiog, &c. This 
happens too, though much more rarely, with the simple og, e. g. una, as 



(*) Vocalisation not settled. 



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§145. 



— 87 — 



well as tttotta, JLcaa Bdoaog; ^jo£j{ 'AvncvTvog. Of course there are 
found, besides, many deviations from the accurate Greek forms, which are 
not limited to the terminations. 



E. ATTACHMENT OF THE POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES. Attachment 

of the pos- 

§ 145. A. The Suffixes enumerated in § 65 coalesce with the ai &*™ e 
of the pi. m. into the following forms: 

"my" vJL "our" ^JL 

("thy (m.)" yJL J"your (m.)" ^oiuJL. 

<thy(f.)" *±JL l"your(f.)" ^JL 

"his" w6»oJl (~o»o-l § 49 B) f"their(m.)" ^po^l 

x j/'her" c*^_ ("their (f.)" ^JL 

Thus the same scheme holds throughout; only w©»o— from auhi 
constitutes a deviation. Notice that the otherwise constantly soft y* of 
the 2 nd pers. becomes hard after ai. 

Example: JLjf "judgment" (constr. and abs. st. ^j; pi. ^i*?, 

Singular: 




t*i*f my judgment 
yL.) thy (m.) judgment 
^JM % (f.) 
o^f his „ 

otL} her „ 

Plural 
%+l+} my judgments I 

u*juf thy (m.) judgments 
s-A-uuf thy (f.) 
wotoiif his „ 

°H?1 her 



^juf our judgment 
vQ~a.i*? your (m.) judgment 
<*A±j your (f.) 
^poguf their (m.) „ 

^Snj their (f.) 

^ju*f our judgments 
^»rq your (m.) judgments 
<J>.+i$ your (f.) 
^po^'f their (m.) „ 
^6^Li} their (f.) 



B. No difficulty of any kind is occasioned in attaching the suffixes 
to any noun, of which the stem or ground-form (i. e. the form left after 
removal of the termination a) has a long vowel — or another consonant 



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— 88 — § 145. 

without a vowel — before the final letter, or ends in a double-consonant: 
thus e. g., like jbu? given above, JUlq.££** "garment"; uin^S , yin^N , 
^olaao^N ; Jfrmp "silver": uAApf), ^ooifrmp^); Jbol "mother"; «**»{, 

y±l ^jpojfl, &C. 

The vocalisation in these cases is, throughout, the same as in the 
emphatic state. 

Rem. No difference of treatment is exhibited here between words 
of the simplest formation with originally one short vowel, and those 
with originally two short vowels. Like JL^otf (from dahava), we have not 
merely y4°^' ^ut a ^ so y ^° l f» \?°^°*f( 4 )- ^> — besides will, \OotfiJ from 
{|tl (for athara) "place", — ~i\{, %$°**\{ are occasionally met with, it is 
not the original vocalisation which is maintained therein, but one which is 
to be understood as a method of facilitating pronunciation in accordance 
with § 52 B, just as, with words of the simplest formation there is 
written also upon occasion t*^9Jjj (= <-*^JJ)> ^oa^JJ, ^popJJ. 

C. This method prevails also with all terminations of the pi. f. ; 
and suffixes are attached thereto in the same way as to the singular. 
Like {JkJi^ap "queens" we read, for instance, wKA^>,<jKA^>; ^oottyANy, &c. 
It is the same with those of the pi. m., — with the exception of many 
forms tertiae ~ for which v. infra, K. Like JL&£k>o "kings", f?c*cp "wit- 
nesses", we have uniS.v>, w6to gSiV», ^aa^o; w>c*£d, oJL»}g*£d, 

tr O^^CHXD, &C. 

D. Even with forms which have a short vowel before the final 
consonant, including the feminine termination ath ((t) the vocalisation 
entirely resembles, for all suffixes, that of the emphatic state, with the 
exception of the l 8t sing, and 2 nd and 3 rd pi. Thus like JNmy "taking", 
from r^m\n, and iKl^p, from Kl^s, so too v ^*»v% ui^mv», opja^o, 
^my , t^ 01 ^?^ ^V^^P' **»V*^P> o»Ka^ap, 6»Ka^o, v^s^p. 

E. At the approach of the suffixes of the l 8t sing, and 2 nd and 
3 rd pi., the short vowels before the final consonant are frequently retained, 



Q) Thus wfa4^, u\^a, uXil, u**l, u«a? ; uJ»*^, u*.;ol, u*rt; «&*£, *co*^, &c. 

( 2 ) Thus v*opu*», v****}, v*****, v**^*i, v*«*»*J, &c. 

( 3 ) Thus «*£, *^, vo^, &. 

( 4 ) Thus »o^Ji. Cf. farther v***^., v$€*iaj, <-tma, v oo,fm*, V **»V?> &c - 



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§ 145. — 89 — 

although in other cases they disappear, no doubt from the analogy of 
the other forms. They are retained throughout, where there is no 
feminine ending, except in the instances given under J: Thus nfnv» 
(l*jazo, ovim* &c ) 5 ^^f 1 *' ^ p^my , ^g^rny , ^p o^rny , ^->my , 
So <>\yv) "my burden"; w^pjbo "my speech"; ^po^Loy "their seat"; 
**zaZ\ "my friend" &c. 

F. a of the feminine-ending ath disappears before these suffixes 
[that is to say, the analogy of the emph. state is followed], when the 
middle consonant has a short vowel ; thus like tk**L "vengeance", ©♦K^at, 
and ~1^>1, ^potKsat; fU$y "watch", ~L;Jgap; fk^-auu*> "thought", 
^ootk^guy ; {Asa^jlL "service", wJ^AaojtL, ^potkju^Al ; {feuuoajtl "praise", 
w\judAJtt,^o»ftuL>OAJtt; (t^J "a mother", «l^, ^t^; fU^^ 
^throat", wl;^; f*^<4i& "eating", wixoljbb, ^ojd Woli*, &c* So 
k%^ "vine" '"(for llo*^), ^poJLa^, &c. 

Thus also with many, which have along vowel in the syllable preceding 

• • •- 

the 11 of the feminine: (fcuuJLi "rest, pleasure", wAuuJLs; >Jk ^^Ny* "my 

• • * * * 4. 

enemy (f.)"; ,o©»t;^j» "their hair"; w»K^o "proximo, mea" \ ^oo^jlollo 
"their synagogue"; ^otftvJL* "their first"; <JL^po, ^poilt-po "net"; 
wKaaA, »6otk.A*£, .d-DJ^uS "evil"; wKfioam "my mare", ~tk-o© (also 
written wLJ^oib, wift^b, but all to be pronounced mtt) "my dead (f.)" 
(§26B). 

Where the long vowel represents a radical o or **, there is a good 
deal of fluctuation. Thus .ootAuulao "their city", but wfca*I*o: with 
reversed procedure in wK^ "my good", but ^ootKa^; w»lpo "my Lady, 
mistress", as well as wJk*£^, "my necessity"; wKy| "height", ~Uf "court"; 
wKsjJL, ^o^J^JL "hour". With falling away again, ^ootLtaj "their form", 
and with a ^ooiK^jb, ^d^ts^jb "troop". In some cases the usage has 
fluctuated. Thus *ooi&ca*£d "their treasure" with Ephraim, while in the 
Bible tradition we have v ddK*&*i». From 11+** "church" the East- 
Syrians have ~Lf^ *ebath, the West-Syrians w»l^ %t 

Gr. Th. a is retained, when the middle consonant wants the vowel. 
Thus iki^p, w»Ka^o, ^ootK.aiSy; wKsjaoj "tear"; ^ioa, ^potKs^o^ 
"blessing"; ~k*du?, ^odJ^f "fright"; wtfuoj "riddle". So too -&^JL*, 
v 6ot&^4* "question"; v 6o»toJJ, ^toJJ "fatigue"; wLofL, ^t?^, 



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— 90 — § 145. 

^oaLo^ju "joy" (from habwetha, or habuthd § 40 D. 101), &c. Thus also 
with diphthongs, like wftsipojp, ^ootkapojp "stature"; ^o oK^ o) "quaking"; 
wlooL "guilt", &c. — It is the same when the middle radical is doubled 
in cases like fk^J "pleasure"; ~k^f> \?°*k^f; ^*^*> ^ootk^so 
"word"; wki^"garden"; wtff, "basis"; wkioj,'* ^poikio? "place", &c. 
Ih^i*. "sleep" conforms to these examples: ^^if,, ^ootkif,; while from 
analogous formations (§ 105) we have >-»&•£], ^o^Ksg "care"; wKaaju, 
^oo^ioQju (for which, however, the old poets have ^potK^ju, ^o^kajji). 
So ~V°1 "maid-servant"; ~Ll&, vpo»t*I> "end"; v 6o»kjt{ "basis". 

H. The feminines of derivatives from tertiae w present no difficulty. 
K*JL, to are there retained unaltered: wLii, ^ootKjJkji "prisoner (f.)"; 
wi^|jo "city"; wJ^fot "praising"; ^,yni "conversation"; ^oo+N »frs> 
"escort". — wl c Luae "stroke"; wLi^j, ^dLq^j "prayer". — Similarly, of 
course, with those in fcsJ», and abstracts in La—.. 

J. Forms which end in JL in the abs. st. sing, preserve their voca- 
lisation before the suffixes of the 2 nd and 3 rd sing, and the l Bt pi. thus, 
JLcdju, JL£mI» "pious"; JULf»>a£ "throne": oi.mo, ^nruV, ^lAioi, 
btlflD)o£, &c. 

JL£j»)a£ (constr. st. v*£p*o£), JL;ju» "camp", JLkjup "drinking" form 
with the suffix of the l Bt sing. v*£p$a£, «-»***?' W ^ JL *?* ^ n other cases 
those which end in JL in the emphatic st. have t**, which is either not 
pronounced at all, as in East-Syrian, or, as in West-Syrian, pronounced 
as a simple I: sometimes only one simple ~ is written instead of the two: 
K+jji (ILJ* § 17) or u*J| "my meditation"; *-^^ or <- >V% "my boy"; 
<lM l^ or »«^"mine elect"; v^jdqIju j"my suffocation"; t**^*|, t**^f 
"my shepherd". If the JL stands after a vowel, the suffix is then at all 
events silent; thus from JLo^a "creator", wb*&; from JLfyo "call", i**^o. 

The w of the suffix is in like manner silent after ( as final radical : 
wJLo.^ "my consolation"; wjbLm "mine enemy, [my hater]"; and so wpo 
"my lord" (= ~W>). 

Before the suffixes of the 2 nd and 3 rd pi. we have, in accordance 
with § 40 C, ^po^Jf; ^oo^JLo^l "their confusion", &c. So too the 
West-Syrians have ^poy^jsp, ^o^^op, &c, while the East-Syrians have 
^OMtr*x>, v -*^**' &c - 



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§ 146. — 91 — 

K. In the pi. short adjectives may treat the radical y as a strong 
consonant, but they may also fashion shorter forms: v qJ^)Lu "those who 
see you", alongside of ^oo^aJL "their captors", <J^ k "our captors"; 
wotoJ&JL "those who drink it"; woio^mju and w6)onr>*» "his pious ones"; 
w5to*^£ and w6iq^ "his young men". Pure substantives have always 
the shorter form: v*^a>, uL^b, om^d "bowels"; ^o^^^catuli ejus",&c. 
So JLLa^jL "heaven" : yf> ^ * v> •-, &c. Compare with all this § 73. 

L. Greek words in vfloo og, o oi (pi.), *m_L ag, &c. do not take 

suffixes (§ 225). — JLa*k»»f ^iaQij/aj takes suffixes, as if it were a plural, 
without however being construed as a plural: wotoja^lbw| "his testament"; 
y o,yk»f (sg. f.) &c. In the very same way occur u\i»%, woiowv^ "my, 
his price" from JNn.^ n/uy as a sing. fern. Perhaps there are still other 
Greek words in yj, which are thus treated. 



nouns. 
Substan- 

end properly in u: tives ** d 

adjectives. 



F. LIST OF ANOMALOUS NOUNS. *.Li.tof 

anomalous 

§ 146. J»{ "father" 
JLif "brother" 
Uaxj "father-in-law" . 
Accordingly we have «joal, udodl, wotoal, 6toa{, .oat, .dja^l, 
^oaal, ^pota^, ^oja^t. So yaJu|, wOjaJul; v*.dovia>, 6ta&x», &c. But, 
u^? 6 "my father", uuu( "my brother", <**&!» "my father-in-law". Abs. and 
constr. states are wanting. — PI. JLil (^^ ^VI^l, &c), but loi^l or 

(Kju "sister" (without constr. or abs. st.); wKju, v do»Kj&, &c. ; pi. 
llojul.— lh&» "mother-in-law" (plur.?): 

lbb{ "mother"; u»[, ©*&[, &c; pi. ^<Spbt. 

^a "son" ; emph. st. }^». With suff. «^p, o^p, ^jp, &c, but w^a, 
v*-?^, sOo»^a: pi. UiS, ^aa, v-ul»; with suff. ^sl-oS, &c. 

{l^a "daughter"; wanting abs. st.; constr. st.i^a; y^t^? °*^^?' 
^L^, &c; but wt^p; pi. {M£, ^la, Mi* (uaUii, &c). 

jxm,, Jbout "name"; opojt, ^&jl, u^a, ^^f , &c; pi. &&£, 
and (Lopoii. 

)M, Jbo? "blood"; o**>|, **»?, ^oopof; pi. J^>. 



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— 92 — § 146. 

JBj "kind, species"; constr. st. <ji (West-Syrian <J); pi. J&j, ^J/, 
**j)', w*o)qj/, &c. An early naturalised Persian word. 

{ft "mamma"] o»ft; pi. Jbft, wft, ^-ft. 

(£*{ "hand" (for KT. § 40 C); constr. st. **, particularly in trans- 
ferred application and adverbial use (+*& "by means of, "owing to"; 
ft©4 ^» ^s^ "by the side of the river", &c), and +J (substantively); thus 
before suffixes: — \0©»^{, %»*»{, u^{, &c. (^©ot^p "through them": In 
West-Syrian appears indeed the artificial formation ©tfp df avrov). PI. 
JLfsl, lp(; ^{; w^(: with suffix, woto^t, &c. (l^t (East-Syrian tim^A 
"handles"). 

JUaajL "heaven"; ^i (§ 73), t*2AA, y>y , &c. : In form always 
plural. 

JL^p "water"; ^&, ££. With suffixes, at pleasure either oap, 

^OO^LOp &C. 

{Kjl( "ground, bottom"; constr. st. K*,, East-Syrian Ka, (almost 
never occurring except in combinations like Iksol Kjl "foundation"; 
{V »o( Kit "waste from storehouses"). With suif. otftutl, .ootkjtl; PI. Ilkit? ; 
and with suff. ^otiAdi£; and also ^oo^Kill "their seats", &c. 

(&OJL "year"; abs. st. Jul; constr. st. Aula, (doubtful whether used 
with suffixes): pi. JLUii, ^i*,, oJLii; with suif. ^lii, &c. 

Ihs&l "maid-servant" (probably without abs. or constr. state); ~kao{, 
©tKaot, &c. — l\o&{, ^QJgUpoj. 

(Kacd "lip": abs. st. JLaro; constr. st. AJzlod; oiKaa, &c. — (L&.&JB. 

{iJLs, (ki& "side, face"; ©tiJLa. Defective parts supplied from JLal 
"face", ^1£(, c&|; ~©Vq£(, &c.; (properly Dual of anp "nose" § 28). 

ill}, (l.| (better flli "lungs". PI. lloll'i: according to others (per- 
haps more correctly) (16(¥, i. e. NnjfcO. 

iNo "house": abs. st. ua (§ 26 C); constr. st. &-»; ^k-^f? & c - : 
pi. lbJ>, **ki>, wKal: .oop'Ka, &c. 

(tto{, (lkJ( (two different modes of writing down the same pro- 
nunciation of the word, atta, aid) "woman": constr. st. JLKjJ ; y^^^ &c 



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§ 146. — 93 — 

PI. JUj, ^£aj, oju; ^oo^aj, &c. — As a diminutive, appears (KjLsdiu "little 
women". Sing, of this form is said to be (K*j6kJ{. 

*ju(, «ju "one", rig ("man") ; pi. ^JjI, ^ii "several", "certain" nvsg. 
The emph. st. jJJH signifies "man", "of human nature", but much more 
frequently it bears the original collective sense, "men" or "people". It 
is never found in the emph. st. in the plural ; but in the constr. st. and 
with suff. it is found only in the pi. : (K-4-o uju? "the people of the 
town", &c; woiojul "his people", &c. "Man" is more accurately ex- 
pressed by "son of man" or "a son of men" *Jt ^a, *■>»■»; JUuI ^a, 
JUufa ; pi. JUu? ou», Jl tl . y , ia . Very rarely we meet with x JljI is* "man" ; 
rarely with JUu? l£& "woman". 

J^sw, JL^ or JLL^, JLL^, (§ 49 A); there is no constr. st., and 
it is almost never used with suff. Abs. st. is J|L^, (for which jlw. is often 
improperly written, § 16 C. Rem.) and yiS^ (ua^. not so good) in the 
combination )&&*{ °^^ "by night and day" (§ 243), also "the space of 
a night and a day". On rare occasions the words are found in reversed 
order v^S. jua+1 PI. fofryrV, y^W 

JUJ} "lion" (for «m0; no constr. or abs. st. PI. lliJil, Jl+H— 
Fern, {id**{ "lioness" ; pl. no doubt l^'fl 

llogjp (for Kn$N9j?) "cucumber"; pl. JL£gd5, uJgjo, and later form 
(as if we had in this case the abstract-ending (to—) (Lo^jd. 

JL^o (only used of God and of Christ), and {^b (*= KljHD) "master, 
lord" constr. st. {^b. A secondary form of the constr. st. mar appears 
to present itself in (o*Ss po Spic. 41, 15, and even (o^X <^o in the ancient 
Inscription ZDMG XXXVI, tab. 1, 8 — l$$s I^b "the lord of the gods", 
i. e., ZeasC). Abs. st. wanting; w*ab, y^b, ^pot^o, &c; pl. JL'^o and more 
rarely (-^b, ^*jab, w<po ; with suff. ^po^^o, &c; or even {L&'^o, ^i'^o (but 
hardly a corresponding constr. st., or corresponding forms with suffixes). — 
Fern. IL»&, tfci, ~ipo ; &-{», &c. 

(lL^^o "city, village"; abs. st. (^o; constr. st. &~*ojd, also i^^p; 
with suff. wLp, ot^^o, &c; pl. (the collective) JUVojo; constr. st. wVojd; 

( x ) In VoApt Euseb. Church Hist. 395, 5 (but the manuscript is of the year 
462) we have before us no doubt merely a short-hand mode of writing. The phrase 
intended must have been the common one, mare khol. 



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— 94 — § 147. 

no abs. st. PI. with suff. (1) yljVaa, ^oo^ojd, (2) more frequently yJVa«6, 
o^Vqjd, ^axLt'tajD, &c. — As secondary forms of the pi., Ih&'+jo and iOuVoJo 
(§ 89, end). — Cf. besides the purely artificial imitation {AJL'2* ACjqjd 
KOO/xoTToXsig ["village-towns", or "country towns"]. 

I^Sxxj "ass" ; pi. I'^aju, but also (when a collective, Uke JUVojd) I'^aju. 
With suff. ot'^ou^, ^pott^aj^, &c 

{fcooof "folk"; pi. fi&abt, .&»{; in isolated cases, {t&s>o{, .&»6{. 

J|L£, JL^J, f. (^-^ "young" forms, as an adjective and also in the 
meaning "servant", in accordance with rule, JUS^, ^ S ^, ■- Nf %; 
w6)«iA% ("his young men"), &c; (M^, <J^£, 6»kik%, (fee.;' but in the 
meaning "boy", "girl" : J^£&, Q'^4 (it is a matter of question whether 
it has suffixes in this meaning) ; Its I Nfc. In hke manner jL^o "piece (of 
bread)"; pi. JLJjd: and JL^ "breast", with {Up (§ 79 A), as well as J^fu. 

JUol "Uke"; pi. f. emph. st. IKio|, pi. m. JUol, ^o(. The other forms 
are doubtful. 

^yj "ahus": JW; f. Uj^uI (East-Syrian: jkpl); KjJ^5 ^^5 

t^V^ W*^> P%^; r^> ^'W> ^W- 

o* "great", "master", &c; J&J, ItsZA, &c. PZ. "great, tall, grown up", 
^VoJ, y^$o|, J^Voi; ^>og, &&Va*, l^iVoJ — "great ones": J£^Vo| 9 
v^iaVoJ, ^i^VoJ; ^oo^oiVoi, &c; f. ^po»isIiiVcj, &c— "teachers": JfiaV, 
^i£V, &c. In close combinations, in pi. constr. st. we have, uaV: **aV 
(k*a "householders"; JIc*i> w^V "high priests", &c. — In very rare in- 
stances we may even come upon a singular J&taj, (used as an Adjective) : 
Probably the forms JLaV &c. never occurred as plurals in the earlier times. 

So ^*£f0|, JLpt^>? "small" (pi.), of which the singular in use is >d^,j. 
The sing. jafoJ is very rarely used indeed. 

From Jjj^ap "roofing", the West-Syrians form uVv^y, the East- 
Syrians u Vs ,!j^p, as if it stood ^^p : thus they treat the word exactly 
in the way which is usually adopted with forms med. gem. (§ 59). 

Pro- § 147. We might mention here also one or two nouns of vague 

nominals. 

meamng : 

p*& "something" (exceedingly rare, yiv»i*>), indeclinable : a later 
pi, however is l*>+& "things". 



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§148. 



— 95 



^d "a certain one" f. Li\9i. 

^d; (East-Syrian) and ^*9j (West-Syrian) "a certain number", 
from ^ (^J) (v. § 146) and the above-mentioned ^*9. 



§148. 



3. NUMERALS. 

CARDINAL NUMBERS. 
First Decade. 



m. 



1. t L 



t; 



2 - ,<v- 


•» 


S.lb^l 


%** 


4. J^f{ 




5. liaaL 


uual> 



m. 



f. 



3. Numerals. 

Cardinal 
numbers. 
Leading 
forms. 






6. IK+,IKmI 

7. **** 

8. JLLuoi 

9. J^jti 

10. l^ 

ifem. Jj£ju*I» "some"; f. tKli^Hu, may be regarded as plural of fl>. 

B. The numerals 11 — 19 show secondary forms of many sorts, 

and fluctuate in their vocalisation. Various modes of expressing the 

vowels, which are occasionally found, are very doubtful or to be rejected 

altogether. 

Second Decade, 
m. 



11. jm\r*» 

12. M^fl 

13. ^Lw^i 

14. ^44«o 



15. ^j^juf) 



16. (*) 



;, mv ^^?^ commonly 

East-Syrian ^mxlKju 
and ; mvltsjt 

k West-Syrian ;mv Itsjt 



^j^l(^t^i). 

(•^flo^il (!«»*&*{) and 
|ym\ N^*t (rarely). 

East-Syrian jymv H?Lfu ? 

.West-Syrian j^mv Iksv. 



(*) Known to the author only from grammatical tradition. 
( 2 ) In all expressions of the numeral 16 attested by ancient authorities (Set' 
ta'sar, Setta'sere; Sethasar, titha'sere-, (e)8ta'8ar) only one I is taken into account: 



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— 96 



§149. 



m. 



17. ;mv^i (rarely) 



18. ; oa*JL*>i (rarely) 

19. jm\iii (rarely). 



I'tttxtoA (rarely). 



Form 8 with 
suffixes. 



»mv AvV^a, commonly 

^^ 

}m\toaol 

;mv ^ v g^ commonly 

C. Te^s. The tens are: 

20. ^;mv 60. ^Lt, ^jLl{ 

30. <*&^JL 70. ^ * 

40. ^-^f 80. ^2»L, also written ^jbaL 

50. ^Jbal* 90. ^4 

100 is {Jbl> ({Jbfc^, IJLif v. § 43 E). 
200 is ^1JL» (others ^Ijbp). 
300 is {JbLft^t, &c. 
1000 is A^. 
10,000 is oaf (better perhaps oaf). 
From (JLi appears in the emph. st. {LJL^o "one hundred", pi. ilo|*>. 
So J&SS from *a2s, pi. ^^aSS, JLU^O; and k°f! from oa*; pi. Jdajf, 
(ioaj. The plurals of »aSs and oa$ are joined, exactly like other sub- 
stantives, to the numerals from 2 to 9, which are placed before or after 
them, in order to form a multiple of 1000 or 10,000 ; e. g. *&£s J^£>${ 
4000; JLisLi JLaSS 5000 ; *c*Z {toaj 50,000. 

E. With the larger numbers the higher order always comes first: 
(fuo ^^ai^o tjtt*a}{, 421 (!',): kf,o <*Jl»to (JLift^t, 386 (f.); Jv-ig 
Jlv-iyo ^^lo (Jbo%lo <e^. 7337 (Ezra 2, 65); ims^uio J&SS, 
1017* (2, 39); *<Aao ijh&^to ^jt |aSSo v oaj JbpJj/42,360 (2, 64); 
{Jbo >&a*{o t *§D5S **Ho ^ScaZ, 54,400 (Num. 2, 6), &c. 

§ 149. The numbers from 2 to 10 yield special forms with suffixes, 
to indicate groups: 



accordingly we meet sometimes also with ;m\Na, ,mskal, lymvkA?, the last the f. 
of eSta'sar and certainly to be pronounced eHa'sere or eSta'esre. — The form usual in 
print fm^JLKfc, l\rn\ IK* (after the analogy of rrnvK^*, &c.) appears to be met 
with only in pretty late manuscripts. 

(*) The pronunciation of the secondary form jUft& is uncertain. Perhaps JLgaSt. 



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§§ 150—152. 



— 97 



2. <*¥l "we two"; vp^'l "you two"; ^po^Vt "they two". This 
number alone has in addition a feminine form used in this 
meaning ^o*-t*L, &c. 



3. ^©*J^i"they three" (*) 

4. ^o^K^W 

5. .oo^AJuojl* 

6. ^oo^LKit 



7. .oo^ts. 



.JU • < 



8. v 6o^^iit (?) 

9. .oo^LkJtt (?) 
10. ^po^i^m^ 



§ 150. The abs. st. of the masc. numbers from 2 to I9(?) appears nays of the 

♦h . months. 

in the meaning of "the n day of the month" (always, to be sure, with 
prep, o): 

2. V2^( 2 ) " on the 2nd da y of the m ° ntn "- 

3. (ft^Ka "on the 3 rd day of the month". 



4. !£*?% 

5. ikjugJ 



6. (Kja, llh*a 

7. (ts^kAA 

8. ?K*i\pKrr» 



9. fftokjtKa 

10. (L^fl^a 

11. I^mv , ju~» 

12. {%m*Jk» 



13. {ya^A^Aa 

14. (V^% 

15. {^mvJiviA*^ 

17. I^mv^n 



§ 151. Another substantive-form is JL^oi^jL "the Twelve" (Apostles Another 
or a similar company); otl;rnv^i "his Twelve"; also — (K^aJ^ "quater- ^e'fo^m. 
nion", "four together", and ?l;mv "decade". 

§ 152. Forms of the constr. st. in Kl appear occasionally for Numeraia 

in com- 

the purpose of denoting things which are closely associated: i&dupo Ifrmv pound ex- 
"the ten cities" (ksKGcnoXig); ^^? fc^^jt inrd7rvpyog\ ^ooi'J&^lkjL pTe880n8 * 
"their six wings"; JLio* ^^^ "the four winds"; ^*Q-* k>^ a "a week"; 
ot^aJLo &$&${ "her four points"; otl&jd^&^aV} "his four corners". — 
For J^&* 1*1^*1 "the Hexameron (of the Creation)" J^od* I^mI is doubt- 
less better. From the somewhat forced formation o^N^V ^^^ rerpd- 
nobov there is current as pi. ^o»<Ts.^V A^^'t or J|^j5 ^ a, i* 



(*) I give only the forms of the 3 rd m. pi. Notice the hardness of the I, 
which, however strange it may seem, is quite certain. 

( 2 ) Also *vka, like *&a. — I give the vowels in those forms only in which 
they are certain. 



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— 98 — §§153—155. 

Other formations, of an artificial character and modelled on the Greek, 
are jbixa i**>L (say JDLLo wVL) Zvo(f>vaircu ; jbuaa* w$t djucfroTspob^iog, &c. 

Ordinal § 153. ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

numbers. 

l Bt JLiyiB (also Ai^, abs. st. ;»fD). 6 th JLK*i* (W.-Syrian JUk-i*.). 
2 nd ]Uil, f.tijLM.;more rarely £14, 



7 th JUi-4*. 
8 th JM.&L 
9 th J.'v.il. 
10 th 



f. f^-4 (§ 71). 

3 rd ju^t. 

4 th J ?>.*>». 

5 th J,f4.&.>. 

Sometimes this formation is carried still farther, and one says, for 
instance, JUr.ms kaaal. "the 15 th "; JM.jmv "the 20 th ". So even JLLito~»> 
"the ten-thousandth"; but there are no such forms from (Jbo 100 or 
«aSS 1000. Generally speaking, these forms are avoided in practice. 

These are true adjectives. In the constr. st. they mostly signify 
so-many-fold; e. g. JLa^u\«/M "with four wings", 
otherforms § 154. Bern. From the simple numbers are formed, besides, deri- 

derived 

from vatives of all sorts. Thus one or two fractional numbers, like (&^oJL 

numerals. u ^ ^^ ^„ ^ fc^^ u three yearg old » } . j^j « a fourth"; ji*a£ 

"a fifth"; jbooL "an eighth"; J*ju>t "a ninth"; {m»o^ "a tenth" ( x ). — 
We have also adverbs, like kJfc^t "in the third place" (§ 155 A), &c, 
and verbs like A^t "to do three times", &c. A strange formation is 
given in JLUl? "for the second time" : the termination is Greek in form ; 
no doubt it was originally J-&>Jj?, an emph. st. of ^iVt 

^.Particles 4. PARTICLES. 

ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 

Adverbs § 155. A. Adverbs of quality are sometimes expressed by bare nominal 

™ncZl. forms (in the abs. st.), e. g. ^Sjl "beautifully"; oua "badly", "ill"; 
"in vain" (which does not occur as an adjective); yep (end) 



C 1 ) In old authors I find only fo^ol, JL^ao;, JLa»oju. For "a sixth" I find, 
but only late, IUo*. There is a quite recent form, after the Arabic suds, J* ? o* or 
plainly J-tojqxd. 



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§ 155. — 99 — 

"completely", and a few more. To this class belong the Feminine forms, 
which in ancient fashion preserve the th in the abs. st. used adverbially, 
particularly &~*^» "barely"; &£i (others ftsai) "very"; t^+Z "actively"; 
La^ "without eating"; Iojl and fi^ojt"at the same time"; k*JL» "finely", 
"handsomely"; ^o-L?ji "^ or the secon( l time"; loJk^i "for the third 
time"; and in J^»otCL» oo^» "to make a present of, "to bestow" (x«p/- 
%sa6ai). So too k*V^ " a ^ l as ^"> an( i &*£*+* "first". From the ayath of 
these forms (f. of di § 135) has then sprung k*|— , the usual termination 
by means of which Adverbs of Quality are formed from all adjectives and 
from many substantives: KJj^fta. "beautifully"; kJ^jt "truly"; ^*JLLd? 
"purely", "pure"; MH*!g*> "hidden", "secretly"; M&^ "d^ely", &c - 
Notice K*JLLi^u( (East-Syrian h^fjjyj) "another way", (§ 146), and 
&*JLftd*w; "little" (adv.) (&J|d*,j also seems correct) with the y of the 
f. (§ 71). — &*.* or even k* is sometimes written for hsj (§40E): Aw^jl; 
AsIjJL? "justly" =» &*JLjjLd. In a few cases, a form occurs with the pre- 
position a: — &*^l»JL» "lastly", "at last"; kJ£aod©»^» "in Latin fashion"; 
JULk^Jb "six-fold". 

Farther, many words compounded with prepositions are used as 
adverbs, e. g. jvi^N "thoroughly"; ^quog\ "scarcely"; ^kjtaAXJO 
"in truth", in rare instances ^kjiariN, and ^&dioAd; ^lota^O "first" 
(vowels not quite certain). ?|ju&, ca|ju& (§ 156) "all at once"; ^L y**{, 
+&*{, {fu yj., ly±*l "at the same time". 

B. Some adverbs of place and time, most of them being compounds 
of prepositions, are as follows : — 

^Sw "above". 

*saJ^, KaA ^> "below". 

^ftuJt^ 1 ), (^Auui V?^) "downward". 

ja^oo^ (East-Syrian, as it seems, )p»' noV) "in earlier times", 
"of old".— ** 

So ppdou^ ^>; and ^?nn\, ^o{aa\ $C). 

^d^jD ^ "overagainst". 

JLiA, ol£* "now" (present time). 



(*) Notice the peculiar plural-ending. 



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— 100 — § 155. 

Jay» t v, ^pt^ (vocalisation not quite certain) "up till now, hitherto, 

* star* * 

^*>o~, Juoo* "to-day" ; *ju* "to-morrow" ; uA&L "yesterday" ; oA*&o*o 

"two days ago". 
w^joKit^ "last year" ; ua*iv>\, ouujboX, u*avj\ "next year". **kap{ 

"when?"; ^A, y+bi 1 ) "then". 
JLU "where?" (cu^j "why?"): JL&A "here"; JL*£ (= JL& £), j^££t 
"from here", "hence"; lr>vwj "where ... from", "whence?"; JLkX 
"hither", "this way", "on this side" (^ JLaX) ; JL&& (A ^> "from 
this place" ; U^J "where ?" ; JnNJI "whither, where . • . to ?" (these 
two forms are found only in one old text); JL&*©t "here"; ^it 
"here" ; ^i "there" ; ^UA "yonder" : N^o*X "away there", "on 
that side" (^ '^). 
^1& "now" j^^, ^4f^ "up till now", "still", "yet"; ^d* 

"now", "thus", 
pbkao, )»bK» ^b, jaoKio^b "at all times". 
^auD "already", "perhaps", "possibly", &c. 
o£d "sufficiently", "already". 
o£o ^ "already". 

The phrases ©poo- ^a ("son of his day") "on the same day" ^ 
otts^Jt "at the same hour" and &J|km» ^ "backward" (§ 321 B) are 
used quite adverbially. 

C. Adverbs of Quality of the most general kind; Connective Ad- 
verbs, of which some have more special significations of Space or of 
Locality; and pure Conjunctions', 

^JaJ, U-2L-J "how?"; y>J "as" (and its. combinations: cf. § 364); 
^Jdoi, JLii^ "thus" (with Prepositions: ^-oi* >K& "thereupon"; ^-301 ^> 
"thereof, therefrom", &c). ta-501 "thus"; ^p "thereupon"; with o, ^00 
or ^p(o, ^00 (^p *Jk& "thereupon"; ^a ^^9 "on this account"). — ^t*> 
"thus". kipJLp "namely". *u*j ( 2 ) (on very rare occasions heading a 

( x ) Also, ^»£>£i £ "thenceforward", &c. In the same way many more of the 
adverbs mentioned here may be combined with Prepositions. 

( 2 ) In what follows, an asterisk (*) marks those particles which never, or 
only exceptionally, stand at the beginning of the sentence. 



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§ 156. — 101 — 

clause) "thus" ; *k*j> "thus". *jd*, "thus". {*{ dpa, apa. *^ "to wit" 
(particularly in citing foreign remarks or thoughts). ***^0 "for". — 
JJ "not"; 6^. "not". 

o "and", "also"; &{ "also"; oot "farther", "again"; o{ "or"; 
J^ioJ "sive":—tfp "but"; *^f (properly "then") "but". *£ /*&.— 
*Jli,vJ "please!", "pray!". 

v l "if'; oSS "if; jR - ( <J " but "' " if not "; K$\ "although". ^ 
"until", "so long as". ^-^ »»6fisjt{ "utinarn". 

j "that" (in the widest sense), and many prepositions combined 
therewith: t-? "at the time, when", "when" ;^a "whereas" ;^o^^a "thus" 
(from ^ + yovv); j ^> "since", and so with other prepositions (§ 360). — 
* Vj "where"; * >U "where"; * yJ, * JlaJ, ? J5j r J, ? 0*4 * ^ (j v kt; 
even mere ^t), and many others, "as", "just as", j JLi "when", "at the 
time, when"; j JUopv, "until", &c. 

J^abX, jboXf, J^aX??, pjs )»??, "if perhaps; possibly; lest perhaps" 
(§ 373). 

The. following, amongst others, are pure Greek words : y^ r«x« 
"perhaps" ; J^J sircc ; iflooj^, i»6o^ riug ; <o^*p ju&Xkw ; JL$.m«?v.y/*«X/grft. 

PREPOSITIONS. Prepo- 

8itions. 

§ 156. Prepositions, — or Nouns in the constr. st. used adverbially — , Listofpre- 
are either simple in origin, or have sprung from the combination of such 
forms with other short prepositions. Most »f them may even take per- 
sonal suffixes. Those below, marked with pi., assume the plural form in 
ai before suffixes. Certain variations of form before suffixes are also 
met with here and there: — 

The n of ^> is assimilated in the adverbials tt^ao, 6£ju*> 



C^ "to" 

^> "from" 



"all at once"; "suddenly" ; "forthwith" ; ^»i& ; pokix&; 
JLL&: «**}*&; «*}*& "anew, — in one's turn", which are 
also sometimes written ttju ^o &c. ( 2 ). 



O *+^ an d ie? are genuine Syriac words, which, however, have been em- 
ployed almost entirely to imitate yap and li. 

( 2 ) In pronunciation the n of men was frequently assimilated even at other times. 



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— 102 — § 156. 

k-^C) (no suff.); &Xta: udus» "between". 

J^uuii (not used with suflf.) ; LqjuL pi. ; ~^>i (before suff. too?) "under". 

^5* as pi. "upon" («\^,, woidix &c. ; in poetry often <-^-, ~oi6^k^ &c.) ; 
wo^x "over". 

^ "with". 

i&L "with", "to". 

r l (§ 21 C) pi. "with", "to". 

)9|j9 pi. "before": kapfojD "before" (not with suff.), ***apjoJD (only 
before suff.). 

*fi# (not with suff.), ~V|ju "round", "about". 

t ft\» pi.; *uffi\of» (only before suff.) "instead of. 

^ "until", "up to" (not with suff.). 

*U*l (only before suff.) "like". 

^$& C^d^b; not with suff.); **^$*, **^*£& (only before suff.) 
"for the sake of, "on account of. 

*k» (from til + g> "on the track of) "after". 

*J6km» (iUm + o "hiding from") "behind". 

t ySr> pi. "without". 

^k*4±» "against": ^^ pi. (§ 49 A) "coram". 

lo.9>S. "in conformity with". 

v^a ^ [ex inopia] "without" (not with suffix). ( 2 ) 

Of these, some have already been formed by intimate blending 
with ^ and a. And so ^ and ^ are still set before many prepositions, 
in some cases without perceptible modification of the meaning, e. g. 
i&X ^» "napd roof"* U^ma ^ "from behind, behind"; «k£X "after"; 
tojui ^ "below", &c. Cf. ^X ^ "from without" [^X being "foris 
in campo"] ; 04^^. ^ "from within" [ctJ^*. meaning "in medio 11 ] ; along- 
side of ^ $, *^^- 



(*) Not to be confounded with the like-sounding J^*» when used adverbially, 
meaning "in the house of, i. e. in the place of". 

( 2 ) The limits of the idea of a Preposition are not exactly determined. Several 
of the cases cited here might be excluded, such as l«£\, "according to the mouth", 
^\. "in the eye",— while others might be added, like »-p "by the hand of \ "by 
means of". 



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§§ 157. 158. — 103 — 

^*> ^s,^ may be used for "without", just like i^N^ alone. 

^ must of necessity stand in ^ j&t^* "as far as, up to" : rarely are 

found to^w j&£^>, a Jbo*^ "as far as in" ("even in"). Very 

rare- is ^^^ "over, above". 

8 157. With suffixes: (1) Singular Forms: u\nv, y&x, lOCHYiVy&c, Pre P°- 

V/o 7 « ' T .< ' V ^ 77 gition with 

according to § 145 A. So y£, y&*, ota, o^, &c; but v*a and o^. suffixes 
(2) Plural Forms: ***pf£, y**pfo? w©*CLap|.o, ^oo^o^jd, &c, likewise ac- 
cording to § 145 A. Such is the procedure too with those forms which 
even without suffixes end in ai (pi.), (to which class also belongs ^^ for 
**^w f j3g.) : ~$^, /**^> &c. (~*e&t**, &c). 

Mka and 9&mA keep their a before the suff. of the l 8t sing., and 
2 nd and 3 rd pi. : ~*La, JKma ; v <xd*K£, <*A*kma : but °&&> ©•fkma, &c. 
So u*sA noN , ^oo^JLoo^., &c. (more rarely ^^aao\) but ojVrrtioN,. 

KLa for the most part takes the suffixes at once, yet ^oo^tso^* is 
found alongside of ^oottJLa, ^daAJua. 



n. VERBS. nVCTbB 

§ 158. A. The Syriac verb appears, sometimes with three radicals, Prelimi - 
sometimes with four (§ 57). It makes no difference in the inflection, vations. 
whether the verb is primitive, or has been derived from a noun. 

B. The Tenses are two in number: Perfect and Imperfect (called 
also Aorist and Future). The different Persons, Genders, and Numbers 
are indicated in the Perfect by terminations, and in the Imperfect by 
prefixes, or by prefixes together with terminations. Add to these the 
Imperative, which agrees for the most part with the Imperfect in vocali- 
sation, but is inflected by terminations only. Several of the terminations 
in the Perfect and the Imperative are now silent (§ 50). Lastly fall to 
be considered the Verbal Nouns, closely related to the finite Verb, viz, 
the Infinitive, and the Participles (as well as Nomina actionis, and 
Nomina agentis). The inflectional marks in the finite verb are always 



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104 — 



§158. 



the same, except that they occasionally undergo a slight alteration when 
w is the final radical. They are as follows: — 



-C) 



c. 

Sg. 3 m. 
3 f. 
2 m. 






Perfect. 

PI. 3 m. o (silent) ; ^al 

3 f . — (or silent w) ; 

• 
2 m. <ol 


2L 
1. 

Sg. 3 m. 


-»k_ (the <— 

j 


silent) 


Imper 


2 t n\ 

fed.?) 
PI. 3 m. v ol — J 


3f. 


I 






3 f . <_L — i 


2 m. 


I 






2 m. ^ol — I 


2f. 
1. 








2 f . <-L — I 

1. J(') 


Sg. m. — 

f. w (silent) 




Impel 


mtive. 

PI. m. o (silent), ,o_ 
f. -JL(*), <- (silent). 



D. Where longer and shorter endings appear together, the latter 
are in all cases nearer the original forms. Contrary to the general rule 
given in § 43 [v. § 43 C], the assumption of these longer [and later] end- 
ings occasions no falling-away.of short vowels in the open syllable; com- 
pare cases like ^olYo^jp, <o^^P ( S S- ^*^jd, ^&?) ^th ^o^^ni, 
v q^jqj (sg. ^Q.^ni, \^jqj); vpr?^ w ^ v?r^ r 1 ^ t: is a ^ so ioun( ^ 
written for ^j, e. g. ^u> ^j^o = ^iN'gjp. In the Imperative pi. f. the 
longer form is far more usual than the shorter. 

E. The 3. f. pi. Perf. is written with a w (and — ) in later West- 
Syrian texts ; but the old orthography is retained with the East-Syrians, 



( x ) In more ancient MSS. v is also found written without %., e. g. v ^ 
^•^bp "worshipped", &c. (§ 4 A). 

( 2 ) The vocalisation of the Prefixes is different in different cases. 

( 3 ) The 1 st pi. of the Impf. invariably coincides with the 3 rd m. sg. 

( 4 ) In the older MSS. also written with ^ alone, e. g. ^^u for 
"hear ye". 



for 



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§§ 159. 160. — 105 — 

according to which the form is exactly the same as the 3 sg. m., except 
in the case of verbs that have w for their last radical. The West- 
Syrians frequently supply the 3 f. sg. Impf. too with a purely ortho- 
graphic w, to distinguish it from the 2 m. (§ 50 B). Also in the shorter 
form of the Imperative pi. f. the ** might well be merely a later addition. 

TRI-RADICAL VERBS. Tri-radicai 

verbs. 

§ 159. These form the following Verbal Stems [or Forms, some- 
times called Conjugations]: the simple conjugation Peal 0^j3; Hebrew 
Qal) with its reflexive Ethpeel (^^st{) ; the conjugation employed to 
denote, first, intensity and then too the causative and other allied 
meanings, — having the middle radical doubled, and called Pael, 0^£, 
Hebrew Piel) together with its reflexive Ethpaal (^jJ&U Hithpael) ; the 
causative conjugation Aphel C^±&1 Hiphil), with its reflexive, Ettaphal 
(^**U{ or >*»li{ § 36). 

The reflexives have for the most part acquired a passive meaning. 

Rem. Ettaphal is much the most rarely used of these Reflexives, 
and is upon occasion replaced by Ethpeel and Ethpaal, e. g. )\pl\ "to 
be preached", instead of JfcoHl from j^al; ^fck.£|L{ "to be mocked", 
instead of ^<S»lU from ^Al. * 

Attention is called to § 26 A and § 26 B in dealing with the 
Reflexives. 

Forms seldomer used, like the Causative p\a "to enslave" and 
several others, we find it more to the purpose to take in with the Quadri- 
literal (§ 180 f.). 

VERBS WITH THREE STRONG RADICALS. verbs with 

three strong 

§ 160. A. Peal In this conjugation there is a specially Transitive ™ di <> al »- 
form, which in the Perfect has a as the fundamental vowel of the second 
radical, and in the Imperfect and Imperative o (u) or it may be e\ and 
a specially Intransitive form with e in the Perfect, and a in the Imper- 
fect and Imperative: (1) "^gjo^d^AJ, ^o-£-o "to kill"; r a^, t a*j, 
t a^ "to do". (2) yt*, ^aJ, ^* "to be left remaining". 



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— 106 — §§ 161. 162. 

Of strong verbs with e in the Impf. and Impt. the only examples 
are ^^, and ^a; "to buy".^) A few verbs primae n also take e (§ 173 B), 
as well as a few weak verbs. 

Several intransitive verbs have the e of the Perfect changed into a, 
and thus have a uniform a in both Perfect and Imperfect. Thus t^*? 
t£k*j "to rule"; W, "^o^j "to be tired out"; jQAxao, u&amj "to be 
enough" ; )oi, )Oty "to exult", and the other verbs which treat w as a 
film consonant; **f^, ot^ "to happen"; and several others. ( 2 ) We 
exclude from this list verbs secundae or tertiae giittaralis (§ 169 sq.). 

Several have secondary forms : thus ^fj>*>, ^nriui and ^nrio, ^qjLuj 
"to be strong", "to overpower", although ^mu in the Perf., and ^j**^* 
in the Impf. might be most in favour. Through an intermixture of tran- 
sitive and intransitive expression, the following verbs have e in the Perf., 
and o in the Impf. and Impt.: *^», ?Qn^&j "to reverence"; *oKa, 
jdoKju "to keep silence" ; o^o, oo^oj "to be near" (cf. ftsjui, Lqjuj "to 
descend", and, it is said, ojuj, oqjuj "to be lean", § 175 B).( 3 ) 

B. The only certain remains of a Perfect in o are found in *aAo 
"bristled", "stood up" Job 7, 5; 30,3; Lamentations 4, 8; Ps. 119, 120; 
and )ao-o^ "they (f.) grew black", Nahum 2, 10. 
Hardness § 161. The letters Ldd^a [Beghadhkephath] are, in confor- 

and soft- ^^ 

ness of the mity with general rules (§ 23), soft, as 1 Radical in the Impf. and Inf. 
m icas. q £ ^ e p ea i : they are hard as 2 nd rad. in the Impf. and Inf., but soft 

elsewhere in that stem; as 3 rd rad. they are soft, except after a closed 

syllable ; accordingly they are hard in the 3 rd f. sg. Perf., the 1 st sg. Perf., 

and the lengthened forms of the Participle. Examples: (1) joil^j; jj^p. 

(2) (a) ^M, v o^ju; ^; (b) ^, K^|, &c. (3) (a) ^ ?o^, &c; 

(b) li*J, li*>J, ^poj. 
Ethpeei. . § 162. In the Efhpeel notice the transposition of the vowel in the 

Imperative ^^jdU, also written "^^jpU or ^^jpLi § 17 (as compared 

with Perf. ^&*U ; Impf. "^jdKj). 

(*) In very rare cases occurs also the Impt. ^aj. 

( 2 ) Some, which grammarians have cited, are uncertain or utterly incorrect. 

( 3 ) The forms of the Impf. of Peal verbs, cited by Payne-Smith in i Thes. 8yrS 
are not all well attested; several are decidedly inaccurate. 



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§§ 163—165. — 107 — 

Here the consonants that may be softened are always hard as 
1 st rad., soft as 2 nd , and soft as 3 rd except after a closed syllable, and in 
the Imperative, thus — : oKiU, &c, but KiKiU, KiKiU, and o4cd!{. 

a 7 •••it 7 7 • • 4 • 4 •)£/ • * • ,4 #<£ 7 • >*•*. 

§ 163. The characteristic of the Pael and Ethpaal is the doubling Pael and 
of the 2 nd radical. This letter is accordingly always hard, just as the 3 rd 
is always soft. In Ethpaal the 1 st rad. is always hard; in Pael it is soft 
in the Impf., with the exception of the l 8t pers., where hardening appears: 
y$l &c. (§ 23 F). 

The Imperative Ethpaal — with the East-Syrians, and in older 
times even in the West,^) — coincided with the Perfect; but with the 
West-Syrians at a later date the form of the Ethpeel came into very 
general use in this case, although the 3 rd rad. could never be hard. Thus 
Imperative s*tr?l{, West-Syrian v*aL{ (usually written y.i-=^{ or v«.=*U). 
Still even the West-Syrians retained in some cases the original form, 
e. g. always p&ill (take (thou) pity on" ( 2 ). 

§ 164. The characteristic of the Aphel is a foregoing J, of which A P hel and 
the guttural sound [(] falls away, however, after prefixes; on imja? "to 
find" with e, v. §§ 45 and 183. 

The l 8t rad. is constantly soft after prefixes, the 2 nd hard, and the 
3 rd soft. It is the same with Ettaphal. 

§ 165. Participles. The Participles undergo changes for Gender Participles, 
and Number, as adjectives. Peal, Pael and Aphel have an Active and 
a Passive Participle. The Part. act. Peal, has a after the 1 st rad., and 
e after the 2 nd , which falls away without a trace, when it comes into an 
open syllable (§106): sg.m.^gjS; sg.f. ^jS; pi. m. <^&; pi. f. ^i. 
The Part. pass, has an I after the 2 nd rad. (§ 110): 'Vfr*, ^>^, &c. 
All other participles have an m as a prefix. The participles of Ethpeel, 
Ethpaal, and Ettaphal, as well as the active participles of Pael and 
Aphel, agree completely in their vocalisation with the corresponding forms 



O The old poets always employ the trisyllabic forms. 

( 2 ) On the other hand several of the abbreviated forms have also penetrated 
into the East-Syrian traditional usage, such as jAilf "shake thyself Is. 52, 2, for 
which Ephr. HI, 537 B still has <- s **l{. 



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— 108 — §§ 166. 168. 

of the finite verb, e. g. ^$dD&&, Jj^J?**>, like ^$J»kj, ^Q^jpK{; 
> ^gjDJbop, \s$uo)Lk*>; ^^ji*; ^^j^p, &c. The participles passive of 
Pael and Aphel have a in place of e after the 2 nd rad. : ^Igjpo, > \!§da*p. 
When this a comes into an open syllable, it falls away exactly like the 
e of the Active form, and so Jj^j£*, ^Vflny, for example, may as easily 
be active as passive. 

On the joining of the Participles to the attached subject-pronouns, 
v. § 64 A. 
Nomina § 166. Nomina Agentis are formed by the Peal in the form JfdA£ 

agentis. w _ 

(^cd^jo, ^No^jp, &c, § 107); and by the other stems by attaching an 
to the Participles: Ethpeel JjL~>kJ>k*>; Pael kiJLa*; Ethpaal J^kiKsb; 
Aphel Uakaio; Ettaphal kai^ik* (§ 130). 
infinitive. § 167. Infinitive. The Infinitive Peal has the form otcdb (also 

written oatsAao^), it is true, but incorrectly); the other Infinitives have 
a after the 2 nd rad., and u for a termination, i. e. they take the form of 
the abs. st. of Abstract Nouns in uth : the th re-appears before Pronominal 
suffixes. 

Bern. On Nomina actionis v. § 117 (123); cf. also § 109. 



(*) In Ex. 5, 17, the reading V£^& is well supported, alongside of the 
usual V£a£. 



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§168. 



— 109 — 



§168. 


REGULAR VERB. 




Peal. 


Etlipeel. 

^41 


Pael. 


Perf. sg. 3 m. "^^ 


^? 


'H* 


3f- £*49 


fcH 


**&?M 


**&? 


2 m. &^$J3 


k±Zl 


*^U 


**>&? 


2f. -i^o 


wK\r, ? 


-*^$otf 


-**-&? 


1 **4* 


**-! 


*±M 


*^? 


pi. 3 mi 6 ^? J> 


oi-ij 


6*4*l{ 


<^ 


v«^? 


^Ki 


V^ 




^yi?, vAjij 


^gj9l{, v^iSL( 


*4?,*^&? 


*r^? 


*S***M 


r^4s 


2 m. ^kA^o 


^pfc>,\,A| 


,£fe$oL( 


v 6 ^>$* 


2f. ^A^r> 


**^? 


<fc*«M 


*^$* 


1 ( <^> 


^? 


^K( 


<^$* 


*i^? 


*P4*M 


^*? 


Impf. sg. 3 m. ^.d^jaj 


^uiyJ 


^r>Ki 


^oi 


3 f.^d^joi(^a^j9l) 


^(oAijl) 


%$*i± (u^j*i4) 


^g.oL (J±%al) 


2 m. ^a^jot 


^ 


^.014 


^l 


2f. ^udI 


^**»i 


<*4?4 


<^?t 


1 ^<i£*{ 


y^ 


^u 


Mrf 


pi. 3 m. V Q^JQJ 


^O^ojj 


v 6^,ftj 


v 6^nj 


3f. ^^ 


^ti 


<^** 


^^ 


2 m. ^ql^^oL 


%*£"& 


V***P4 


v o^ai 


2f- ^£ 


<$HL 


SW 


*^ 


1 ^d^JBJ 


^ti 


^^ 


>^ 


Impt.sg. m. \^o^js 


^Lj 


Mrt 


^ 


f. i.Nn^c 


oAL ? 


-H**i 


<^* 




o^Lj 


<^?U 


61^ 


v «&4 


v-^W 


V<^ 


f f O^CL^JD 


wAx/j 


*H*M 


U^| 


r^t 


<~^i 


*^4? 


Part. act. m. ^>£ 


^f 


^Obsib 


^nso 


'• u* 


N 


^*A 


U*» 


pass. m. ^^Igjd 


^yU& ? 




\^*» 


f- W- 


JM? 




u*» 


Jw/-. ^Jg^b 


^^ 


oj£$j»kap 


dtyjuo 



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— 110 — 



§168. 



Perf. sg. 3 m. 
3f. 
2 m. 
2f. 
1 



pi. 3 m. I 



3f. 



2 m. 
2f. 



{ 



Impf. sg. 3 m. 
3f. 
2 m. 
2f. 
1 
pi. 3 m. 
3f. 
2 m. 
2f. 
1 



Ethpaal. 






Aphel. 







Ettaphal. 






Impt. sg. m. 
f. 









f C^*l( (O^iDU) 






Parf. act. m. 
f. 
pass. m. 
f. 



M?** 

M*** 






/w/-. 



Q^oftop 



Q^>L^i 



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§§ 169. 170. — 111 — 

VERBS "WITH GUTTURALS. C) vert, "« h 

gutturals. 

8 169. A guttural (©•, jl>, **) or r, as 2 nd radical, sometimes causes Mediae 

° ° v ' guttur alts. 

a to appear after it in the Impf. and Impt. Peal, instead of o, or again, — 
a change which also happens in certain other cases (v. § 160), — it may 
cause a to appear in the Perf. Peal instead of e. Which of the two cases, — 
outwardly identical, — is before us, it is not always easy to say.( 2 ) Thus 
we have »^a, ^^j (as well as ^a*a-j) "to step" ; jq^;, j^JLJ "to cry 
out" ; ^ (West-Syrian ^ ( 3 )), <J^j "to grind" ; r&>* ? W "to rebel" ; 
ofe**, o^J "to set (of heavenly bodies)", (but o^, oo^j "to sift" 
and "to give security"); ^o^, ?<*** (§§ 37; 174 G), *<h*j "to remember", 
and others besides, although several are rather doubtful. As the examples 
which have been given above indicate, some of these forms are fluctuating. 

However, in most of these verbs mediae guttur. or r, no such effect 
appears, e. g. Ajutf, tdojumj "to overthrow"; *o^, *°©t^ "to flee"; 
?om», ?c»mi "to testify", &c. 

8 170. A guttural (©♦, jl>, **) or r, as 3 rd radical, when it closes the Teniae 

° gutturalis. 

syllable, always changes e into a (§ 54). Thus, for example, 



oAapo, o**?k*P> ^°^P*i >6 ^? Mfi0 i *?**•' H?*M> which correspond respect- 
ively to the forms "^^J, ^#a», ^&*», v?*^ !' ^&4 ^8* l » 
"^gjaU. The difference in sound between the Active and Passive Par- 
ticiples accordingly falls away in Pael and Aphel; e. g. t ^ fe o is the Act. 
Part. Pael (equivalent to ^.^ji*o) as well as the Pass, (equivalent to 

This rule is illustrated also in the Peal of many Intransitives, which 
properly would have e in the Perfect. To this class belong the great 
majority of those \erhs tert. guttur. and r, which have a in the Perf., Impf., 



O Exclusive of I 

( 2 ) Translator's Note: For instance, in the example *£», jfjsoi, — is this form 
a result of the influence of the guttural upon an original form j^», j^mi, or upon 
an original form ;£*, <6pai? If the former, the guttural has taken effect upon 
the e of the Perf., changing it into a; if the latter, the guttural has taken effect 
upon the u or o of the Impf., changing it into a. 

( 3 ) Seems less original. 



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— 112 — § 171. 

and Impt. Peal throughout, e. g. ^J^ (for Seme'), >^aj "to hear" ; <*£»-£, 
>\au^J "to sink in, to be immersed" (Trans. >^a^, >^da^j "to set in, to 
immerse"); u-»i>, va>1;j "to seethe"; ;mo, ;m**i "to be 'wanting", and 
all that have ©♦, e. g. opoL, otaokj "to wonder". 

Of course in some few cases descending from remote times such a gut- 
tural has changed even the o of the Impf. and Impt. into a ; thus : — ^§j, v$*j 
"to remember" ; ^a?» V*+} "to drag away" ; ^l, t^ki and ida&u "to break" ; 
vaAa, vjuKsu, rarely ul»6&o&j "to open"; «-*£kd, uuo^su, rarely »*N9ii 
"to serve, to cultivate" ; ouaj, ^a*»*J and vjuda+J "to slaughter". In the 
large majority, however, of transitive verbs tert. guttur., we have o alone 
(sometimes of original formation, sometimes of later analogous formation). 
This vowel has even penetrated to some extent into original Intransitives, 
as in vjuq^ju, a secondary form to «.a*V«j, "to strip off" (but only vjuoXai 
"to send");^da&j (more rarely) alongside of >*£»kj "to seek"; >xoN^l 
alongside of vCvVi "to devour"; io^j, more rarely *j^j, "to grow less" 
(only io^J "to remove"). 

Bern. The practice of treating as exceptions, cases of o in verbs 
tert . guttur. and r is accordingly incorrect : such verbs surpass in number 
not only (by a large majority) those transitives which have a in the Impf., 
but even those intransitives, of which the a of the Impf. is original. 



verba VERBA MEDIAE (. 

mediae I. 

§ 171. A. These verbs present no difficulty, if the rules given in 
§ 33 are attended to. The ( falls away in pronunciation whenever it 
stands in the end of a syllable. The same thing happens, at least ac- 
cording to the usual pronunciation, when the ( comes after a consonant 
without a full vowel. The vowel of the ( in the latter case is transferred 
to the 1 st radical. This applies also to the vowel which has to appear 
with ( in place of the mere sh e va [§ 34]. Thus: 

In the Perf. Peal ^J^. (=- b$ti) "demanded, k^lf,, iXJL*, 
o^JU,, v oi^Jf,, &c— Impf. ^JUj, v q^JUj (= )b*ti$ &c— Impt.^JU,, 
<*XJU, &c— Part. act. ^JUt, ^JUL ; Passive^M*,, ^-U-— Inf.^JU*.— 



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§172. — 113 — 

Ethpeel ^^{O, teJ^— VfcaS, ^^aj; Impt. ^{k*,{.— Inf. 
*&***>, &c.-Aphel >^t, h^l+l ,-M*J, ^JLw-o^U^; &c. 

Bern. In the Ethpeel the West-Syrians read fcijjkjtf for Jfc^U^. — 
Part. pass, of Aphel in the emph. st. J&JLL*»; East-Syrian j^»jLktt (§ 34). 
In the Peal is found kijb, &%JLa, ^Up with hard o (through blending 
with the otherwise like -sounding forms mediae gem. § 178); but the 
more original form with soft o, KaJLa &c. is met with, as well as 
the other. 

B. In the Pael and Ethpaal the vocalisation is quite the same as in 
the case of strong radicals: ^JL* ("to ask"), &*JL*, ^oA^JLy,, ^q^JUlj, 

«^«»; ^M> <?MW 

Rem. For «*J^U (Ethpeel) "to be evil", there occurs frequently 
with the West-Syrians, even at an early date, +$ll{ (with transition to 
primae I). — In like manner, occasionally ^b(L, £ll "displicet" (3 f. sg. 
Impf.) for V JL»L. 

VERBA TERTIAE I 
§ 172. A. In some few verbs a final radical ( in Pael and Ethpaal Verha 

• rrn * • tertiae I. 

still operates as a guttural, by altering e into a. The { itself must of 
course fall away in pronunciation, and must give up its vowel to the 
preceding consonant. Of these verbs, JLa "to comfort" is of specially 
frequent occurrence. It has the following inflection, exactly like *£» for 
instance, with the exception of the falling away of the ( in pronunciation: — 



Pael: P< 


srf. sg. 3 m. 


r 77 


pi. 


3 m. oJLa 




3f. 


tJLa 




3 f. ^ (-%) 




2 m. 


LJLa 




2 m. .olLJLa 




2f. 






2 f. ^IJLa 




1 


LJLa 




1 .JLo 



Impf. ]^J, ^JSaL, vJ>AiaJ, ^aj. 

Impt. JLa, wJLa, oJLa, «-*JL*d. 

Part. act. and pass. JU^as, ^JUys. — Inf. ojL^o. 

#%aaZ JLaH; JLaki; <oJ&*ki, &c. 



(i) "Was demanded", and "begged to be excused", or "declined" (irapatreic&at). 

8 



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— 114 — § 172. 

Bern. In these and similar verbs un-etymological modes of writing 
are frequently met with, e. g. JjLa (§ 35), oiJU^o (§ 33 B), &c. 

B. In rare cases, however, there appear transitions to the inflection 
of verbs tert. w (§ 176) even in those verbs, which usually are still in- 
flected after the above fashion. It is no doubt owing to this tendency, 
that forms like oJLa, oJLaU, equivalent to o$$a, o$£aU are occasionally 
pronounced with an audible o (like o^»; with the diphthong). Farther 
there appears wJLaU Impt. sg. f. instead of wjL^U (like v^u^{ tert. w), 
<*\&lil Perf. 3 pi. f. instead of ^Jbo^U "were polluted" (like uJ^U), 
where, but for the mere retention of a written J, the form of tert. w is 
completely attained. Thus wJL^.{ alternates directly with Wp^.( (Js^£D 
"to be proud" ; U$ with 11$ (also written JL^, § 33 B) "to pollute". 

C. Quite isolated is an example of a similar formation for the Peal 
in the finite verb, viz. — oJSLo (like o^f) "were dark-coloured" (properly 
from fcvdvsog § 117, Rem.); from this verb also there is an Ettaphal 
JLdLU and what is like a Part. pass. Pael (pi. f.) vj*-?**- — Participles of 
Peal are found in the substantive forms Ufy "tutor", pi. Ity (from 
6soopicc?) — to which belong the Pael lit, and Ethpaal lilll (also written 
H«L, IftiU), with the women agentis Jiffkao "tutor"—, and {Jin "hater", 
"enemy", pi. Jjiflp, f. i^JjJflp> an( l the adjective Part. pass. {LJLLcd "hated 
(f.)", pi. m. ^JLoa, 2JL*L» (verbal Part. J£cp, jUxfip, ^ep, constr. st. 
uMdifio^)). tli^floJ "I have been hated" appears also. 

Bern. The verbs mentioned in this section might thus be held to 
be about the only ones, in which the { is still treated as a guttural. 
Otherwise Verbs, which originally were tert. J, pass completely over 
to the formation tert w (as even JJLa "to be beautiful", which is usually 
reckoned as belonging to this section). 



(*) In Aphr. 286, 5, for llJLo ^ro "who hate reproof there is a variant «-4£j» 
till "haters (enemies) of reproof".— Cf. farther ll*l*o "hated" § 113 (and tlJLcp 
"hatred" § 100). The other derivatives look as if from tert. <-. 



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§ 173. — 115 — 

VERBA PRIMAE J. 

§ 173. A. The n as 1 st rad. is assimilated to the following one, if Verba 
it comes directly upon it (§28), which can happen only in the Peal, Aphel p, * mfle3 
and Ettaphal, — thus from jasu "to go out", daddJ = jdoSu}; jihl = 
jaaj(, &c. Several verbs are excepted, which have ©i as 2 nd rad. ; e. g. 
from Jq*j "to be bright", we have $c*jj, *c*j;|; and from joop (the West- 
Syrians, it seems, have )oop) "to roar", )oo*xi, v oioMJ. So from ajuj 
"to be barefooted", AxuJ (but from kxu "to descend", Ujuj, kZl, &c). 

Bern. Rare cases, like yo+x* for the usual $6*J "vows"; <nmiy> = 
<mj^ "to slaughter" (Inf.),&c. are probably rather graphical than gram- 
matical deviations. 

B. In the Peal, some verbs have, along with a in the Perf., a also 
in the Impf. (and Impt.). Thus in particular nrni "to take", t^mi; 
ajj "to blow", o-ai ; and of course the intransitives tert. gtitt. ot£*J "to 
come forth", <*a.J ; >fc=u "to well forth", ^aj ; *Ao "to fall off', *Ao &c. 
Only a few preserve the intransitive pronunciation in the Perf., like *ajaj 
"to adhere to", ^jQli. 

Of transitives ;Jj§J "to keep" has a in the Impf., ;J!ga, but te.£a 
is met with also. is found besides in the Impf. with tert. gatt. in >{j 
"to vow", iot-J ; Vai "to dig or cut through" ; *ojoli ; ousxs "to blow or 
sound", vjudaj : ou^j "to bark", u>q^j. 

Many more of these verbs have o in the Impf. and Impt. (v. what 
follows). 

In the Impf. (Impt.) the following have e\— ^9J"to fall"; "^Aj; 
t^i "to draw", t^; £* "to shake",jaj; imaj "to cast lots", ^oaj; add 
to these ^^} "gives" (of which ooU serves as the Perf. § 183). 

Notice farther JtauJ "to step down", "to descend", Iojuj, and ail 
"to be lean", oojuj (not certain) § 160 A. 

C. In many of these verbs the Impt. Peal loses the n altogether. 
Thus ott "take"; cut "blow"; J2lx> "adhere to"; jJ£ or nL£ "keep"; 
^£> "fall"; t^"draw";jd "shake"; Iqju "step down"; oqjd "perforate"; 
otd* "strike"; ^qju "sift"; odj "plant"; a»di> "slay"; udoa "kiss"; 
^6j "pour" ; ^da "put away" ; udo3 "go out". 



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— 116 — § 174. 

On the other hand the n is retained in the Impt. in e.g., $6tJ "vow", 
Lo-aJ "bite", and perhaps in the most of those which have a in the Impf., 
(farther in those which are at the same time tert. w, like wp, from \\i 
"to quarrel") and in those which do not assimilate the w, like *ou "be- 
come clear", "dawn"^). 

The following synopsis shows the principal forms, which deviate 
from the usual type of the verb. 

Peal 

Impt. 



Perf. jaau, 

Impf. 



j 



05dsl ojpl ^t 

^j-oal ****\ *rW*k 



./^<\d »-■», ffr* 



yQJOQ-9 ^QAtt yw^i 

• »4 



^d* ^m te ^^ 



^oJaai&c. ^a^mj&c. ^o£^&c. 

Aphel ua&l, k^&t; ASkj, ^oaaj— *aa»; oa^. 

Ettaphal ta&iU, k£&U{ &c 

E. -Bern. In these verbs softness or hardness in the consonants 
depends in every case absolutely on the general rules given in § 23, and 
that which is noted in § 161 et sqq. A consonant to which n is assimi- 
lated has the value of a double consonant, and must accordingly be hard, 
while the one that follows can never be hard. 

VERBA PRIMAE {. 

veria § 174. A. The { must, in accordance with § 34 take a full vowel 

pnmae . ^ pl ace of a sh € va, and this vowel is e in the Perf. Peal and in the 

whole of Ethpeel : po(, **{&>£, while it is a in the Part. pass. Peal : **abl. 
Bern. The East-Syrians use a even in the Perf. Peal of some verbs : 

^SS "oppressed"; jaISs "was angry"; >xi| "met"; — farther, JJ{ "mourned", 

and l&l "baked", which are at the same time tertiae w. But in other 

cases they too have po(, &c. 

(*) In many verbs primae i the formation of the Impt. does not admit of 
being established with any certainty. The vowels too of the Perf. and Impf. in many 
verbs of this class are uncertain. 



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§ 174. — 117 — 

B. The prefix-vowel of the Impf. Peal and the Inf. Peal forms, with 
the radical J, an e (§ 53), which for the most part becomes — (*) with the 
West-Syrians in those verbs that have a in the Impf., as well as in those 
verbs that are at the same time tert w, — while in verbs with o it remains e. 
With a in the Impf. and Impt. are t^{ "to perish", t^Jb ; pp{ "to say", 
^pjb ; and perhaps two or three more : add thereto ^J? "to go", ^JJL), 
but Impt. ^J (§ 183). To this class belong also J^{ "to bake", J^Jb; 
JJ{ "to mourn", (JJb; III "to come", Jljb, but Impt. {I (§183). On the 
other hand with o are v^J "to hire", io^JJ; +»{ "to hold", jqjuJj; ^jj{ 
"to eat", ^djjji, and many others. 

Verbs with o take a as the vowel of the { in the Imperative : ^d-?{? 
the others take e: p»(. 

C. In the Ethpeel notice the application of § 34, according to which, 
in certain forms the e which I must take instead of the sh e va is thrown 
forward on the I ; the same thing is done with the regular a of the other 
forms of Ethpeel, as well as of all those of Ethpaal: £*»lti andj^lu 
"to be oppressed"; \j$li{ (or \jnlll §§ 17; 34 Rem.)] f. LfeflDtI[, Impt. 
^qdIU. In the Ethpeel of +L{ "to take", however, the I is assimilated to 
t instead, the t becomes hard and the e falls away (§ 36) : t^iij (written 
also +x*U merely), ipuLU, &c. Others too have sometimes a like for- 
mation, e. g. ^oLjjaoU "you are bound" (say ^ot;j»i{). It is exactly the 
same with ^ujiU "to groan" ( 2 ). 

D. For the Pael it has to be noted that the l 8t sing. Impf. is not 
^Ss(, like > ^§*p{, but simply j25s . Of course the a of the \ passes over 
to the prefixes in cases like j^»Jj, j^Jbp. In *a!^ "to teach" this I is 
almost always parted with, even in writing, e. g. *9^j = t£^»Jj, »qfS>y &c. 
Individual cases of this kind are found also with other verbs, e. g. ou^p 
"goes away", instead of u>JJbp (== rn«jp Denominative from JLuioJ "way"). 



(*) There are sporadic exceptions in accordance with § 46, like v°f?^ Sap. 
14, 10 as variant for \0??^> r?^« ^ eu ** 4, 26 as var. for t-^J-»?; and various forms 
from ^jl (§ 183) ( v d£tl ipyvyaere John 16, 20 Bernstein). 

( 2 ) The language takes axil as root and sometimes even forms derivatives 
from it, like JLuioi "groaning". 



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— 118 — § 174. 

E. In the Aphel and Ettaphal ( T ) verbs primae I pass over wholly 
to the formation of verbs primae o (v. § 175 B). Thus from ^jf, ^?©J> 
^ioiU; pot; tjiof. (Only III, which is at the same time tertiae w, 
forms, in accordance with the analogy of the original primae **, ^>^+{, 
~k*U{. Cf. also the old Aphel ^-<5» "to believe", "to intrust to", 

F. Bern. In other respects also indication is given of a certain 
effort in verbs primae I to cross over to the class primae o (w). Thus 
with *a!SS "to teach" the Peal is *fi^ "to learn" ; thus farther one says 
^aJ "to be black" and y\p, "to be long", for DDK, *pK. Similarly there 
is also found the verbal adjective (§ 118) f*sL for the usual +<A\ "lost". 

G. According to the "West-Syrian pronunciation, even verbs be- 
ginning with ©^ (§ 37) share in the treatment of verbs primae {, thus : 
jo^ "to remember", ^U &c. (East-Syrian }oi^, }St^X(). — Still more 
completely of course does this happen with those verbs whose initial ^ 
has already become \ in writing, hke *\i{ "to meet" (from snp), >x*©*)j, 
Aphel ^Jo(. 

H. The following survey shows the principal forms which deviate 
from the common type. 

Peal. 
Perf. ^o(, te*{, k^(, v 6tC^{, d^f. 
Im f fVa*fc NLd^Jl, ^*%, ^dJJ— ^d*( (1* sing.). 
mp * fcapjb, tap(L, ^poll, ^ppoM,— poj (l 8t sing.). 

Impt f*^' *^*4 °^f4 V°^H' tr^H- 

" W(» -**£> °«pi» V°M' <"«?i" 
Inf. ^JjJ»; ^^oJL^o. Part. pass. ^-^J. 

Ethpeel. 
Perf. ^U, fc^U, k^lU.-Impf. ^!&J, v 6^>JKj.-Impt.^U.( 2 ) 
—Part. ^.oik&, JJWK*.— Inf. o^W 



O So too in the Shaphel *W, *&•&>*! (§ 180). 

( 2 ) There are several examples of this form. But ^allt as Impt., also occurs 
with three syllables; thus, no doubt, \*\\>{ Ephr. II, 347 D, and repeatedly, (where 
Ethpaal is scarcely admissible). 



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§ 175. — 119 — 

Pael. 
Perf. jfc.— Impf. j^JF, v ojXJ».— ^S (1" sing.).— Impt.jSs.— Part. act. 

frh> IN* ; P ass - i*J*. i^— inf. oftJ*. 

Ethpaal. 

Perf. ^/U, l^U, &c.-Impf.£}%, ^ojJSskj.-Impt. £JU (^1$.- 

Part. jSsKx), (pjki.— Inf. opjjk*. 

Aphel VaoJ 1 T n x . . . 

^ , , ~ : . t r v. Inflection oi verbs mimae o. 

Ettaphal \50UI J * 

VERBA PRIMAE o AND w. 
§ 175. A. In verbs of this sort, which besides are not numerous, Verha 

primae 

w appears throughout, except in Aphel and Ettaphal, (and setting aside • & _. 
the exceptions mentioned in § 40 A, viz: Part. act. Peal JJo "it is 
fitting", and the Pael *^o "to appoint", along with Ethpaal t^oU) both 
for original w and for original o (and in part for {, v. § 174 F). 

Instead of w with sh e va, w t has to appear (§ 40 C) in Peal and 
Ethpeel, thus: — >xp, *^?, <*4*&j, ^A*>, &c. wj is often written instead 
of it, in the beginning of the word, e. g. ol\J> = oi^ "they inherited", &C.C) 

In the Perf. Peal, those verbs which do not end in a guttural or r 
(with the exception of 00^* §§ 38; 183) have e, thus l^ "inherited"; ^J 
"bare"; cJb "sat"; ^ "burned"; but of course ^ "knew"; ^ 
"was heavy". 

In the Impf. and Inf. Peal the two most frequently occurring verbs 
of this class, ^P and o&J, lose their w, but instead double (and harden) 
their 2 nd rad., and so become here like to verbs primae J. They farther 
lose the w in the Impt. Peal (as also does 00U which does not appear 
in the Impf.), thus: *4j, oKj; >*<&, <a&£; >M, oL (o£»), &c. (cf. >*£*, 
Jfr(*> § 126 B). The rest pass over entirely, in the Impf. and Inf. Peal, 
to the analogy of those verbs primae J, which have a in the Impf., e. g. 



Q) An individual case is found even of UK*l "I have gained" = Uk* Apost. 
Apocryph. 306, 7; also K^t "she knew" = h^^ Spicileg. Syr. 40, 8 (both cases 
after |). 



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— 120 — § 175. 

• 

t^Jb, ^p^XJU (cf. § 23 D) from £j (*). These have likewise a in the 
Impt. and preserve the 1 st rad. as w. 

B. In the Aphel, *nxi "to suck" still shows the radical ~: «ai~{; 
and so also runs ^J "to wail", (if it is really an Aphel). All the rest 
have au in the Aphel and Ettaphal: olof, oloU{; ^fo], ^foiij; 
**ao{ "to dry up", &c. In this form uajof occurs as well as *a±>l In the 
inflection this an or ai is treated exactly like e. g. the aq in ^^oj. 

C. In the Pael and Ethpaal these verbs are not discriminated from 
strong verbs: e. g. ^J-, ^^U; "^J^i, ^J-Nj, &c. are exactly like 
^jqj, &c. 

D. The following tabular statement shows the principal forms which 
deviate from the general type : 

Perf. *jt( 2 ), h£ h , isfc, v oks£, odjb. 

*JJb, Jjli, ^{l, s*$)U— *){ (1 st sing.). 

? * •* _•* /. • *t 

Impf. • 
Impt. 






fo^, 04, ^. 

I Kj, O^, ^*J. 

Inf. «djijbp — oKm, > ^f»- — Part. pass. *aujL. 

Ethpeel. 
Perf. *»jLU, KijLjU, ia^U.— Impf. .ftjUkj, v oAjlAi.— Inf. oljLW 

*»Joi|, kdjof— *»/oj, ^adjOJ— *»;<!»— adjoio. 

Ettaphal. 

Bern. Examples of the Impt. Ethpeel like «&JlJL( and Impt. Ethpaal 
«d]foU{ scarcely ever appear. 



(*) Here too with the West-Syrians the JLl is occasionally still retained instead 
of the J-L, e. g. %*£*$ (Deut. 33, 19 according to Barh.), ^J-£ (Bernstein's Johannes 
S. VI), instead of the usual voiiJJ, *\.JL» (jbijb^ variant of JL*Jbfc- Matth. 26, 74). 

( 2 ) "to borrow", "to lend". 



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§'176. — 121 — 

VERBA TERTIAE w. 
§ 176. A. Verbs tertiae w deviate from the strong verb much Verha 

. tertiae , 

more decidedly than the classes hitherto described. The radical i, y 
brings about a vowel-termination, and is fused with the endings in various 
ways. In the Perfect Peal a transitive form of pronunciation with a in 
the 3 rd sing. m. (like Jbo* "threw") and an intransitive with I are to be 
distinguished; but side by side with the latter form there appears and 
that widely, one with a (e. g. w^ju and {{ju "rejoiced" (*)). In the Impt. 
Peal the transitive form in l has almost completely supplanted the in- 
transitive form in ai r v. infra D. 

B. The Perf, except in Peal, always has i, which, like the I of the 
intransitive Peal, is retained even before endings, and with o forms the 
diphthong a*—, m. The later West-Syrians often attach an additional w, 
of course a silent one, to the 3 rd pl. f. as a diacritic mark, e. g. u*^X^Lf 
= v^s^t( "they (f.) are revealed". 

Notice the difference between the 1 st sing. K*-. with soft t and the 
2 nd sing. m. &*_. with hard t in all classes ( 2 ) ; in the transitive Peal, at 
least with the East-Syrians, it farther happens that the 1 st sing, has 
e ( V-). 

C. The Impf, when without any of the endings, terminates in I— 
in all classes ; the same is the case with the active Participles. With that 
I— the ending un blends into ^6 (West-Syrian mi), and the ending In 
into en. 

D. The Impt sing. m. ends in a in the Pael, Ethpaal, Aphel, (and 
Ettaphal?). — In the Impt. Ethpeel the ending with the West-Syrians 
is ai, e.g. *S^>^\X "reveal thyself'; w)u>t( "show thyself; the East- 
Syrians vocalise the l 8t rad., after the analogy of the strong verb, and 
write a double, but silent w, thus: v-JS^.(, wju&lf. The West-Syrians 



( x ) So l&* "swore", alongside of the less frequent *&J. As variants of the 
West- and East-Syrian tradition, without consistency on either side, **J and *&J ; , 
along with o&J is found «*&J &c. 

( 2 ) Transgressions against this rule in manuscripts and editions are due to 
oversight. 



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— 122 — § 17*6. 

also often say **i-sU as well as *-jlsU "repent", and even in very early 
times it is found written (*) plainly ^al{. 

The intransitive form of the Impt. sing. m. Peal was properly ai. 
But this form is authenticated with certainty still only in vool "swear" 
(of the class primae w at the same time), occurring alongside of 4*&I, 
and in wkjtf "drink" (with prefix {, according to § 51) from w&a{. 
In other cases the form throughout is w^ju "rejoice", &c. (On {I "come", 
v. § 183). 

E. The 3* d pi. m. Perf., at least in Peal, and in like manner the 
Impt. m. pi., and the 3 rd pi. f. Perf. in all the verb-classes, [or Conju- 
gations] have occasionally lengthened forms: vpj^o* (xpoaD*, ^oojbo*) = aipv, 

there is also wiitten instead, ^*V, ^*?(, ^zrtll &c. For ^-1 of the Imperative 

pi. f. there is also found ^f, e. g. ^JJj i. e. ^;JJj[ "pray ye" (§ 40 E). More 

rarely we meet here with the short forms in w (probably ai) like w*jl> 

• "rejoice ye" (f.); **»?l? "be ye like" (f.). In the l 8t pi. perf. we meet with 

^1*^0$, ^t^' Q*'***! ^ c - as we ^ as ^?* & c - 

F. The Ettaphal does not occur with sufficient frequency to 
call for its consideration in the Paradigm. Besides, the only form open 
to doubt is the Impt. sing, m.; all the other forms follow the analogy of 
the other reflexives. 

On the blending of the Participles in e, and pi. en, with affixed 
subject-pronouns v. § 64 A. 

Bern. Verbal forms, which showed o as 3 rd rad. no longer appear. 



( a ) toll?, as it is usually printed in Rev. 2; 5 and 15, is inaccurate. [Gutbir 
gives -©111]. And yet this remarkable form of the Imperative lolil will have to be 
recognised, for likewise in Euseb. Church Hist. 211, 1 the two manuscripts which 
belong to the 6 th century have lolll for fieravoyaov. The other two,— tolerably an- 
cient also, have loll. It looks like a regular Ethpaal form, but the verb appears to 
occur only in the Ethpeel. 



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§176. 



123 





PARADIGM OF VERB TERTIAE -. 






Peal. 




Ethpeel 




Perf. sg. 3. m. 


J&* 


W^JL> 




3. f. 










2. m. 


k-ao* 


K**JU 


&**iL{ 




2. f. 


• 




<jL*>*i{ 




1. 


• 


• i 


• * 




pi. 3. m. 




Q^fju 


a*»*l.{ 




3. f. 


m A 


w+JU 






2. m. 


^**i 


v • ♦ 






2. f. 


<W* 


trVr" 


^ftot&9L{ 




1. 


<e?» 


<r" 


**H 




Impf. sg. 3. m. 


JL=£»^» 




Jb2»»Jbo 




3. f. 


J**t 




j**U 




2. m. 


J*H- 




JbWU, 




2. f. 


**«r 




^ili 




1. 


m 




i*H{ 




pi. 3. m. 


&°'+i 




^OttifcsJ 




3. f. 


<r»H 








2. m. 


\^°'^ 








2. f. 


**»'* 




^»>4 




1. 


J&P 




J&»kJ 




Impt. sg. m. 


u»» 




-**M 


(«mMJL() 


f. 


9 * 




uiaj 




pi. m. 


°^?' 




•*«.£ 




f. 


*■*&> 




*** vl £ 




Part. act. sg. 


J*!. 


AJbD{ 


j&*&&, 


JLfco*k& 


pi. 


7) • 


^? 


^&*k&, 


,-LioVJboo 


pass. sg. 


J&>, 


w-i 






pi. 


^i, 


^OJ 






Inf. 


&& 




ais2>*k& 





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124 — 



§176. 





Pael. 


Ethpaal. 


Aphel. 


Perf. sg. 3. m. 


A 




•4 • <£ 


*£i{ 


3. f. 


h^ei 




k-S>M.l 


k-ao>{ 




# « »* A 




# » A A <*■ 


...» ^ 


2. m. 


b^oi 




• * * 


J^3U| 


2. f. 


• 

a 




>4 * 


-L»$| 


1. 


• A 




• >4 <£ 




pi. 3. m. 


A 




A * 




3. f. 


oooV 




u&jfl{ 


A 


2. m. 


• ** 




<oL^*l.( 


m m 


2. f. 






<A-*w 


V * A 


1. 


^* 




<*w 


**« 


Impf. sg. 3. m. 


&V 




j^>^ 


)&H 


3. f. 


W 




Jb&|4 


&il 


2. m. 


W 




J*w 


JUWt 


2. f. 


**" 




<*w 


<«i 


1. 


**K 






J«J 


pi. 3. m. 


<a*fcj 






^H 


3. f. 


<r*¥ 






***** 


2. m. 


v dao*l. 




v*-& 


v da»U. 


2. f. 


^»J' L 




**»!4 


^U 


1. 


J**» 




ja;M 


**H 


Impt. sg. m. 


&> 




J*W 


J*W 


f. 






**W 


u&»| 


pi. m. 


°*! 




•*W 


•**i 


f. 


«*» 






***'$ 


Part. act. sg. 


***** 


***«» 


J&*to2>, JLbojk» 


J&^, JL^»^p 


pi. 


**«*> 


^»^o 


^&|k&, ^Jb»V&& 


^po, ^toyap 


pass. sg. 


*•**»» 


**■»*» 




u»pp, U*»P? 


pi. 


^2>i^>, 


^b«pB 




***** ***** 


Inf. 


aJbo^s 




4 


o&bpp 



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§ 177. — 125 — 



VERBA MEDIAE o AND w. 

§ 177. A. Verbs, whose 2 nd rad. is looked upon as a o, or rather veria 
verbs which replace the 2 nd rad. by a long vowel, are still farther re- ^ A *_ t 
moved from the general type, in Peal, Aphel, Ethpeel and Ettaphal, 
than the preceding class. 

In Peal they have a in the Perf. between the two firm radicals 
Qajfc "stood"), and u in the Impf. and Impt. ()9oJaJ, )oojo). The intran- 
sitive m& "to die" alone has I in the Perf. (K^b).^) In the Part. act. 
they have a-e, and with lengthening, ai- ()»JLo, Jba*£) : in the Part. pass. 
i ()**£), and in the Inf. a Qajiaa). The Inf. is sometimes written inac- 
curately q\rinv>. The only verb which still exhibits middle w , has I in 
the Impf. and Impt. (yi«mi, jx^Joi)( 2 )\ in other respects it is exactly like 
those with middle o. 

B. In the Aphel I appears throughout ()&■**]? ^^qj), except in the 
Part. pass, and the Inf. (ynftv>, oaa£*). — It is the very same in Ettaphal, 
where only the Inf. has a (ja^oll?, jol*oL&3 — qAjdIK»). The Ethpeel 
agrees completely with the Ettaphal, or rather the Ethpeel in these 
verbs is quite supplanted by the Ettaphal. In the reflexives even a 
single t may be written for the double i (§ 36). The frequently occurring 
reflexive of tm*di[ "to persuade" (with Greek tt § 15, from Trslaai) is 
written < n> i, q» ll{, <m*dl{, and oftenest iOu^U (etTris), by assimilation 
of the t to the ir. So by a wrong use, in a few rare cases even j»9*^lt 
"to burst out in anger" ("to boil"). 

C. The prefixes 4 t » are applied in the Peal and Aphel without 
a vowel. And yet forms of the prefix with a vowel are not infrequently 
found, particularly in the poets, like joon^ l*°&t, ^ji "wakens up", 
t-» >v» ; rarely we have Infinitives like *a* "to remain". Whether forms 
of three syllables like ^ovxiqj occurred also, is not certain. 



(*) Very rarely indeed hJk is said to appear. 

( 2 ) But not in the Perf., where only 8dm occurs, not 8tm. In verbs med. o 
no trace has been retained of an intransitive mode in the Impf. and Impt. Peal. 



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— 126 — § 177. 

D. In the Aphel, hardening occurs according to tradition after the 
vowel a in ^il "made ready", and in ^^i^ 1 ) "measured", while the 
softness of the l 8t rad. may he held certain in *a-U "gave hack", ua*Ji[ 
"heheld", U^*»{ "I spent the night", and many others. 

E. Pael and Ethpaal make use of a double ~ (aiy) in place of the 
2 nd rad., as ja^jp "to maintain", )&*£l»f ; *^^> "to charge", &c, but some- 
times a double o (auw), as aq^ "to bedaub" (East-Syrian manner of 
writing is *$!£ § 49 B) ; ^o-j "to set right", "to admonish" (alongside of 
^j> "to set or attach on the right side" &c). The inflection of these 
verbs is exactly that of the strong verbs. 

F. Those verbs also are declined like strong verbs, which have an 
altogether consonantal w, e. g. joi "to exult", tjoj, jop, jo|, &c. ; LoSS 
"to add to" (Denominative from li^. "by, on to"), LLoSS, ^Lo^p, &c. ; 
^a^( "to act wickedly" (from JJa^ "iniquity"); u>oi "to be wide", 
u>^>(, ul>oJ "to widen" (contrasted with ouuf I "to smell", uuu* "to soften, to 
appease") ; $qlx> "to be white" (*&ju § 116, — contrasted with +£ "glanced"). 
They are mostly Denominatives, and by no means the remains of a for- 
mation more original than that of verbs properly med. o. 

GT. The following synopsis gives a view of the deviations from the 
general type, which occur in these verbs. 

Peal 



Perl. 




Impf. 


^o(^x») 




jdooj (Lqjoj) )a^ffij 




• • 


)oojo{ J^+^i 


fcsiQJD 


LAu& 


4-4- 4- 


OX\6 


ok-ob 


Impt. 


,6Kaaj& 


^oULoo 


joojd, uvxio jx*.xh, u^a-us 


9 




^qjo ^vm 


Part. act. p\J> Q»^p, 


LJLi),Jb5^i, 


Inf. 


pass. ji+£ ()&*x»). 




^ajiao (jaxpuo, &>&*)• 



(*) In certain modifications of meaning, however, the former of these two 
words is said to be given as ^*|l: and the whole matter is thereby made a subject 
of considerable doubt, ^xll in particular owes its hardness expressly to the silly 



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§178. 



127 — 



Perf. 

A 



Aphel. 
Impf. 



Part. act. )!«£» 
pass, ja-&a& 
Inf. qAam 

Ettaphal and Ethpeel. 



Impt. 



* »;, 



VERBA MEDIAE GEMINATAE. 
§ 178. A. Verbs which restore the 3 rd rad. by doubling the 2 nd verba 

mediae 

are in their origin closely related to verbs mecl. o, and they still repeatedly ge minata 
give and take to and from them (§ 58). They double the 1 st rad. after 
prefixes, otherwise the 2 nd if it is preceded and followed by a, short vowel. 
When there is no ending, and immediately before consonants, the 2 nd 
consonant remains without doubling. Only Peal, Aphel, and Ettaphal 
fall to be considered here. 

In the Perf. Peal all these verbs of course have a, and in the Impf. 
and the Impt. sometimes o, sometimes a: e.g. ^^ "to enter", ^i^J, 
^o^; J^"to shear", jd^i; o^ "to grope", «ao^j, &c.—jxL "to 
be hot", ;&juJ; *jlo "to be old", *aj; ^j "to be abominable", +U] s^J 
"to covet", s^yJ, and many others. The latter set are plainly intran- 
sitives. Only *3 "to err" has t-ai with e. 

* B. The Part. act. is like that in verbs mediae o: jJLL , v^ff; but 
doubhng makes its appearance whenever the Participle is lengthened: 
IjL^, ^ j^f , &c. Also in these forms, particularly in ^a^ "to enter", an 
\ is usually written, which however has no significance for pronunciation : 
^•Vi> or ^»^; ^-^f or ^<Lf- A superfluous I is also sometimes 
written in the Aphel (§ 35) e. g. n**'>JNy\ "to love" for nAAvyN (Inf.). 

desire to distinguish it from ^uol "eaten" (§ 23 G. Rem.). At the same time it is 
stated that, "in the land of Harran", that is, in the very home of the dialect, they 
say Vb5l. Thus always Vam &c. 



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— 128 



§178. 



C. In forms furnished with prefixes (Impf. and Inf. Peal, and the 
whole of Aphel and Ettaphal), hardening always appears: thus jqAj 
"robs"; ^i{ "hatched", &c. In this, as also in other respects, these 
forms (and the Impt. Peal likewise) agree entirely with the formations 
of verbs primae j, so that sometimes a doubt may actually exist as to 
whether a verbal form belongs to the one or to the other. 

In the Perf. Peal the 2 nd rad. becomes hard, only when an original 
vowel following it has been retained: thus like y* "dashed in pieces", 
&o*.£, .oku&a, also OAd and even in the later formations .oaA, >.iafl ; 
but kAg, £^L&. In the Impt. it is always correspondingly soft: *o-9, 

D. In the Ethpeel the 2 nd and 3 rd rads. (contrary to the funda- 
mental rule) are kept separate, and the inflection is quite the same as 
in the strong verb. Only, — when the two come together, the mode of 
writing is sometimes simplified, e. g. v ojLato for ^o; jla^j (like ^d^jpKj) ; 
k©ftoo for ljjJ?k*> (like JJ£r>k&) from )fal{ "to be robbed", jjjdU "to 
be imputed". — In the Pael and Ethpaal these verbs exactly resemble 
the strong verbs, although the pronunciation, at least in later times, 
in cases like KoaA (properly paqqeqath) allowed of a simplification (to 
paqqath or even paqath). 

E. We give in what follows a complete paradigm of the Peal (short 
only of the secondary forms). 

Perf. Impf. Impt. 



sg. 3. m. 
3. f. 
2. m. 

2. f. 
1. 

pi. 3. m. 

3. f. 
2. m. 
2. f. 
1. 



LjLd 

ojLa 



y 

• • i 



sg. m. 

f. 
pi. m. 

f. 






Part. act. jJLi, tf£ 



Inf. 



A 2 *? 



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§ 179. — 129 — 

For the Aphel the following abstract may suffice: Perf. jLa{, tj&l; 
°4J> v 6 ^>4i' — Impf. jiaj, v oJL2ki— Impt. Aajt, ^J;— Part, act. Aajp, 
{JLa^p. — Part, pass. j£^o, — tf^p* — ^ n ^ °J L ^?* 

The Ettaphal would run AaiU, &c. 



VERBS WEAK IN MORE THAN ONE RADICAL. 

§ 179. A. Verbs, which contain two weak radicals, present almost verbs weak 
no peculiar difficulties. Verbs primae J, which are at the same time than one 
tert. **, show the peculiarities of both classes, e. g. from JL&j "to damage" radlcaL 
JLa^; Aphel t*i<|, JLA^p; Impt. Aphel JL4,| "cause to forget"; ocpt "put to 
the proof, &c. They retain the n in the Impt. Peal: v*aj, &c. 

Verbs primae j, which are at the same time med. o or med. gem., 
retain their n in all circumstances, thus e. g. pals (med. o) "sleeps"; ^u 
(med. gem.) "is abominable". 

B. Verbs primae I, which are at the same time tert. >-», correspond: 
fil "to wail"; ]& "to bake" (East-Syrian JJ{, J^?); j^i, J^Jb; v d^?i 
(also ^{i § 174 B, Bern.)-, Impt. s*£{; f. v-SS (East-Syrian^);' Ethpeel 
JLsJK3,&c. (For a third verb of this kind, which appears in the Peal, III, 
v. § 183). Pael ui»{ "to heal", JU»tf &c. 

It is the same with verbs which are at once primae and tertiae ~ 
[i. e. they show the variations associated with both types of weakness in 
the radical]: J&; "to swear"; JL^5 "to sprout": oaaJ or (intr.) o*a&? 
(§ 176 D, Rem.)-,— &)j, JL^Jb; JL^J^o (also jboj& § 175 A, Bern.)] Aphel 
uabot, v*^,o{, to which add *-!©{ "to confess" and a few others which 
do not occur in the Peal: k*?o{, ?foj, ^p?o-J, &c. 

C. Verbs tert. ~, which have a w as 2 Bd rad., e. g. ?oX "to ac- 
company"; lix "to be equal", keep it always as a consonant, and ac- 
cordingly do not diverge at all from the usual type of verbs tert. ~ : e. g. 
U^; ?q^j; -oftu^; lo*l; <o©^, &c. 

D. Even in verbs secundae I, which are at the same time tert. w, 
the procedure is in accordance with the rules elsewhere given. What 
effect these rules have is shown in the following forms : Perf. ?JL£ "to find 



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— 130 — § 180. 

fault with", f. tJLi, pi. oj^; Impt. w|£, f. u |i; Inf. ijLa*. Ethpeel -J&1{.— 
Intrans. Perf. wjj "to grow tired", A-.JJ, iLjf, JL|J, a-JU, «JI and ^3g, 
^; Impf. %, <cjl3, ^; Part. lj), <(; Inf. %>. Aphel -$; Part. f. 
JLJSbp, &c. 

E. Several other combinations, which however occur very seldom 
indeed, — such as primae I and med. gem. in ,©?l (^ofl) "thou art 
groaning", or prim. I and med. o in kioliJO) "she longed for", or 
primae w and secundae I as in J^JL "she longs for", oJLjt{ (im- 
properly written a*JL1»{ § 33 B) "he longed for", and the triple weakness 
in ^»6| (Pael) "to restore to harmony", Ethpaal ~o{l{ (also written, to 
be sure, ~©l{) — need no special explanation. ^^-»{ "to lament" (§ 175 B) 
has its two Vs always separated: toj^ij, &c. 

QUADRTLITERAL AND MULTILITERAL VERBS. 

Quadriii- § 180. As Quadriliterals we reckon here both those verbs which 

muHiiiw canno ^ readily be traced back to shorter stems, such as e. g. ?o^a "to 
▼•'*■• scatter", and those, in which this is easily done. To the latter class be- 

Formation 

of quadri- long, amongst other: — 

literals. 

(1) Causatives formed with £a, like ^\g "to enslave" ; ^f*^ "to 
suspend"; f&feA "to complete"; and (from primae o or I) ^ojl "to 
proclaim"; ^fOA "to stretch forth"; wfajt "to promise"; *j£ojl "to 
delay" (in«). 

(2) The few quadriliterals formed with sa o^^op "to hasten"; 
^Att "to bring against"; uiboiap "to tend or nurse" (probably 
from id«). 

(3) Denominatives in n, like %$*&{ "to be possessed", from 
v <L.j "demoniac" (adj. from {&*$ "demon"); ^m \n ft "to sustain", "to 
hold out". 

(4) Denominatives in I : y*\^\ from w^ogj "foreign" ; **&*£* oIksiovv 
from **&*£» oIksio; (from fk*a "house"). 



(*) This form is at an early date disfigured in many ways. 



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§ 181. — 131 — 

(5) Denominatives formed by reduplication of the 3 rd radical, like 
?*^^ "to make a slave of (?|aJ^); ii^ "to wrap in swaddling clothes" 

(6) Reduplicated forms like JJoJ^lJ "to chew the cud" from Vti; 
ttoaU "to become stupid" from TQ. 

(7) Reduplicated forms like ^a^a "to complicate", and i-^-^ 
"to drag", from ^n, Yti; wju^ji "to shake"; and jd^dj "to raise up" 
from Jttt, DTI. 

(8) Forms like ;^>m "to maintain", "to nourish", from *QD; f?°^^ 
"to be wreathed", from nptf; i^oLU "to lean upon a staff" (l^oJk). 
And so too, others of all sorts. 

To these may be added simple Denominatives like »vi\l "to teach" 
from ??»vjS>1 "disciple"; ^gav> "to pledge", from the Assyrian borrowed- 
word |L&jl& "pledge"; ta-*^»{ "to become a proselyte", from the Jewish 
word Jf^-s^; toaoj "to give form" (J^aaoj), &c. ; and, along with these, 
even compounds like ou^JU "to become man", from JUu? ^a; «r\qiS, jf "to 
be an adversary", from )laan\j> (from )hnJD + X + ?), &c. Along with 
these Quadriliterals there are many also from Greek words, like s^^H? 
"to accuse", from /car^yopo^; tO&'V? "to remove", "to depose", from 
fca&aipsaig, &c. ; uflmN "to rob" from jLTfcmN. Xyanljg. 

The Quadriliterals have an Active form, and a Reflexive form : 
^j^ "to roll" (trans.), ^^M "to roll" (intrans.) ; t viN>i "to teach", 
fM^ll{ "to be taught"; ^£4* "to estrange", ^&iU "to become 
estranged" ; ^jojl "to notify", ^fofcu*t "to understand, or know", &c. 
Many appear in the reflexive form only. 

§ 181. The inflection is exactly that of the Pael and corresponding inflection. 
Ethpaal, except that in this case the two middle consonants take the 
place of the one double consonant, thus : ^^-^ like ^^o, tejs^s^, 

Part. act. ^^**, JJk^*>; pass. ^5^», JJ^j**; Inf. <^^> 
(Nomen actionis JjL^oi § 123). — Reflexive ^^j>l{, ft^^JU; Impf. 
>^p.Ki, v <^pJU; Impt. > H^l{; Part. ^^L>, KftA*; 

Inf. o^^Jk*. 



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verbs. 



— 132 — §§ 182. 183 

It makes no difference whether the 2 nd letter be a o or a — , as, 
for instance, in ;^oit> "to support" ; ^faa "to announce". 

Those which end in % follow entirely the analogy of the Pael of 
tert. w, e. g. u^ojt "to complete", K Avia, k>N*ia (2 nd sing. m.), 
k«Nv>a (l 8t sing.), o N Vi a ; Impf. (boju, ^oNyiifci; Irapt. J|*&*>. — Reflexive 
i^o&j^{, ^Av>^a|, &c. Of an Impt. of the Reflexive of such verbs I 
know only the forms *-s^-^t?( a ) W^ȣl{?) and ~ojl*JLJ( 2 ); and these 
do not end in a, as one would have expected. 

Muitmterai § 182. In like manner several Quinqueliterals also appear. To this 

class belong first, verbs which repeat the two last radicals, like yiiS*tfS»»U 
"to have bad dreams", from Jba\£ "a dream", and s^^p* "to stir up 
fancies", the reflexive of which, s^r^Jkjt( "^ ^ ave fancies", (from 
JL^jjA "a little lamp", a borrowed-word from the Persian) occurs fre- 
quently. Farther, words occur like wJo)u>U (fju>) "to show one's self off", 
"to swagger". The inflection of these verbs is quite like that of the 
Quadriliterals, except that here it is generally the first consonant which 
is without the vowel. 

Bern, Detached words like V |\\~»i? "to be at law" (JLj ^^a) ; 
^j^joK "to be a KvfiepirfrTjg", and even n^\y»i? "to be an enemy" 
(J&&1 ^^a), and v > fl> m;-ol{ "to be a ypumairig" are to be regarded as 
affected malformations, which in no way belong to the language. 



LIST OF ANOMALOUS VERBS. 

List of § 183. (1) ujL&jk£ "to find" (Aphel) instead of u^ajtt; so 

^erbT u uuajup (Part.), ou^iy. Only the Part, passive is transferred to the Peal: 



. ( s ). A new Aphel, certified only in later times, appears perhaps 
in anil "to cause to find" Job 7, 2 Hex. 



Q) Lagarde, Anal. 20, 28 (6 Codd.). 

( 2 ) Gregor. Naz. Carm. II, 23, 21; but l*i^ll in Testam. Jesu Christi 104, 12. 

( 3 ) So fAA* "foedus" (adj.) from *a* "foedare" &c. A Peal faA in this or 
in a similar meaning does not otherwise occur. The forms given by Payne-Smith 
4158 all belong to the Pael. *a* is properly, perhaps, a Shaphel of "D2. 



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§ 183. — 133 — 

(2) l\[ "to come". Impt. l\ (with loss of the I and with a), f. ^; 
pi. ot, f. ^ (^(p.— Aphel ~|j. Ettaphal ~tu/U. 

(3) ȣ$) "to run". Impt. ^Sif). 

(4) VJ{ "to go". The >w faUs out (§ 29), as often as it would 
otherwise have to follow a vowel-less j, and take a vowel itself, thus 
*SLJ{ (1" sg.): t£L% (3 f. sing.); v a^JU; ft{; ^Jf, &a, but kjff, 
^6fi^ji[( 2 ) &c. Impt. ^J (with falling away of the I and with e), w^J, oXJ, 
^»N,J. Only the Peal occurs. 

(5) .n\m "to ascend". The X is assimilated to the tm, whenever the 
latter stands in the end of a syllable and the former comes first in the 
one immediately following. These forms, namely Impf. and Inf. Peal, 
Aphel and Ettaphal, look just as if they had been derived from pD3, 
thus: »nrrTi, v oomj, ^ftmi, <nnr>v>; *&**>{, &$**{> **"*& **&*?, ° aAX ^P 
auoplfco,, &c. (Pael and Ethpaal are regular .n\m, dafcJ^i»{.) The Impt. 
too runs as if from pDi (§ 173 C): «ax», ujud, nnm ( v anm), tH? 1 ?* 

(6) ook "to give" (with poets also dissyllabic, thus oc*? doubtless) 
loses its ot in the forms ooU, k»©**, wKaom, oao^, ooU (u5o^), 
^o&^ot*, ^Kao^j, ^ow»; but Ibo^, V?°** (the East-Syrians throw it 
out in these forms also, § 38). Impt. ♦»£♦, uait, ^*££) (the a occurring 
on account of the guttural, by § 169). Part. act. oo»i, J&o»~; — pass, 
o^o^. For the Inf. (only as Inf. absol., along with forms from oo^) 
oot&; but usually a ^J&oo, from ^ni appears instead, which also 
supplies the Impf.; one says only ^J^J, ^ql^AJ, &c. — Ethpeel is 
regular, oow»U, kao*JL(, &c. No other conjugations from oot* or ^Kj 
are in use. 

(7) JLLl> "to live". The Perf. is regular: JLLu, *JL*, K~ju, k*-ou, o^, 
v**ju, ^o^aaju, ^-ol>. — So too the Impt. : wJuu, wLu, o-jju. But the Impf. 
is formed as if from a verb wed. #m.: JLuj, JLul, <ojuj, ^0*4 ( an( * no 



(*) The pronunciation fai£ with the falling away of the r appears to be known 
neither to the ancient tradition of the East-Syrians, nor to that of the West- 
Syrians. 

(^ In Bernstein's Johannes are varying forms like VjJLm&», %$S$9, &c. which 
have e, alongside of those like VjJL£l, &c which have I— (§ 174 £. Bern.). 



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— 134 — § 184. 

doubt ^*juj, ^a>1). Now this readily passes into the form of verbs 
primae I : even at a pretty early date there is found written JL>Jj, and the 
later West-Syrians at least have JLJJ, JLip, &c. The Inf. too is JLlc* 
(JL^b, JLiJtfb).— Part. J^S, f. JL^>; pi. ^ or ^JLi, f. ^Lift. The Aphel 
too is formed as if from med. gem.: **j&i[, A^i* 0dU *i5 J^J> J^P5 ,-u ^P 
(Part, pass.); oJLuAp (Nomen agentis JjULuip). The mode of writing which 
is preferred for these Aphel forms is JLujff, JLuJ^p, &c. (§ 35). So with 
the Ettaphal ^U{. 

(8) Joof "to be". The Perf. JL4o», k*ooi, &c. is quite regular: as 
an enclitic, however, it loses (v. §§ 38; 299) its or. ?o6f, loot, &c. The 
Impf. also is usually quite regular: loop, ?oo»t, ^ooop, &c; still, the 
following secondary forms occur, in which the o has fallen out, and with 
no difference of meaning: (op, {oil, vpop, <o©»l, ^oU (2 sing f.). Even 
the first two forms are far less frequently employed than the full forms, 
and the others still less frequently, in particular the last one. Notice 
alongside of the Part. loA, |ioot "being, becoming", the Part. pass. ?©©*, 
jLtoot, pi. ^oot (Emph. st. JLZgc*) "existing" (or "created") and the verbal 
adjective ~S£, {JLoS* "been" (§ 118). 

VERBS WITH OBJECT-SUFFIXES. 

verbs with § 184. V. supra § 66. 

sufflxts. The 1 st person of the verb cannot have the suffixes of the l 8t joined 

(a) With tQ it nor the 2 nd thoge of the gnd ( 2) There j g nQ guffix Q £ the 3rd j 
strong ter- r ' 

minatioD. the separate v qj{, or ^j{ supplies its place. 

Leading . 

rules. ~o», — which comes in room of ©*-. after a vowel-ending, — becomes, 

with a, ~oWl; with I it becomes w©ta^-L; with e, w5»o^L (§ 50 A. (3)). 
Before Suffixes, k- of the 2 nd sg. m. Perf. is modified into kw; 
~ftv of the 2 nd sg. f. Perf. into ~Aw; 

^ of the 1 st pi. Perf. into J 



(*) Not to be confounded with the adjective *£, |I£, &c. "living", "active". 
( 2 ) The only exception known to me is the poetical expression «*i*u*f; "that I 
might see myself", Ephr. II, 506 t 



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§ 184. — 135 — 

the ending ^$, <6 (<©l) into J$, Jo (-iol); 
the ending ^-1 into L- (more rarely -*LJ.) ; 

the ending ^-1 into -1-1; 

the ending t j— (^) into -L*i (X£) ; 
and the 3 pi. f. Perf. is made to end in a. 

The a of these forms is wanting, however, before the suffix of the 
2 nd sing. f. u 1 I , which here preserves its e, (probably also in the 3 rd pi. 
f. before the suffix of the 2 nd pi.). — Secondary forms also occur in which 
the suffix of the 3 rd sing. m. (o*-L) retains the e. 

The forms of the Lnpf. which end in the 3 rd consonantal rad. (3 sg. 
m. and f. ; 2 sg. m. ; 1. sg. and pi.) assume an l before the suffixes of the 
3 rd sing. ; the Impt. sing. m. takes an a or an ai before all suffixes, when 
it ends in a consonant. 

Attention should be paid to the distinction between I and I in the 
different persons of the verb. Only the East-Syrians, however, are con- 
sistent in this matter; the West-Syrians frequently give a hard sound 
even to the I of the 3 rd sing. fern. 

The verbal forms are least altered before the suffixes of the 2 nd pi. 

(v^ and t^)- 

Seeing that these suffixes ,q-d and ^d are treated entirely alike, 

and that, besides, very few vouchers are found for the latter, I leave 

it out of the Paradigm. For the forms of the Impf. which end in the 3 rd 

rad., the 3 rd sing. m. may suffice as their representative; for those in un, 

the 3 rd pi. m. ; for those in an, the 3 rd pi. f. 

I mark with an asterisk (*) those forms, of which the accuracy 

does not appear to be fully established. 



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— 136 — 



§185. 



§185. 








REGULAR VERB 


Perfect Peal. 




Sg. I st . 


Sg. 2. m. 


Sg. 2. f. 


Sg. 3. m. 




*^&? 




u i>6p 


3. f. 




«*J&^$dD 


^kS2j^ 


w*ghVfto 


2. m. 




wJ&^A 


— 


— 


2. f. 




uliNVflp 


— 


— 


1. 







1 k^j> 


^k^fr* 


PI. 3. m. 




v*JO^£dO 


i<***te 


^Q^jp 


3. f. 




ui^JLo 


Trtrx 




2. m. 




ojJoKSi^n 


— 


— 


2. f. 




uol*k^o 


— 


— 


1. 




— 


>4^> 


*uijVflo 


Impf. Peal. 










Sg. 3. m. 






*4^ 




2. m. 


{ 


1TI J ii * 


— 


— 


2. f. 




t.ii^^oi 


— 


— 


PI. 3. m. 




^6^AJ 


yJO^S ^ n 1 


>oio^^ni 


3. f. 




uiNflri) 


^i^iii 


Vag^iiJ 


Impt. Peal. 










Sg. m. 




<«!>>*, CI fljp 


— 


— 


f. 




yi>\n^n 


— 


— 


PI. m. 


{ 




— 


z 


f 


{ 


*uf^fi^i> 


— 


— 


L. 


ui\l\ ofljp 


— 


— 


Inf. Peal 


MiN^ny 


v 2 *^** 


"?>ft ft y 


Pael. 




wjLq^a^o 


#****• 


^iOL^JftdO 



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§185. 



— 137 — 



WITH SUFFIXES. (Peal.) 








Sg. 3. m. 


Sg. 3. f. 


PI. 1. 


PI. 2. m. 




^** 


***** 


.<S4? 


v d4^^> 




°4^ 


6,*^gj> 


v^8- 


v*-?V*te 




wO^ts^^T) 


6»k^ 


v$^> 


— 




wOtO-t^!gjD 


*-£*$* 


,Jfc*$* 


— 




c**^* 


6,k^x> 





v aai^g»o 




wOtQ^^O 


6»o^a 


%? :: ^? 


^SQ^jB 




^ft^&ji 


*^*f 


T=*4# 


\^4^ii 




wov-Jofc^guD 


c^id^JgdO 


<j6te^§jo 


— 




~©^Jj|^gd& 


<*J-fe*$* 


<xJk>$* 


— 




~SU^gdD 


Oii^* 


— 


v a*i^JB 


{ 




6»,.:>&n? 


*^ 


^C^Q^Ai 


{" 




1 <*^a£4 


1 t^*44 


— 


{ 




*i^44 


V^44 


— 


{ 




• * +A- ft * 


<J6££*i 


9 ^4- • f> 


{ 




c^^iii 


A4" 


\d^£iii 




w^\d^jD 


o^d^o 


^a^u 






w5)Q >\ d^jp 


6t<'Sn^jo 


^d^j> 


— 


{ 


^6»Q^QJD 


1 6*io^ai 


1 ,J^<^ 


— 




— 


{ 


— o^o^jo 


1 64-^*^6 


( *^*4* 


— 


w5UL^,d^jo 


— 




oe^ai 


6£j^ft* 


<S4** 


tO^Vflrrft 




o»^6^o» 


^tcC^jaio 


vi ^- 





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— 138 — §§ 186. 187. 

observa- § 186. On the Perfect: For the 3 pi. m. there appears also before 

perfect! * suffixes, although rarely, the lengthened form in un(a), as wrn/tovirp 
"they laid him"; wdjoijju (no doubt uiiofjju) "they encompassed me": — 
Overbeck's 'Ephraim Syr. &c.' 137,9; yjo^s^ "they entrusted thee". — 
Julianus 90, 25; yion|.j "they gave thee suck" Jac. Sar., Constantin 
v. 402 Var. (cf. § 197). — In the same way there occur for the 3 pi. f. 
forms with en(d), like 6* I *jr% & (also written 6Mf£jw, which has been 
inaccurately understood as migSv ; hardly perhaps to be pronounced 

For the 3 rd sg. f., with suffix of the 2 Bd pi. there is found as a 
variant for ^qqNi^ "conceived you" Is. 51, 2, the doubtless more 
original v q~d£^l!§^ (from the intrans. ^^)* 

The 3 rd pi. m. sometimes remains without ending before the suff. 
of the 2 nd pi.: ^^(East-Syrian ^^§174 A) Judges 10, 12 "they 
oppressed you"; and <n *\ aaS f &Tcipcd;av bjULdtg, Acts 15, 24 (also Hark.). 

Examples § 187. The trifling variations from the Paradigm, which are called 

tions. f° r * n Intransitives, in certain weak roots, and in the Pael and Aphel, 
are shown by the following examples, to the analogy of which the other 
forms also give way: Intransitives; ojKaauu* "she loved her"; vfNrfl^ 
"she conceived me". — Weak\ 6»|jui| "he held her"; vj^^H "he me ^ y ou "> 
sS\M, "she held me"; % f\ "begat us"; yi^ "she brought thee forth"; 
<o-pN^j£ "I knew you" ; ^o^^» "they knew thee" ; ot^ot* "he gave her" ; 
^kao^ "I gave thee" (§ 183); ^Jb* "he begged thee"; ^6^4* "they 
begged thee" (others— ^J^u, f*Lk>, cf. § 171); ^osi^ "he heard 
you"; 6fKaax» (others — 6»kaax» § 184) "she set her"; ujKaafip "thou 
didst set me"; uKvim "I set thee"; ^noNvinp "I set you"; woiotta, 
w ^JqAj» "they set him"; <*$j& "he dug it (f.)"; o»^a» "she dashed 
it (m.) in pieces"; ©tk^J "I desired her"; w6»ot^ "they dragged 
him forth". 

Pael and Aphel : ot^la "he blessed him" ; t^H? "he received us" ; 
^q^+qs* "he ordered you"; o&hl "he reached him, or came up with 
him"; o»&^ajp "she received him"; wjK\V^ "she dipped me"; aNN^S 
"I strengthened thee" ; oJuiji^ij "thou (f.) didst make me angry" ; 



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§ 188. — 139 — 

^ojftbs^$o{ "I made known to you" ; ^qjiId^ "we blessed you" ; v o ntvfot 
"we made known to you" ; woUSoJbs^a^A? "you delivered him up" ; 
otQ^LKa "they deflowered her"; wohuaj "they (f.) praised him"; 
^pbl^ "made (3 pi. f.) us astonished": ^.Afiij "found (3 pi. f.) him"; 
o^m{ "he made him ascend" (§ 183); ^oako&t "I led you forth";— . 
«*jljLa "thou comfortedst me" (§ 172 A); ~o»ojbft% "polluted (3 pi.) 
him"; v?^^f- "they asked us"; — ot^uS? "he raised him up"; ©tk^Jl 
"thou didst disturb her"; ^i^ji "she disturbed thee"; wojoaiLuDit "they 
raised him up", "established him"; ^oAij "they persuaded him". — 
ui^ul "he loved me"; «*j&ou&t "thou lovedst me"; .dsk.»j&{ "I loved 
you"; ^oiOLL^I "they made him eager"; ov^*J "he introduced him"; 
<-.yT4v{ "they introduced thee (f.)" ; ^o-okA^J "I introduced you (pi.)". 

§ 188. On the Imperfect: The 2 nd form of the 2 nd sg. m. accomo- on the 
dates itself entirely to the Impt. sg. m. (§ 190). It serves properly to JmveT{ect ' 
denote prohibition (with jl "not"), but it stands also in other uses, just 
as the original form stands also in prohibition. 

The 2 Bd sg. f. also takes before suffixes the form uk.: thus, 
uidJufoji "thou (f.) dost hunt me" ; woto^Luo^t "thou art justifying him" ; 
cH»T»fiii»l "thou art choking her". 

The forms of the suff. of the 3 rd sg. m. o*— . and wO)o^l alternate 
without distinction in the cases concerned. With f. suff., forms like 
6Tv^nj in place of 6» <N fc n i, &c. occur more rarely. 

For woto^ there occurs in the Codex Sinaiticus wow» (how pro- 
nounced ?), interchanging with the usual forms, e. g. wqjAcv? "I take 
him" (= woto^jajt() ; wo^uuaaj "finds him" ; wot,v>.nn{ "I place him" ; 
^om^ju^I "I pity him", &c. So wo^jo+j "judges him" Isaac I, 242 
v. 397. Isolated cases of woio used instead, occur in the Cod. Sin., e. g. 
wQ»o^\n "gives him power" (= wo»n>^\gi); so wo*OfX)i "we con- 
strain him" Vita St. Antonii ed. Schulthess 11 paen.O 



( x ) There is an additional example there of such a form. The editor draws 
attention, — in the Introduction p. 5, Rem. 3 — , to several others in the cod. D of the 
Vita Alexis. 



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— 140 — §§ 189. 190. 

The very rare forms in o_ instead of Jo before suffixes are hardly 
certain, like wJo aaa rn i "they support me" Apost. Apocr. 316, 4 ab. inf. 
and v Q-oos?p according to Martin in a KarJcafish gloss of a Parisian 
Codex of Jer. 

Examples § 189. Examples of variations (*): WiYft a: .drS-a+J "he takes you 

of varia- * * * 



tkms. away"; ^o-D^aU "I break you"; v <La-^i»{ "I take you"; ot^a- 00 ! "I 
take her"; wo»oj^[ "I kiss him"; opoJ^J "keep (3 pi.) him"; 
dil^i "thou (f.) plantest her";— *4±i{ "I give thee (f.)"; ^\\[ "I 
give you (f.)"; — ^qj^o-d^ "she eats you"; wo»o^ju( "I hold him"; 
~©*Jofui "they hold him"; 6tSoLU> "they inherit it (f.)"; 6»ia£^ "you 
know her";— woto^J^ (~5»a^4j4 § 34) "I beg him"; v*i5a£jU.L 
"you beg me, or ask me"; — v*aio?{ "I judge thee (f.)"; w6*a*Io£j "we 
judge him"; ^q-&.jo?{ "I judge you"; i*aJaJo£j "they judge thee (f.)"; 
w^JIoJj "they (f.) listen to him"; wot*2o.ia*mj "they place him"; — * 
"lusts after her". 



Pael and Aphel: ^ny^i "blesses us"; wJ^vivl "thou causest me to 
dwell"; v^AAii{ "I gather thee (f.)"; i**ioflaJ "they give thee (f.) gain"; 
oqou^iii, wo^>io^^iiii "they glorify him"; yLjAMi "they (f.) glorify 
thee" ; ujlLJL^L "thou (f.) provokest me to anger" ; ^o.^^rni "he brings 
tidings of good to you"; v a.o+&^J "baptises you"; — ot-9>9<( "I cast him 
out"; v ojaJojauaj "they cast you out"; ^qjxjoj^j "they comfort you"; — 
y^JLjj "he asks thee"; ~©hJg£JLij "they ask him"; ^oaXJLa? "I ask 
you";— ^aSS "I teach thee"; yp^*^ "I teach you"; — w©)a*a2b*ol "I 
establish him"; — wo*o~^j "he awakens him"; ^J'^J "they (f.) awaken 
us"; ^n ^Vi > o i "he establishes you"; o» loan . o i "they establish him" ; — 
uimML "thou directest me aright"; oj.Xui "he profanes it (her)"; 
of^LuL "thou (f.) lovest him" ; <>i?J\l "thou (f.) vexest me" ; ©Pqjd^j 
"they shatter him (or it) in pieces". 



on theim- § 190. A. On the Imperative: Besides the two forms of the pi. m. 

anduhe^nd noted in the Paradigm, there are other two secondary forms occurring 
sing. m . here and there, as, for instance, wotnon^i, "leave him", and wo)>iof»n^ 

Impf. 



( x ) For 2 nd form of the 2 nd sg. m. v. on the Impt. § 190 0. 



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§ 190. — 141 — 

"sacrifice him" (v. under F). There are some traces found of a form of 
the sg. f. like uilrvo^o or even ui»f>X6^g. 

B. The sg. m. always retains the vowel immediately before the 
3 rd rad., thus not merely in wo^o^jo; <.. i«vy "hear me"; ujufo^ 
(East-Syrian ui*?ot^ § 174 G) "think on me", "remember me"; 6t*^I»$ 
"love her"; 6t*$aj "buy her"; ^o),j^\ "make him": — >~ot*£Sl "learn 
it" (and of course o^vwm "place her"; woj > ffoS, "curse him"), &c, 
but also in the Pael and Ethpaal, as w^„,AXl "fix his bounds" : 6t*t&i 
"observe her"; uJuaSs "teach me": ujuj *a "comfort me": 6»X"w* 

7 A <t ,* ' 'AAA ' ^ * 

"cherish her"; woU^a! "dehver him up"; <-o^£o( "make known to 
me"; 6t*^?o{ "make known to her"; u i >N> I "lead me in". 

So too verbs primae J and o, with falling away of the 1 st rad. : 
woj.ofn, uiifxii "kiss him", "kiss me"; ui»9io "follow me"; ^ ^~* 

1 A 7 7 A A ' ' * A 

"take her"; uduj^"draw me"; 6**ao* "give her"; wot^o* "give him"^); 
*^o**^j> "acknowledge him". 

C. Exactly the same vocalisation holds good also in the 2 nd form 
of the 2 nd sg. m. Impf. «*idUDO^ai "thou deliverest me"; o+*poii»i "thou 
art choking her"; woU&juti "thou lovest him"; — 6t*9oLL "thou art 
drawing her"; wch^U, "thou givest him"; — t*ju£p6$i "thou sprinklest 
me"; — «.».u*>N.al "thou deliverest me up"; <»i«9fvl» "thou teachest me"; 
ui*£aoL "thou destroyest me" ; ^»S>t "thou leadest us in", &c. 

D. Such a vowel, however, is not found in the shorter form of the 
pi. m. Notice that the vowel u stands here, in the Peal, even with verbs 
which have a or e in the Impf. and Impt. : e. g. w^&^oj "take ye him 
away"; w^oi "make him"; ujnsy>o m "hear ye me"; ^o»opoo( "say 
ye of him" (and of course wojojo? "judge ye him" ; oto^oN "curse ye 
her"), &c. — Pael and Aphel: oJa^\d "save me"; wotaloU "make him 
secure" ; wotd^JLo "take him" ; ^ou&dott "lead us away" ; w6to^ao{ "lead 
him away"; w6to-ai{ "cast him out"; w6toJL^ "comfort ye him", &c. 
But in wotojjUp^ "put shoes upon him", a vowel is of course* needed for 



O Barh., for Ex. 22, 26 and 1 Sam. 21, 9, would have «.**&«, but that is 
hardly correct. 



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Infinitive. 



— 142 — § 191. 

the I (§ 34). This is the formation adopted by some writers even in the 
case of very short forms wd»oao», otaaot "give ye him", "give her"; 
6taA.flD "take ye her"; while others say wotoaif, 6»oa5»; and even 
otaaocD (== otOAOCD) occurs. 

So too in the sg. f. of Pael and Aphel there should be no vowel 
before the 3 rd rad., thus : uLuuaa "praise me" ; wO)o,\^i, "entice him" ; 
^»oto*Ai*t "suckle him"; ui.«.vvui{ "cause me to hear"; still we find also 
■ ; «-"^;-; u.t.i-vy ?; wo^o^Ajd "take him"; and in fact this corresponds 
to the vocalisation of the Peal (as woto*?Qjui "hold him"). Cf. the fluc- 
tuation between oJ.ivi.^ and <.i>TA.S» "believe me" (§ 197). Thus 
w5»o*aS) (others ~oia*»o»), and 6*-*% "preserve her". — For a longer 
form in Ind as in the Impf. v. § 198 A. 

E. Altogether, only a few examples occur of the pi. f., as wo»YaA g 
"praise him" (without any vowel before the 3 rd rad.), or of the longer 
form ujI^Loj "listen to me". 

F. In the pi. m. in un(d) two forms stand overagainst each other 
in the Peal, — the more usual one, like uJlSo^ojp "bury me" ; wo^Jo^ot 
"take liim"; oJiovv>o,a "hear me", — and the less common one, with the 
vowel before the 3 rd rad., like uoioid^JD ; wo»Jof>oy "slay him"; 
ojJa^a^ "taste me". The forms primae i follow the second of these 
two modes, like uTio^m, wo^la^fip "take me", "take him"; woUjo^J, 
6po£l£ "preserve him", "preserve her" (cf. in addition ujiotoj "listen to 
me"; wo^jojoj "judge him", &c). The vowel is always retained in the 
Pael and Aphel: uiio^^n "receive me"; 6*iovi§j "guard her"; cuio^fot 
"make known to me" ; wo^Jo a^NS "clothe him" ; ^olonftl "cast ye 
him out". 

G. For ^o^A-1 (sg. m.) the East-Syrians write wo^l (§ 84 B). 

on the § 191. On the Infinitive : In the Peal cf. farther 6»SJ&op, yV^^P 

"to give her", "to give thee" ; 6&* "to judge her". 

Occasionally forms are met with, which, following the analogy of the 
Impf., insert an I before the suff. of the 3 rd sg. m.: — wota^L&Jup "to take 



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§§ 192. 193. — 143 — 

him" (in place of ofVriay) ; wojo ,v ;a& "to pay him" ; <Sj J$V*& "to set 
her free"; wotQ^AJiJbo "to enchant^) him". 

The forms of the Aphel, as otio^ffnv>, &c. correspond to those of 
the Pael; in verbs mediae o, we have ^oaKao "to lead thee back", &c. 

§ 192. Verbs tertiae ~ require special treatment. The a of the verba 
3 rd sg. m. Perf. is retained before suffixes ; and it is the same with the wii i w 
vowel endings of the root in the Impf. and Impt. On the other hand, ^uL"' 
the x of the Perf. and the a of the Inf. pass into y, except before ^o-a, rule8 - 
and ^d. Notice the transmutations of the diphthongs peculiar to 
each: au into a(w)u ol— (also written oo— , oo{— : East-Syrian 
o?— , &c. § 49 B): in into yu\ ai (Impt. sg. f.) into a(y)i *+{— (or 
written -2-L). For orthographic differences also with e in these cases, 
v. infra. 

§ 193. We give the forms of the Perf. complete in the Paradigm,, Paradigm, 
for Peal and Pael, and from the latter the corresponding forms of the 
Aphel are easy to construct. Only we omit the 2 nd pi. f. (in ^i) which 
can hardly be authenticated, but which at any rate follows exactly the 
analogy of the 2 nd sg. m. (i. e. of the strong verb). In the Impt. we 
require to cite the Pael forms for the sg. m. only. It is not necessary to 
cite them at all in the Impf. It may suffice generally for this section 
of the Paradigm to note down one single personal form ending in JLL, 
seeing that the forms with other endings follow the analogy of the 
strong verb. 



O Geop. 95, 22; Clemens 136, 18; Is. 37, 34, Hex.; Clemens 140, 13, 14 (twice); 
three examples from the Codex of 411 A. D. 



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— 144 — 



§193. 



PARADIGM OP VERB TERT. w 
(Peal and 



Perfect 


Sg. 1. 


Sg. 2. m. 


Sg. 2. f. 


Sg. 3. m. Peal 


^^, 


r^*» 


*4^ 


Pael 


-^ 


>^W 


«*^^, 


3. f. Peal 


^^N^ 


t^ 


•i^w 


Pael 


-4£^ 


*s^ 


^^^. 


2. m. Peal 


^V^w 


— 


— 


Pael 


*J^^ 


— 


— 


2. f. Peal 


^^^> 


— 


— 


Pael 


uJU*^^ 


— 


— 


1. Peal 


— 


fV^*. 


•**v^, 


Pael 


4~ 


A**> 


**?Ww 


PI. 3. m. Peal 


^»o)jl^ 


f»k* 


^4^. 


Pael 


wJofN^ 


yoi^ 


v^aoi^^ 


3. f. Peal 


ul2J^ 


^*> 


v * : 4*^ k 


Pael 


wjjfc^ 


^ 


*^AW 


2. m. Peal 


V*ii6k^H^ 





— 


Pael 


^oL^ 





— 


1. Peal 


— 


f^ 


^±^> 


Pael 


— 


r 1 ^^ 


****-^ 


Impf. Peal 


**^W 


^W 


**- s ^^ 


Impt. sg. m. Peal 


^^s. 





— 


Pael 


-^ 





— 


sg. f. Peal 


HK» 





— 


pi. m. Peal 


^°J^ 


' 


— 


pi. f. Peal 


-9 ^ 

* 6 '^^ 





— 


Inf. Peal 


y ^s^» 


ylX^b 


«*4^s^fc 


Pael 


ujUfV^Vt 


jUiJ^ 


^lai^.^0 



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§193. 

WITH PRONOMINAL 
Pael). 



— 145 
SUFFIXES. 



Sg. 3. m. 


Sg. 3. f. 


PI. 1. 


PL 2. m. 


-O^H^, 


*¥^ 


<^ 


v d 4 : ?s^ 


<»A^ 


oO^ 


*£^ 


<?*^C 


«W^ 


^^J^. 


£>^ 


«%K 


«W^ 


4*** 


v^W 


^■S^^. 


-*-^<^ 


*v^ 


vW^ 


— 


-o»4^ 


«W^ 


vW^ 


— 


w©ta»fco£js^ 


^j-^ss* 


*^*^ 


— 


wdtajb^^ 


©♦-^^ 


*v^ 


— 


•"V 2 ^ 


«V^ 


— 


^V^. 


4*^, 


*v^ 


4- 


amV^C 


-*°^ 


«o^ 


*w 


^80»l^ 


-ojoi^ 


6,oi^ 


v ai^ 


^daai^ 




^^^ 


^^ 


? 


•< ^^ 




w©j*I^ 


*S*w 


.^ 


? 


wO^Jofc^Js^ 


o^oft^^^ 


<JoL^ 


— 


wOidJ6K^^ 


6*Joi^^ 


^joL^^ 


— 


— • v. 


*L^ 


— 


^i-^ 




^o>>L<yjL 


*U*^ 


— 


^ i 4^ ( 


~««->^ 


»^w 


*W 


<?*^W 


-OtO-^^ 


«*-^s^ 


*^ 


— 


«-OM^ 


«*W 


^^ 


— 


w6»Q-|^ 


*$%> 


«jk 


— 


-OK»^ 


Hk. 


v«K. 


— 


. ^■•8,S^ t 


6 ^^ 


^^ 


— 


,°^^ 


9 ^^ 


. r£^* 


v^V^ 


Otlol^^D 


otla^S^a 


vi*^^» 


10 



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— 146 — §§ 194 195. 

on the § 194. On the Perfect: The i of the 2 nd pers. always remains hard; 

perfect. ^ e East-Syrians usually extend this process to the 1 st sg. also, except 
in the Peal, — contrary to the ancient practice — while the genuine West- 
Syrian tradition leaves the I soft in this position. Notice the forms of 
the 3 rd f. sg. in the Pael and Aphel, which preserve the a, for which the 
East-Syrians put a (e. g. ©iftJao*! "she threw him", § 43 C). 

Forms from these verbs of the 3 rd m. pi. in un(a) before suffixes 
are very rare, the only cases known to me being the following two: 
w5frJojuL» "they saw him" Mark 6, 49 S. ; and wot*ioJLL* "they scourged 
him" Land II, 26, 11: on the other hand individual cases of the 3 rd f. pi. 
in en(a) are somewhat oftener met with, like wofcLjLu "they (f.) saw him' 

Forms of Aphel: ot*a9$( "he threw him"; ^dua^^^f "he increased 
you"; ^ik-obo{ "I adjured you (f.)"; otoi^jaol "they rejected her"; — 
t*i*JL»( "he enlivened me"; yj^-uul "she enlivened me"; vufiouil "thou 
didst enliven me". 
on the § 195. On the Imperfect: The e before the suff. of the 2 nd pi. is often 

not expressed through >-♦: ^aoiii = ^Qua.^Qju{ "I show you", &c. The 
forms which do not end in JL- follow closely the analogy of the strong 
verb ; cf. wo^Jo^oi "they call upon him", alongside of opokjd "they 
drink it (m.)"; yibpai "they call thee"; u^Jo^aj "they deliver thee (f.)"; 
w^iijUui "they (f.) see him", alongside of o^ju^j "they (f.) revile him" ; 
**±ii**l "you (f.) call me"; ©UiXJLi "they (f.) bewail her";— uJl*feoi 
"thou (f.) callest me" ; wo^Lail "thou (f.) bringest him up", and even 
6t*i~jLuL "thou (f.) seest her", which can only be ©*JLju>i (§ 188). 

Answering to the forms cited above (§ 188) there are found, without 
o, in Cod. Sin. a few like wo^jLul "I see him" (= woiajbul) ; wo^oju! 
"I show him". And answering on the other hand to the forms referred 
to in the end of that section there occurs in Cod. D of Alexis (Var. to 
18, 17), as well as in the Sinai Codex of the Acts of Thomas (Burkitt 
10, 11) = Wright's Apost. Apocr. 315, 3, wOtoju>( "I see him". 

Bern. A poet (in Barh. gr. I, 151, 19) says once wo^^tt )|J (in- 
stead of woio^^tt) "do not loose him", following the analogy of the 2 nd 
form of the 2 nd sg. m. in the strong verb (§ 190 G). 



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§§ 196. 196*. 197. — 147 — 

§ 196. On the Imperative: Longer forms of the pi. m. are found, onthe 
like v*jJoo!^jl, alongside of yjoo?^ "loose me 7 '; t*iioi<£»* (v*±So<£w for 
proper uojooql^) "accompany me"; wo^JoJLx»( "heal him". Forms of 
the 2 nd pi. f. without n before the suffix hardly ever occur. Modes of 
writing are found like ^LJLxd.a = ^Sy.m^ "cover (f.) us"; wo^LJ-^ "call 
ye (f.) upon him". — For the 2 nd sg. f. a shorter style of writing is found, 
as oiTnat "give (f.) me to drink" = ux»J1&jl(. 

As in the Impf., so here also, forms occur without o, though very 
rarely indeed: wow** "throw him" (Lagarde, Anal. 11, 11), and w>Q) t iv 
(Wright, Catal. 897 ft, 19) "answer him" (for woio-pt, wOtaJk.). Farther, 
there occurs in the refrain of an ancient Church Hymn^) 6^..iv 
"answer her", a dissyllable, thus doubtless oj^Jsk according to the 
analogy of 6» >S, o ^jp. 

§ 196*. A transition of verbs tert. I to the formation of verbs tert. >-♦ Transition 
is indicated by the expressions w6»oJL^ "they comforted him" (Perf.), tertiae I 
and "comfort ye him" (Impt.); v*JoJLa "comfort ye me", — which occur as J° r ^°* b8 
secondary forms of wo^oJU^, uJoJL^ (cf. 8 172 B). before 

J . * >« v « / Suffixes. 

§ 197. The Quadriliterals (taken in the wide sense of the term Quadniiter- 
adopted above, § 180) bear themselves before suffixes also, exactly like suffixes. 
the Pael forms. A few examples will suffice: Perf. o^Vji, "he reduced her 
to slavery"; «jo*>poj (or ^a&;^$ § 52 B) "they exalted thee"; >-ofOV»^p 
"were stubborn against him"; wopJo&juo^ot "ye believed in him". With 
un wd^Jom^ai^ "they tore him in pieces". ( 2 ) 

Impf. yipojt (y^o^ji § 52 B) "she raises thee up" ; woi^^mj 
"he supports him"; ^aajA^rp? "I support you"; wo»Jo|Av;) "they 
enslave him", &c. 

Impt. (with retention of the vowel before the last radical) >-»g**&^L 
"set him or it forth"; wu^Jojl "save me"; and thus too the 2 nd form 
of the 2 nd sg. m. Impf. >-»ou£a^jkL "thou enslavest him". — Plural ujoy^rp 



( x ) Said to be by Epbraim; in the Officium Feriale of the Maronites, for 
Thursday, Noon, at the end (Roman edition of 1863, p. 355 sq. ; Kesruan ed. of 1876, 
p. 414 sq.). The refrain is repeated eight times. 

( 2 ) Overbeck 292, 25 (in four syllables). 

10* 



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fixes. 



— 148 — §§ 198. 199. 

"suffer me", of course without the vowel; but the usage fluctuates between 
<>i*ivi»S+ and uLJ^i) "believe (f.) me". 

The Quadriliterals which end in >-♦ correspond to the Pael forms 
of verbs tert. w; cf. ot-.N*i m "perfected liim or it (m.)"; ^cLa^xbil "he 
nourished you"; u*ttUkj "nourishes thee"; uiAanai "perfects me"; 
(.imnm "tend me" (Impt.), &c. 
Beflexive § 198. A. Of Reflexive verbs, only a few, that have become tran- 

fore suf- sitive, appear with suffixes: Of those ending in a strong rad., there occur 
in particular tJ??L( "to remember"; ?©^m "to remember"; y^Ll "to 
surround"; Alg^U "to put on"; *a ; Lll "to meditate on"; — and the 
Quadriliteral ^fo^jt? "to recognise". Examples: Perf. ot^JbULi; ^.oJtJ; 
o^jokj^; oiL^U "thou didst remember her"; ^H??L{ "I remembered 
thee"; ©Pt^jjU; wo^J?ofj{ "we provided ourselves therewith" ; ua^l^LJ; 
uJoi^iJ; yoU$l{\ woiaxjokj^; o^^dIJ (3 pi. f.), &c. Impf. ^Jki; 
v^o^dJIJ; 6»>ft^.AJ; ©mqA^J&o; uiotafAJ; yQ aiax?o^AJ, &c. Impt. 
sg. m. 6Mfcaft(; **Hp?i{; sg. f. o^jokj^; v-JUpjW and also t*iL^a$L{ 
from the lengthened form (§ 190 D) (*) ; pi. v*jjo;«djU. There occur also, 
however, with a strange imitation of the vocalisation of the Peal, 
w6*oi*oiJU and dioi$ailJ( 2 ), alongside of w©»oi^Dt( and otoi^U. 

Inf.: otloJ^ikap. 

B. Of reflexives tertiae w we have o^Ajt?, otl^Jbut? "he told 
of him, of her"; uJoiAiU "they forgot me"; 6**^JL*{ "I tell of her". 



Kj. § 199. &J "is", — properly something like "existence" (ground- 

form iJTM, — of which the ernph. st. J^k-| "the being" to 6v is still quite 
current as a substantive) — in practice passes completely over to the class 
of verbs. It combines with itself possessive suffixes, which are attached 



O Jacob of Sarug in Mart. II, 242 middle. 

( 2 ) These forms are well authenticated by both East- and West-Syrians — Josh. 
6, Ssq.; 2 Kings 11, 8; Ps. 48, 12 (in Hex. also), although the other form has likewise 
good authority (Ceriani's Text). 



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§199. 



— 149 — 



to the original ending ai, in the very same way as to the ai of the pi. 
(§ 145 A). Thus: 



wkJ — I am. 

• * 

y+k*{ — Thou art. 
s+k+t^[ — Thou (f.) art. 
wOioLI — He is. 

6*JM — She is. 



*U 



We are. 



.dl^tut — You are. 

^Ja.*lk*j — You (f.) are. 
^po^^( — They are. 

^<*jy — They (f.) are. 



Besides this usage, Aut may be combined with the separate Personal 
pronouns. — v. § 302. 

With a foregoing JJ we have KJ JJ or A^fck. "is not". The contracted 
form also takes suffixes, e. g. w5tok-CS, "he is not", &c. 



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PART THIRD. 

SYNTAX. 



I. THE SEPARATE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

The sepa- § 200. In this bran ch of the subject we adhere to the division, which * 

of speech, has already been adopted in the "Morphology", of all the words of the 
ob!e™^ ary language into Nouns and Verbs. Tins is a division, however, in which, 
tiont. there cannot be any sharp line of demarcation. Participles, for instance, 
winch in origin belong to the Noun, must on account of their essentially 
Verbal treatment be taken with the Verb ; and it appears a proper course 
farther, to associate with them in certain cases even the Predicative Ad- 
jective (§§ 254 D; 314). — With the Noun we again reckon Adverbs and 
Prepositions ; and the treatment of Copulative Conjunctions will come up 
farther on in dealing with combinations of two or more sentences. 



1. NOUNS. 

A. GENDER. 

i. Nouns. § 201. A real distinction betwixt Neuter (what is inanimate) and 

what has gender, is known to Syriac, only in the interrogative pronouns 
"what?" Jbb, ^, JUb, ^daa, and "who?" ^Sb. In the short-hand use of the 
adjective or pronoun standing alone, the Feminine usually takes the 
place of our Neuter: Thus, e. g. tyj^l "something else" Jos. St. 5, 7; 



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§ 202. — 151 — 

f woi "id qtiod"; (f£t "hoc"\ (fot ja^, "therewith, in addition to this" 
Ov. 176, 5; Ifa ^f woi "this however" Jos. St. 12, 11; liotj {fj "that 
which happened" Moes. II, 68, 25; JL*£>fcob? ^f >-6» J|ju Svdg li kri xpeia 
Luke 10, 42; cf. Aphr. 250, 19; ?*>aJJ "the good"; |Kiu£ "the evil" 
Gen. 2, 9 and frequently; (kj^&a "properly", "in a fitting manner" 
Aphr. 460, 5, &c. Cf. cases like JLuaam • • . . W&-?o "and that which still 
more .... can &c." Spic. 19, 10 (where the relative j is construed as 
feminine), and many instances in accordance with § 254. 

But that the Masc. also is permissible in this case is shown, first 
by the adverbial use of words like ;«fta, "finely"; *2^ "well"; oua 
"ill" &c. (§ 155 A). This is farther shown by instances like ^Sl+& Jjf 
oua ^ ^ Aphr. 424, 22 or oua ^ c^ ^^ jjfo Aphr. 170, 13 "they 
discern not good from evil"; and farther «a»^\ o| c\)$>\ o? "either to 
good or to evil" Spic. 3, 6; «a ftN ^*ij "crafty for what is good" Aphr. 
190, 4; in the Emph. st. tt»A* °{ ?V^oju cuaaj ^ "takes neither too little 
nor too much" Ephr. II, 485 B ; ?V^f' J* inr > ^M° " an( l judge what is 
hateful and what is beautiful" Ephr. II, 316 C. Thus frequently *jl+~>> 
"what is bad"; ofy "what is good", &c. = "the bad", "the good". With 
the Pronoun, cases like j JB& "this is what" are not abundant (Aphr. 
211, 8; 396, 3); but they occur often after prepositions, as in J2£t^§*& 
"on that account"; o& ^ "therefore". And ojoi "that is"; ^f oj<h 
"but that is" = "namely" are of very frequent occurrence. 

In the Plur. however the Fern, is exclusively employed: t&^£ 
"goods", "&<wa"; ^*©» tcivtcc (only construed as fern.); ^ot^£ ^-^ "^ 
this"; ^oUiVl w^^.ot "for, both of these" Aphr. 9, 16 and various 
other examples. 

B. ABSOLUTE STATE; EMPHATIC STATE. 

§ 202. A. Originally the Emph. St. denoted the Determination [as b. Absolute 
did the prefix n in Hebrew]: ^fc was "a king", fcO^g Hhe king". But the ph * t je 
use of the emph. st. became so prevalent in Syriac, that very scanty traces ®** e, gt 
now remain of its original and proper signification. This is clearly shown ** th « 

Subttan- 

by cases like {Jbooo* "a few days" Spic. 1, 1, and by the circumstance that a uve. 



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— 152 — § 202. 

very large number of substantives appear now only in the emph. st. 
Add to this, that the Abs. St., even where it still survives, may almost 
always have the emph. st. substituted for it in the Substantive, and that 
it appears repeatedly even in determined words. But if the difference 
of meaning in the two states is in this way as good as lost completely 
for the language, there are still many cases (*) in which the abs. st. 
appears in the substantive often, or indeed preponderatingly, on the 
ground of its original signification. It occurs in the following cases: 

B. (1) In several genuine Syriac Proper-names, which being deter- 
mined in themselves required no determining sign. Thus names of local- 
ities like ^fnviV, ^2L*p "Pillars"; tft^JP ( a ^ so k*iP) = Q^n neSrin 
"Eagles'-nest"; ^^w *a^ "Mountain of the Servants (of God?)"; ^ld 
^j "Image-town" (near Edessa, Jos. St. 58, 2) ; 16^1 "Thirsty Hill" 
Anc. Doc. 73, 13, and many others ; but, along with these, many appear in 
the emph. st. like fyoJL "Wall"; 1^ "Fortress", &c. Names of Persons: 
aAL "Beloved"; u£J "Patricks" (together with JUil); *JLa "Senior"; 
jLLdjitt "Justificata" (f.) &c; but here too the emph. st. preponderates, 
as in l\62^) "Little"; J*utiv» "Humble"; JLil "Brother" &c. Thus the 
poets make use even of ^ajl "The Heavens" as a proper name, as in 
Isaac H, 4 v. 32; 344 v. 1753 and in several other instances. Of course 
foreign proper-names like tmo^ &c. receive no mark of the emph. st. 

Bern. Constant epithets of proper-names were retained in the Abs. 
st. in earlier times : thus in the names of the Months still ja^o w^jlL or 
;a*;* 'i "Tesrt First" (= October); ^J % osi "Kanon Second (= 
January) &c. 

C. (2) In distributive repetition: J&jlj )jul ^d& "every year" Sirach 
47, 10; Jos. St. 26, 18; jdo* ^> p±+ "from day to day" frequently; ^^a 
^a; "from time to time" frequently; ^vi{> ^J?> "at times" Aphr. 45, 5 ; 
^||ju ^'jjjuao ill &U*° ofrvp n^\^ JLobdaai ^pjj ^JL^^p "numerous 
are the laws in all kinds of kingdoms, lands, and districts" Spic. 18, 16; 



(*) In the Plural and in the Abstract form in nth the Abs. st. occurs much 
more frequently than elsewhere; the characteristic forms (in ?n, an\ u) may still be 
fashioned here in every case. 



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§ 202. — 153 — 

oaj o£j? "with any thing" Aphr. 308, 18; s^J? ^> v^J? "step by step" 
Ephr. Nis. p. 77 v. 98; |L^o IL^oa "city by city" repeatedly; JjL^o ^> 
fr»fo> "amb nokeug elg 7r6hy" Matt. 23, 34; avpaU* pfoi ;a$ot "he shall 
be cut to pieces, limb by limb" Jul. 87, 17; ^SSv ^Su*a "on any pre- 
text whatsoever" Ov. 221, 6; JIA^, JL&^»? JLajo^a "in vexation from all 
sorts of straits" Mart. I, 185, 12; im^^im^^f "of all manner of kinds" 
Aphr. 267, 2, and repeatedly; ^iio ^iip ooot ^^i "they stood in 
crowds" Addai 2, 12 &c. Yet the emph. st. occurs here also: Jlaji ^ 
gaj\ "from time to time" Sim. 301 mid. ; t*sL^& ^w (^^» "city 
with city" Is. 19, 2; J^U^ Hj*t^ " a * oa f °f bread a-piece" Judges 
8, 5; cf. Matt. 24, 7; Ps. 19, 3 &c. Matt. 24, 2 has in P. ^Jb ^w ^Jb 
Xi&og im Xi'&ov, and thus Aphr. 412, 17; but in S. the reading is J^JLo 

D. (3) After ^^i, with Numerals and in similar connections: ^i 
^2&*ooo ^**4«.o ^;A % ^S-!^ "all good, beautiful and excellent kinds" 
Aphr. 297, 8; o^a^^Aa "with all zeal" Ov. 178, 7; x JHo ^ "all 
possessions" Ov. 166, 24; *o*o; ^Aa "with all caution" Prov.4,23;^Aa 
t Aaa "with all evils" Prov. 5, 14; l}^> v^ko^ "every shoulder (f.) has 
been stripped" Ezek. 29, 18 ; JlJ ^Aaf ^flb( ^i "all remedies in every 
place" Ephr. HI, 251 A; l&A**} v f*» ^ia "in every time of distress" 
Sirach 2, 11; J|^» ^4 Traaav alriav Matt. 19, 3 — and very often thus. 
More rarely the emph. st. occurs here, and particularly in the pi., e. g. 
JLUj ^ "all the streams" Eccl. 1, 7; |&*<Spo \s>*\ "to all believers" 
Aphr. 202, 1 &c. For JaJLa ^A\ "to all pains" Aphr. 135, 3 there is 
a variant ^aJLp^frs.. • 

Along with numerals; (a) when the numeral precedes: +Lo *SJ (|ju 
^J^j Kapha Kal ipvyy] Mia Acts 4, 32; pf ^L $ §1; §vdg aJ/xaTog Acts 
17, 26; 0'*A> ^il "two worlds" Ephr. m, 111 C; Ov. 135, 7, 8; wJ»d* 
l\oo^ &+$} ^ftriNy ^ULo ^[ffl> "the days of the twenty-two reigns of 
Judah" Aphr. 84 ult. and very often thus; — (b) When the numeral 
follows: JiiL ^IjL ir&v oktcc Acts 9, 33; {jbo ^£o* "a hundred days" 
Aphr. 483, 4; {jb&^jk ^La "seven hundred years" Land II, 277, 3 &c. 
In like manner also ^Vs^ ^> {£jua "on any pretext" Ov. 187, 10; +£& 
^&Q~ ^ "on a day" Ov. 167, 26 &c. Even when strict determination is 



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— 154 — § 202. 

present, the Abs. st. may be retained alongside of the numeral: ^»ot 
^£** |^a>'| "these four months" 8im. 276, 5; ^J{i>a£ ^Vi ^>QQ b 
Tccvraig raig hveiv evroXaig Matt. 22, 40 (Aphr. 24, 4, 9); fc^i ^*ot ^> 
^ q uuy aito t&v Tpioov ttX^/wv [royra?y] Rev. 9, 18 (Gwynn); ll^J. ^»ot 
^Jxn) "these three righteous ones" Aphr. 453, 12; ^A*i\v» ^IVt ^»ot 
^SlIjoL "these two powerful kingdoms" Jul. 106, 27 &c. 

But in all these cases the Emph. st. is permissible also, and in 
several of them it is much more usual, cf. {k*%**l {|juo *flJ 1+j*> "one 
soul (abs.) and one mind (emph.)" Moes. II, 72, 12; Jl£ +Jx& "with one 
voice" Acts 19, 34; J&*&£ JLju^ ^ "one wise man" Aphr. 394, 12; 
lliol Nfc^L*. "seven kine" Gen. 41, 3 (v. 2 .Vol >to^); J^£ (opait oaV 
"ten thousand wicked names" Jul. 76, 24 (together with ^jc& oaV 
^IjuVqjqdo "ten thousand villanies and crimes" ibid. 34, 4) and countless 
others.— {J^i JUdo* Ephr. Ill, 303 B; cf. Aphr. 481 sqq. where JUia 
appears oftenest with the numeral following, but sometimes ^ijl; so too 
^jJL h*^ l»f^ Sag oopag hvaryjg Matt. 27, 45 P. S., alongside of £AJj{ 
^zxk >fc*l Trspi ttjv ev&Trp oopav ibid. 46. — JKS03 ^> +L "one of the 
stars" Spic. 3, 18. — For ^va-^ f^l %**©) ^ "°f those three men" 
Aphr. 16, 19 there is a variant {-^^L , and the emph. st. in itself suits 
the passage better. 

E. Similarly, with Jb^o "how much?" and "some": ^i£j Jba-o "how 
many times?" and "several times" — frequently; ^W Jbfcua Troaag 
CTTvpilag Matt. 16, 10; ^Im, Jbfeua roaavra fnj Luke 15, 29; so Sim. 348 
mid.; but frtfoo& JUbld "how much expense?" Jos. St. 15, 17; JjL^ji J&o 
".how many wantons?" Sim. 344, where there are farther examples. JbLo 

lvH^i[ * ro ' <;o/ ** ia & 101 ^ u ^ e 15 > 17 P- C., but S. ^^-s^. 

Sometimes also with JL<|: *oJlaX JLJ "what pain?" Spic. 40, 20; 
aaj l^l ^ "on what thing?" Zingerle, Chrest. 407 v. 33 (Isaac); 
^j ^1» " in what things?" Aphr. 8, 14 &c; but JifooA |L{ note 
iwrokrj Matt. 22, 36 &c; and <-^^cljL JLjb b irola i^ovaiq alternates 
with Jl^oua JLjLa Matt. 21, 23, 24 and 27 ; Luke 20, 2 (cf. C. and S.) (*). 



(*) Similarly JLU010 *&*£ JL© "what sort of use (abs.) and advantage (emph.) ?" 
Aphr. 204. 20, if the text ia quite accurate. . 



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§ 202. — 155 — 

F. (4) Often, in negative expressions; ^GpoL JJ? "without sparing" 
Ov. 170, 8; ^o*^ Jjfj "without sin (pi.)" frequently; t JLdb fy "without, 
number" frequently; «^mo ty "without money" Ex. 21, 11; and often in 
this way with Jjlj; But ^aoj JJjo J9>mo JJv "without money (emph.) and 
without price (abs.)" Is. 55, 1; ouipo )J>o JLf J^j "without trial (emph.) 
and without admonition (abs.)" Aphr. 252, 2; ftoi*a-©» §* "without faith" 
Aphr. 214, 1, together with otvi.oi JJj ibid. 206, 21, and frequently; and 
thus the emph. st. is not unfrequently found with JJj. For JUia jiy drsKVog 
Luke 20,29 sq., C. and S. have ^ JJ*.— v flaS K^ "there is no profit" 
Prov. 10, 2; k*V v flai Hebr. 7, 18; jaya»d^ ^o| ©^ loot} )Jo "and 
let there be no remembrance of Jeroboam" Sirach 47, 23 (Var. jbt-oo;); 
JBt^jJJ umoi k^ "the world of death [or the abode of destruction] has 
no covering" Job 26, 26; ©^ J^s. ^*^J! " w h° nas no pity" Prov. 17, 11 
(and often with k-^); ^nfti JjJ *foi^o "and to no place do they go out" 
Ov. 212, 14; wojo i ift. °^* 9 J 8 ^ J 8 ^^ " an( l ne answered never a 
word to his judges" Aphr. 222, 8. Cf. Luke 1, 33 and many a like example. 
Thus farther «-»£aU J| ^>id l\& "was not called the possessor of riches" 
Spic. 46, 7. But the Emph. st. is still more used even in such- cases. 

Similarly in a conditional clause ^^ H?^» t£ ^^" W^> 4 
"for if a wicked man happen to meet us" Aphr. 297, 1; this however is 
unusual. 

Gr. (5) In certain adverbial expressions like ^^^ "on foot"; 
« a « ;N , ou$ ^> "from one end to the other"; ^aj£» "once"; ^NVs, and 
^viN^V "for ever"; v^jl ^ "out of quiet", i. e. "unexpectedly, sud- 
denly" (also JU.\». ^») and many others. So ouo^a iv Trvevjuari in various 
uses Matt. 5, 3 P. (C. and S. different); 22, 43 P. (C. JL>o^a); Philox. 
106, 9; Rev. (Gwynn) 1, 10; 4,2; 17,3; 21,10 (the later version has 
always JL»o^a). 

H. (6) In some combinations the Abs. St. is always retained. Thus 
oka i*o| "the image of the word", "the written text" (definite); )*&+{ <»N>^> 
u &w)xQyMspw" (§ 146) ( x ); ou^ o£fcs Oedv6p(Mro(])l+po k+ioJz ==KQ0ju67ro\ig 



O Indeclinable r >a*J «1A. lh±l May, Nova Coll. X, 341 a = Land III, 208, 23, 
for which line 20 has v *^ IkMo <oo*l;I {Jb^JL 



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— 156 — § 202. 

Mart. I, 100, 24 &c. ; and after these patterns later writers have formed 
more of the same kind, as ou ^ nN.n Kwavfymroi (as pi.) &c. JL&& K*a 
"donms iilorantis" sg. abs. st., i. e., "house of mourning", is assumed by 
the usage of the language to be a compound of a pi. emph. st., and takes 
suffixes accordingly, thus: w6t<La£ Aua &c. 

I. (7) The Absolute State is farther found pretty frequently in other 
scattered instances, particularly in fixed phrases. Forms in io — (§ 138) 
especially incline to stand in it. And yet even in these the Emph. St. 
is almost always the one which is found in actual use. Examples: ou, out; 
^zkj, ^zJktt rig, Tivig (§ 146); jtffra., ^ ja^A "Peace!", "Peace be 
to thee!", frequently; a£*$a "in kindness" Aphr. 448, 15; o*S,% ^ 
^augfcw JboJ^, "from youth to the grave" (emph. st.) Ephr. Ill, 225 B ; 
^*fju? ^j^ "at another time" Aphr. 461, 10, for which ibid. 458, 15 jLL^J£> 
jJ^jul; ^JL ^afa v***J9 "redeemed by precious blood" Aphr. 260, 10; 
(iLjdaa^ap {^oJLo£ao toCSS *a? (toija-it ot*otA» >-^J "keep thou with care 
faith in the Son of God, and with purity (emph.) baptism" Jac. Sar., 
Thamar v. 407; ^^Jl p*J±* "for another day" Ov. 136, 2; and thus ^\jJ 
frequently as a substantive "another" [ein Anderer] e. g. Matt. 11, 3; 
John 4, 37; 5, 7^21, 18; '^ iaL£ y$30) (oo^j "a good remembrance be 
to . . ." Aphr. 305, 2; '^ wjoL "glory [be] to . . ." frequently, (along with 
'X JLkacJL "glory [be] to . . ."); **L Jjjj <Jlj^ l^t^ Pi " tne rich man is 
anxious about years in which he is no longer to be alive" Aphr. 268, 1 (fec^ 1 ) 
Philox. has frequently «juo*j "spiritual" (like ouota v. sub section Gr,5), e.g. 
29,8; 500,5. Much more frequently than elsewhere, the abs. st. is used 
in the Old Testament, especially in certain books, under the influence of 
the Hebrew text and the Targam tradition. Cases like ^S^ »^v DHny *D)J 
Gen. 9, 25 ; ^©^ o^v mb* b* Ps. 50, 1 ; 84, 7 ; 136, 2 ; ^ *QJ, *nb V* Ps. 

104, 4 x^r? *9*%iVV*W V*b* Dan - 4 > 8 > 9 > 18 5 5 > n nardlv conform to 
the genuine Syriac usage. On the other hand the rather more frequent 
use of the abs. st. in so ancient a writing as the letter of Mara bar Sera- 
pion (Spic. 43 sqq.) must be regarded as a genuine record of antiquity. 
K. But when the realisation of the difference in meaning between 



(!) For f^ ? JLuua "with bodily strength" Spic. 5, 14, the MS. has I 



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§ 203. — 157 — 

the emph. st. and the abs. in the Substantive had disappeared, even 
ancient poets ventured to set the latter state alongside of v ch "this", 
which is formed like an abs. st. : jao-> ^o*» Ephr. II, 424 D (but J&o* \pi 
III, 263 D); *f ^ "in this generation" Ephr. Ill, 3 C; ,-aj v ©*» "dur- 
ing this time" Isaac II, 80 v. 169. (*) Thus even in prose and verse 
v ^ o&a Ephr. Nis. p. 4 v. 7; 100 v. 189; Ephr. (Lamy) I, 245, 16 ; 
261, 21; II, 411, 11, 14 (Ji^ oota I, 391 ult.)\ Jul. 119, 6; Philox. 518, 
13, 20 and frequently (519, 12 var. Ji^ oo*»); like v f^ ooi Jul. 89, 3 
"in that time". Later poets, especially of the Nestorian order, go much 
farther in the arbitrary employment of the abs. st. for the emph. 

L. (8) Many foreign words do not form any emph. st. at all; thus 
the Greek i\\ dyp, ^Ltid^gd Trpairupiov, JLo~m»> (5/a03^; the Persian 
^^jL "jackal", v^QJ»j "weasel" &c, as well as the Greek plurals § 89. 
Some Greek words often lose even their final a, e. g. >q-d x^P a > alongside 
of Rift ({*^&) ; ^a prjjux, alongside of jboj^, Jbo*d (J^a) &c. 

M. (9) Syriac Feminines in ai (§ 83) stand always in the abs. st.; 
thus <**^»o.^ "eiTor", "the error". 

§ 203. Several of the above examples already show that the at- state of the 

...... . . Attributive 

tribuhve Adjective to a noun in the abs. st. stands also in the abs. st. ; Adjective, 
cf. farther JULa Ji*> ^£ ttocv novypdv prjjuux, Matt. 5, 11 ; ^+*+f ^'f^^ 
"true men" Ex. 18, 21; w^aoj ja^, "to a foreign people" Ex. 21, 8; 
;Jfcoj* t^^, ^amao t^^ "rich man, poor man" Aphr. 302, 20, 21 
(303, 8, 9 in the same connection |i^ fe*^, JL**£ t%=^J; Q*"V» 
^Jiia "wicked thoughts" Aphr. 296, 13; jx^aL <^tp "* wise re- 
flection" Spic. 48, 20; J&f£ li^L yj[ "like an evil beast" Ephr. (Lamy) 
I, 369, 17 &c. 

Yet there are also cases like (^t-* ^fofrfip tl&JL ^.ofs* "to these 
three true witnesses" Aphr. 461, 3 (where variant is {f©M»), cf. Eus. Ch. 
Hist. 146, 1 ; JLaijji ^va-^{l^l (^-©0 \^^t "those (these) three righteous 
men" Aphr. 16, 19; 454, 3 (in both passages a variant ^ji^fji); ^.ot 
JLofof ^'f*£? fy™> "these ten small books" Aphr. 200, 15, where the 



( 1 ) These are all the undoubted examples which I have been able to collect. 
In Ephr. also the emph. st. with >v ii is far more frequent. 



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— 158 — § 204. 

signification is determined; JLi^^a t?M*^? ^■^-^9 "and to all modes of 
bodily death" Anc. Doc. 101, 3. Cf. farther Philox. 367, 6; Jos. Styl. 
70, 10; John v. Telia (Kleyn) 28, 5. Vice versa, with a word standing 
in the emph. st., but indefinite in meaning, and in form exchangeable 
with the abs. st., the attributive adjective occasionally assumes the abs. 
St., as in ^^>t JLuoV>a^jt Sirra Srspa Trvsv/jwcra Matt. 12, 45 (C. ^juo>; 
S. without ^J*x>() ; ^o^-oo^* Q v ^f ^V?°lr ^M 1, " seven ki ne ^ i n their 
flesh" Gen. 41, 18 (otherwise in v. 2 and v. 19); and in very loose con- 
nection ^£oxj Jj t^o^j "ijjmipag i/cavdg" Acts 9, 43 ; JjJ {fc^^ JLiu &lo 
^JVd^j "ywoci/c&v rs rSov Trpoorccv ov/c dXiyai" Acts 17, 4; and oftener still 
in the singular: *d^j JJ JLam.? "apyvpia iicava" Matt. 28, 12; idx; J|f J&©|$ 
"not a little gold" Jos. St. 37, 5 ; *d^j JJ Jif^, "not a short time" Aphr. 
165, 13; Sim. 363 inf. Thus often ^y*A when standing before the noun: 
(^^a ^yj "another body" Ephr. Nis. p. 96 v. 54 &c. (§ 211 B); and 
even when standing after it ^juJ fo*SS "another god" Jac. Sar., Constantin 
v. 28. 632.— The peculiar substantives wojl, *~*^ (§§ 83 ; 202 M) always 
indeed take their adjectives in the emph. st., e. g. l\W+*> waiKa "on the 
rigorous condition" Moes. II, 74, 3. An incongruity, no longer felt, exists 
in rare cases like ^ft^P l^ke ^V;I» ^x» {^a-^"a man that is a worker 
of miracles, a solver of difficulties [knots]" Land III, 213, 14 (the 2 nd 
epithet is from the passage in Dan. 5, 12, unskilfully translated); — 
oua ^ i2k^ t*&,jJ J-f^V-9 JLii'l \Ooi^i "all discerning people who know 
good from evil" Bedjan, Mart. II, 572, 10. In these cases the undeter- 
mined genitives occasion the proper indeterminateness of the constr. st. 
In the immensely preponderating mass of cases, a substantive, furnished 
with an adjective, stands like the adjective itself in the emphatic state, 
state of the § 204. A. The Abs. St. however, in the adjective is the proper 

AdjectTve! 6 % f orm °f the predicate. Thus e. g. )i^flb U>*%** J&aaX. "bread hidden 
is pleasant" Prov. 9, 17; ©»©i.^ul» **^» JJ "his sin is not great" Aphr. 
45,8; (£a^>3 ^ )o| J£a£ "love is liigh above dissension" Aphr. 256, 15; 
^Sjl> J^ii^J&o "stolen waters are sweet" Prov. 9, 17; JUL£ yL^ 6 
ofifraXjuog aov irowjpog icriv Matt. 20, 15 (a question); y^. fy»rn*» (fx* 
Sv coi Xs/ttsi Luke 18, 22; JUULof (joj &{ ©^ lig+t? " even tne fi re °f nature 
in him is cold" Philox. 355, 1 &c. A favourite proceeding is the alteration 



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§ 204. — 159 — 

of an attributive adjective, standing in the emph. st., into a predicative 
one in the abs. st. and attached by the relative } : cf. e. g. l^JSS J^>&^ 
JLJgup? JLWoJ&o "by the strait gate and the way which is narrow" Aphr. 
447, 2, where ^S? J^*%^ or ^V^S*? ^°^ might stand as well. 

Very seldom indeed in good texts are there cases like W^ ^t^ 
jjltt? ?V^i J&J-^S ^t^ 2 ^? ^V^J "f° r ^ ne rewarc l °f deeds is one thing (adj. 
in abs. st.) and the reward of words is another thing (adj. in the emph. 
st.)" in the Testament of Eplir., Ov. 141, 14. (*) 

B. On the other hand the emph. st. sometimes stands along with 
the Personal Pronoun, both when the latter is the direct subject, and 
when it is merely the copula. This usage proceeds perhaps from a sub- 
stantive conception of the adjectives, e. g. <okj| JLc&? "[you] who are 
evil persons" Matt. 7, 11; 12, 34; ^ju* U£^» ttoXXoI sgjulsv Mark 5, 9; 
v6tJ{ JNya* t-3 "while you are guilty (guilty persons)" Aphr. 144, 7; 
^ix> JLjJLp "we are honest men" Gen. 42, 11, 31 ; \6k*l Jl^ft Va L %of^{ 
"you are wise persons" Aphr. 293, 16; JBl U*i "am I a great man?" 
Joseph 26, 14 [Ov. 282, 1] ; ooi {id*£ o<£ &l "he also is a mortal" Ov. 
67, 9 ; ^qj! f'ij*I^ MV* "^ ne Egyptians are circumcised persons" Aphr. 
210, 10 ; ^jf I^^jl} "that these things are true (or that this is the truth)" 
Spic. 18, 7 ; ^o&SSj Ji^> o6» tL?jLuk& Jj "invisible is the nature of the 
Godhead" Ov. 84, 18; {fcukkito . . . . ^l It^k'^L .... {L&iao *u©» "these 
parts are dumb and silent" Ov. 63, 12, and many other like instances. 
But the abs. st. would be permissible in all these cases, and it is the 
more usual form in such cases, e. g. JBl «> Y% ; v , 6o( ^\%\ ^ "I am naked, 
thou art naked" Gen. 3, 10 and 11; JjI ^-^a "I am powerful" Aphr. 
269, 12; ^ju* ^JLam&j ^ju* "we, who are poor" Aphr. 119, 22; ©»i^ ^>t 
v qj! ^^V^;v "there, with him (Death) are they naked'' Aphr. 426, 1 ; 
t ^f ^> o6t ^&jl ot±+J "his weapons are weaker than ours" Aphr. 137, 
21 &c. Cf. c&ses like ^J) k*» ^ JLA-f^o ^J) o6t lb**\+L ^ fJ^L 
ooi v*£» "the sinner, even while he is alive, is a dead man ( 2 ) for God, but 



(*) The reading is certain ; even the Roman edition does not note any variants. 
There can hardly be any suggestion of metrical exigency in this case, for the deficient 
syllable might easily have been made up otherwise, e. g. by a o*. 

( 2 ) Thus pretty often libuoo and II*** in the Predicate. Cf. 0. 



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— 160 — § 204. 

the righteous man, even when he is dead, is a living man for God" 
Aphr. 168, 17. For JLkia ~kj{ {Kftfov* evkoyrjjULby] ov hv ywoufyv Luke 
1, 42 P., S. has a tJuV* = wftoj J£*a. 

In like manner pure Participles are always in the abs. st.; v. 
§ 269 sqq. 

C. With {oot the Adj. stands throughout in the Abs. St. where 
Persons are not concerned, e. g. ©i&^Sb ^f toot ]|L£? "but dreadful was 
his word" Ov. 178, 25; JLLjKjta^io \^±* too* ^potk**£l "their intelligence 
was alert and attentive" Ov. 100, 1; jULa (otk^jul) ottpu jLtooto scat 
ybeTou rd lar/ora atirou ysipova Matt. 12, 45 &c. With persons some- 
times the abs. st. is employed, and sometimes the emph. st. Thus 
{oot ^"^p ot^ot^a "in his course he was fleet" Sim. 269 mid.; {oo*J 
o* ^A^&yra/ yap ju&yag Luke 1, 15; ooot ^£^£ ft V>fc^^.otj Srt oi 
TaXiXaioi ovtoi duaprccXoi .... ly&vovro Luke 13, 2. But {opt JUboisp? 
"who had been blind (a blind man)" John 9, 13; (oot (k*& "was dead" 
Luke 15, 24 and 32; ^ooo+J {fot +** ^+a& (*i~>ot;o "and now let them 
through this be cautious" Ov. 85, 7; ^ft,/^^^fe {KS.Nv ^o©t? . ...JULj 
"women who had been ill-treated by their husbands" Isaac I, 244 v. 407. 
So with animals J&* ooot JJ . . . . J^^i> "the dogs were not greedy 
(greedy ones)" Aphr. 383, 2; cf. farther Matt. 5, 48; 6, 16. In the most 
of these cases also a substantive conception attaches to the adjective. 
Clearly thus in toot {fcoaa-opo ^f ot&t "but his mother was a believer" Ov. 
160, 16; toot J£*i«o»v» would mean only "believed". How the two states 
shift about here is shown by (toAit ^^» JA«im y^* fe^to "and thou 
be in need of conversion" Aphr. 144, 15, contrasted with JJ ^aaJt^** 
injm loott ibid., line 17. This is farther shown by the fact that for JSJLp 
foot Vuccuo; &v Matt. 1, 19 P., or JiJLo {oot C, there stands in S. {oot ^o. 
So for Matt. 10, 16 P. has the emph. st. and S. the abs. st. 

D. On the other hand the Predicative Adjective with KJ stands 
quite regularly in the emph. st. : {kJUjtoap ^6W&*>{? ^~{ ^oV^S "every- 
thing which is useful" Ov. 84, 17; JLS t*a toot 6*JbJ {^k- "had the 
word been redundant" Ov. 75, 23; {fb^jo w^t JLg*JL "I (m.) am despised 
and insignificant" Ov. 281, 26; ©**Vi oot {^to*& Jj|o "and, besides, it 



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§ 205. — 161 — 

(f.) is immortal" Aphr. 125, 10; J^booiVf Jr^a© ^och-*~I Jfcjjao "the 
leaders of the Romans are gentle" Jos. St. 89, 13. 

E. With verbs like "to show one's self as", "to be found", "to be 
called" &c, . the emph. st. of the Adjective occurs perhaps rather more 
frequently than the abs. : ly£±±> ~h>l{ "showed himself brave" Ov. 159, 9 ; 
JLJL&J oujjkjtj "was found victorious" ibid, line 10; Jyi«nfr ^^-o^? "who 
are called wise men" Aphr. 506, 17 &c, but Jl^a kjLakitJ s&p&dij iv 
yaarpl tyovoa Matt. 1, 18; lk±Jp 6i^£ ^ ^^ ^ju-afcudb "are found 
devoid of all knowledge" Spic. 2, 18; ^^? ^o v:V8» «asj "your words 
proved false" Joseph 38 uli. [Ov. 288, 7]. For |^ ^ju*k* "(f>a/vovTai 
copa/o/" Matt. 2,3, 27 P., Aphr. 307, 5 has ^i& '»; the reading is dif- 
ferent in S. 

F. The Predicative Adjective, however, stands of necessity in the 
emph. st. when it is quite definitely determined: nmvo J**?* oqjiv* 
|do;| "Jacob is the persecuted, and Esau the persecutor" Aphr. 403, 14 
(v. ibid. 403 sqq. for several other such sentences) ; JL^J JBl JWo J^jo*£ JK J>{ 
"I am the first, and I am the last" Is. 48, 12 ; ^Q^p ©£*£? &©• I^lao tot; 
"for he was certainly the most distinguished person in all the kingdom" 
Aphr. 55, 3; iAt**9*jp «-^©t? t^frui JLo^^^ "the last testament, which is 
the first" Aphr. 28, 9; JLli; qjuJo jill> oju$ "who may be the guilty 
one, and who the innocent" Ov. 191, 9. 

C. GENITIVE AND CONSTRUCT STATE. 
§ 205. A. The Genitive relation is still frequently expressed in o. Genitive 

and Con- 

various forms of reference by the Construct State: ^*£ y^° "king of struct state 
Babylon" Aphr. 468, 18 (along with ^*i> ? J*iNv> ibid. 471, 16 as well co^on 
as 2 Kings 20, 12, and frequently); Jjljl, lo*L "belua dentis" i. e. "rend- J*** gf 
ing animal" ["carnivorous animal", "wild beast"] frequently; ot^> <jota£ and by ,. 
"remembrance of his master" Ov. 185, 12 : Jb>dl> £^JLa ^doiL* "in the 
overflowing of the measure of debts" Aphr. 462, 3 ; ot&uu isl) taJLu-p 
"by reason of the uncleanness of the lust after his sister" (i. e. "his un- 
clean lust after &c") Aphr. 354, 6; tyifsb) ^S "the sound of songs" 

Aphr. 229, 18; &c. In all these cases the emph. st. with j might likewise 

li 



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— 162 — § 205. 

be used. But this is not permissible in specially close combinations, like 
B^Vy* "enemy"; Jk% ^ui* "taking up the burden", i. e. "zeal" ; tf^ 
JLJ "judgment" ; lk^*> k*a "refectorium" (and in other combinations with 
K*a) ; ot^JLo ^a "son of his nature" i. e. "of the same nature as he is" ; *s» 
{jJL> "a freeman" ["son of the free"] (and others with^a, i^a, caa, Ma) &c. 
The constr. st. also prevails in those combinations, in which the first half 
is an adjective, whose relation to the Genitive may be of various kinds : 
]Bo£t A»mi or J5o£t ^mu&jl "taken or bereft of understanding" i. e, 
"without understanding" Aphr. 53, 13; Jul. 47, 10, and frequently; 
JLi^, ^>\fti, "whose heart has been torn out", i. e. "without under- 
standing" Mart. I, 35 mid. ; JpyVj »flufcv "clothed in splendour" Joseph 
196, 6 [Ov. 296, 10]; j££ ^. "whose life is accursed" Aphr. 110 ult.\ 
{Loib? v^sp "of many forms" Ov. 168, 23 ; J&p? Lfe-uij "nokwrifjijov" Matt. 
13, 46 [lit. "heavy or costly in price (pi.)] &c. With affixed (reflexive) 
Personal pronoun, ©*A»^» ^o-^jS "he of murderous anger" Ephr. Ms. 
1, 149 &c. ; ^oot^oa *r\t\o ^i ^> "from any that is close to them in 
blood" Aphr. 232, 15 (cf. § 224*). And thus even o{±J> J^a "the com- 
pletely pure man" ('the man whose totality is pure') Ephr. NIs. 31, 122, 
and ofs.^ ouu^*? "the completely troubled one" ibid. 123. Cases like 
fV^-?? °* ft V* * y "strong in body (pi.)" Spic. 5, 19 are rare ; the emph. 
st. in that instance was occasioned by oot coming between, — a particle 
inserted here for the sake of emphasis (§ 221). 

B. But otherwise the connection by j predominates throughout. 
Particular examples are not required here. Both methods occur too in 
those cases in which the Genitive of an abstract noun denotes a 
quality or property, e. g. JL*?qjd vx»oi and JL£,?ojd? JLuoi "the spirit of 
holiness" i. e. "the Holy Spirit"; JLiLjojo kj*j» and '.oj |Ki^»; As*)qJd 
JU,}Qjd and '*} U^^-o "the holy city"; I^ooJl y^s»>a "in the deceitful 
world" Aphr. 462, 6; l\yo ~VJd "bitter fruits" Aphr. 473, 11; LotjL, 
yiV.> "everlasting Uberty" Ephr. Ill, 250 B; {kaJaaj {k-^o£ "the 
blessed vine" Aphr. 446, 3; \s>\) «ftmi and Ja{jj J*m$ "counterfeit 
money" Aphr. 301 ult, 285 ult.{ If^? l^^! "true love" Spic. 7, 1; 
{^JL>f jLfipAi) La "considerable store-chambers" Land III, 215, 13; 
and many like cases. So too in cases like ot.A Jo^ "Mt. Sinai" Ephr. 



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§ 205. — 163 — 

II, 488 B, and elsewhere, alongside of <-ju»j 1\g% Ephr. II, 433 F; 
^&& ^!^? "* n the ^ an ^ °f ^gyP^" Aphr. 313, 5, together with the more 
usual ^!j^J J^*J$ ibid' line 4, &c. (where even the relation of Ap- 
position would be allowable). But the Construct State can never 
stand before the j of the Genitive. (*). 

C. When the two parts are determined in pure Genitive relation, 
then the reference to the genitive is very commonly indicated by the 
appropriate possessive suffix, e. g. (o£5s£ ©t^» "the Son of God" fre- 
quently, as well as &Ssjf {%»; \%M\ 6*ju^& rd aXag rrjg y/jg Matt. 
5,13RC. Aphr.457,7 (S. JU^ao); JLL£j»p$ ^oototSS "the God of the 
Christians" Ov. 161, 13; Jtt^? oj^jS "the children (adherents) of the 
Church" Ov, 221, 2 = (^ *jl» id. 216, 16 and often ; as well as in- 
numerable other instances. But the following would hardly be admis- 
sible — ^fj&? °^{ "the l an( * °f Egypt" (Genitive of identity); ouuo) 
JLJL?ojS? "the Holy Spirit" (Genitive of quality), ^i^ ©4<*if could 
only mean "the fathers of Egypt" (the latter being thought of as 
their child) ; "the Egyptian fathers" is ^ij*) llo«*l Jul. 56, 23. It is 
true there is no sharp line of demarcation here. Thus we have even 
(Adu^o? 6»«f «^*> "the prisoners from the city" Jul. 58, 18. 

D. Examples, in which several forms of Genitive connection are 
associated, are (ot^S v=>y otLoJut? (to^I "the birth of the human nature 
of the Son of God" Jul. 155, 15 ; ja^ua. «*i»jf ^6©tiaJ%»f» ^\ni ^a; 
"the time of the end of the administration of the sons of Shem" Aphr. 
88, 13 ; JLa,o&? > .ojovw> K*a? Ijivo "the Kenites of the house of Moses' 
father-in-law" Aphr. 254, 15; {^j JJ^Sij (I^Ia^ {Ki»[ U^kp 
©*J^I*;aoj "the northern half of the wall of the sanctuary in the Church 
of his town" Ov. 190, 13 ; lts*fy ~5»ojJd iauvfrao {l^*i? (f<*oJ? JLiJ^o 
JS|oiJUp "and through the rising of the light of understanding, and through 
the fruit-bearing of the olive tree, the enlightener" Aphr. 449, 11 &c. 



(*) Any such instances in our editions rest on textual errors. Kx^ ? ^ ^. 

a4j^» Aphr. 323, 4 is only an apparent exception ; it means "by the name — 'those 

of the house of Jacob'" (§209 A): So j»4ju$\j>o$ K*a ? uf*^ "in the days of those 

of the house of Diocletian" Jul. 24, 9. 

11* 



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— 164 — § 206. 

E. Two nouns may thus stand in different Genitive relationship to 
the same noun, cf. d£**oJb& «*fo&? ^^m*(f otgotaajt "Israel's boasting 
about the distinction of meats" Aphr. 313, 12; y*$ ji^ood ;A^ "the 
transgression of the ordinance by Adam" Aphr. 419, 13; foot ^^o^JL^ 
)&d* ^£j ^^l? "f° r ^ was Abraham's daily custom" Aphr. 391, 8; 
^a£$ JULjqJoj JLiol "the Holy Spirit of your Father" Aphr. 415, 8; 
Jl*up? ©£*l "his hand of the left" i. e. "his left hand", and thus frequently 
with JLdLj and JUup? "right" and "left"; J££j f^rn "thy book of life" 
Ps. 69, 28; t^*^? ^JULo "our nature which is of dust" Aphr. 41, 17 &c. 
A different construction, and one of a Hebrew type, is found in tv^? 
^pottjL,? "their visible body" Aphr. 179, 1. 
constr. st. § 206. Adjectives often stand in the Constr. St. before pre- 

before Pre- 
positions, positions, especially when that which is governed by the prepositions is 

closely connected in thought with the adjectives. Thus (ijuua^) ife>ftg, 
"beautiful in appearance" Gen. 12, 11; ^Aa ouujj J&J JULflot "the great 
physician, excelling in everything" Ov. 193, 21 ; J&Ja u^m'i "accipientes 
vultum", i. e. "hypocrites", frequently; otgfti^ *$!*»** "master of him- 
self', "free" Spic.19,8; ^* ^> i)u^ ^pottooC^JJ "their divine nature 
concealed from all" Jul. 41, 10 ; ^or^vvoviJi ^> w^cb Jr^J y*{ "like 
others, despised by their hearers" Ov. 179, 11; jHfV dft-fru JlaJ "the 
time determined by the prophets" Mart. I, 11, 2; u^, o$^>» ^-^uu "who 
look keenly to 'give me'" Aphr. 286, 8; K*.SvVS la^V "who has put 
on Christ" Ov. 397, 12; ch^ ^.V«? ^Jj %^Jo mi \i&o/3o- 
Xovaa rovg aTTBCTakjuthovg TTpdg aMp Matt. 23, 37; Luke 13, 34, and a 
great many other instances. A very large number, e. g. occur in Philox. 
366. Notice farther ©t^t £s$^juo (1^2> "a word of potency like it" 
Ov. 21, 18; and so even Jl^o; JJj lf-^| "born without connection" Ov. 
91, 21. This construction in the case of the substantive is limited to one 
or two constant combinations like JLSJa r»my "acceptatio vultus" i. e. 
"hypocrisy"; jLuo^a «aa*p (or JLioJ «asc*) "going forth into the wind(?)" 
"defence, excuse"; cf. )Ju}& y^^o "the laying upon the head" (Inf.) 
i. ^."punishment"; )Ii^a ^opo "thought". 



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§§ 207. 208. — 165 — 

§ 207. In rare cases Adjectives stand thus in the Constr. St. be- constr. st. 
fore adverbs also, which in fact resemble a combination of preposition Adverbs, 
and substantive : &+)1>Sjp ~&^*> "who die quickly" Mart. I, 79, 10 ; ~VaJt 
wO)o\mi ^^, ^M£*|j "that leap nimbly over its valleys" Mart. I, 47, 1 ; 
K*Jii*£ cux> ."leading a miserable life" (Ka/c6(3ioi) Jul. 112, 13; ouspaao 
^4aJ ^Aa i*Jkm, "persons well-experienced in all things" Jul. 162, 10 ; 

K*|1Ll»o) )^£u* • • • • K*JLi^^£ N ^S JD "slain * n tne body risen in 

the spirit" Sim. 305, 24. Such combinations are specially made use of 
to translate Greek words compounded with adverbs, e. g. \.*?i* sJL& 
sfaraQovrrsg Ps. 91, 15 Hex. ; and indeed the whole of this construction is 
modelled upon the Greek. Similarly occur the circumlocutions for "self", 
like <oo)^» %**&* ^9^i <f>foavroi 2 Tim. 3, 2, Hark. Even Cyrillona 
ZDMG XXVH, 573 v. 267 has thus ©^ o<* a»y^> JU»^"the serpent 
that has crushed himself'. 

§ 208. A. The Construct State must stand immediately before the separation 
Genitive. Only short words like the postpositive particles ^Sb, ^»j, W^&c, from 
as well as l&oi and such like, may sometimes interrupt the succession : WO rd. 
&^a ^f *jl£ "filii vero Balae" Land III, 39, 16; JL*l* ;^^o£5s "deus 
enim coeli" Jul. 54, 28; JL^oaa^^p fo>> "now the cause of the abol- 
ishing" Ephr. II, 124 B; J&JLo K^ t^ "the cause, to wit, of the pain" 
Ephr. II, 108 A; v ootio.^Vxca oot w-^fcuuo "and farther those who are 
vain of their litigiousness" Statuti della Scuola di Nisibi (Guidi) 15, 10 ; 
JL$*f J ^oj{ cuaf "that they are the sons of the righteous" Ephr. II, 384 D; 
oi N .«. f » (06) i£i^"he was a mighty man of strength" Judges 11, 1 &c. 
More remarkable is ^jt {Lof^jobf 6*i& {jpo ^^. "for a distance of two 
stadia from it" Jul. 229, 4. 

Of. farther § 327. 

As a somewhat isolated instance stands .do^opa-* w?j&o ua&& 
"writers and readers of their names" Land III, 136, 14, where two words 
in the Constr. St. refer to one Genitive. 

B. The separation of the Genitive from the governing word presents 
no difficulty, however, when j is employed. Not only may the latter 
have an attributive word with it, as in (l^guu; JjilVo otJkuuLoJu "the 
sweet allurements of sin" Ov. 159, 15 (which might also stand thus : 'Iojl> 



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— 166 — § 209. 

JL^ju '£x>i), but additional words are also allowed to intervene. Cf. 
\L£ll ooL l&o* l^Lo "and he was, again, a companion of the mourning 9 ' 
Ov. 207, 21; J&J J5o<S* {^Ssf ^^^ J^^Jaf ^ "because after the image 
of God the lordly reason has been made" Moes. II, 94 v. 296 ; o^pjtj 
+L l^^ji $h^&*i% ^o»4 )&f* (jvjp "accusations were brought against 
a man before Narsi TamSabor" Mart. I, 123; l^w ^vX ^pop£t&jk 
} ^±+1 ^a? Wo> JWP *($& "^ e proclaimed before the whole Church 
the names of all those who ..." Ov. 176,2. — In stray cases the Genitive 
stands even before the governing-word; 6t&uOD(Kf> ^ finh .fr 6j^£; *a[ jjjL$£t 
tit-**^ wO) J^JLp "thus also of all our faith the foundation is that firm 
stone" Aphr. 6, 16; Jj;;a£ Iki* lyJ} ^$1 "supplies even for only one 
year" Sim. 346 mid. 
Nouns with § 209. A. In these cases already the superior independence of j, 

Governing- properly a Demonstrative-(Relative-)Pronoun ("that of), is shown. This 
nounisnot ^ ecomeg g |£Q more conspicuous when no governing word is expressed; 
tmfoiSt &*»* ^w fxsrd t&v ' Hpo&avw Matt. 22, 16 P. (ot? {t~L^ ^. 
C. S.); ooja^* &*a? "those of the house of Jacob" frequently; Aua; ^^ 
^o>j>;jy "on the adherents of Marcion" Ov. 193, 17; ^a*{? "the season 
of the forty-days' fast" Sim. 376, sq. ; k-k^^f $ "from the district of the 
Mar'ashenes" Sim. 356, 1 ; JLl»o);o I$qjj t 4^ "those rejoice who are of the 
fire and the spirit" Ephr. (Lamy) 1, 57 Str. 7 ; {Uaa>?ko ^^ U<* (&**ojf; 
"for it was a matter of terror and amazement" Sim. 355, 3 ; oo* JL^^? 
"is worthy of blame" Philox. 544, 9 ; v ^J>j woiot^lj ^i "every one who is 
the Lord's" Ov. 168, 19; ^Aob £**3? "are called those of the right hand 
(= 'the just')" Spic. 12, 4; Jj&tt? v diot "those on the left" ibid. 12, 6; 
14* t4^j "was common" Ov. 167, 24; ;mfl\ ;xp$; ^a4t oa<S* ano- 
Zore oh rd K.a/aapog Ka/aap/ Matt. 22, 21 ; JBuamap? ^ "from that which 
belongs to the poor" Ov. 190, 16 ; ©Mgaju? »*$*>? "who has robbed the 
property of his companion" Aphr. 423, 19 ; J^uup; "made of wood" Jac. 
Sar. in ZDMG XXIX, 109 v. 30; ^dj{ Jlaft *rp<fc/co/po/ slaty Mark 4, 17 ; 
JiiyjuJj o^ (4©tf ^OQ^NviV "their toil, which had become (the property) 
of others" Aphr. 506, 3, and frequently j loot, and many like in- 
stances. To this place belongs also oi£LJJ ^Vtf o^dLmJo /ecu iXafiw 6 
oevTspog ttjv ywal/ca Luke 20, 30 P. S. (where C. reads differently, 



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§ 210. — 167 — 

^6* (UJJ) ; cf. v. 31, and 19, 18 (§ 239). Somewhat different are cases 
like ^u^$ju| <,>ffi\ ^6op9oJ s+*ll{ Jjfo "and their fast did not resemble 
that of the inhabitants of Jezreel" Aphr. 50, 11; o^jojo ^H?L{ 
^JLo? u^KflDlo \a^ "Abel's offering was accepted and Cain's re- 
jected" Aphr. 60, ult] v o^aA > jo ^j[t£ ooot ^*s( "they raised accusations 
against us and Simeon" Mart. I, 19 inf. 

B. To this section may be joined certain adverbial applications of 
j, such as the following: JL4,o*> "for the moment", "for the nonce", "now"; 
{&t*JL} "immediately" (both occurring frequently); J&o~> ay/JLspov Matt. 
6, 11 C; ^l£f ^Vij "twice", or "a second time" Gen. 43, 10; Eccl. 
6,6; Matt. 26, 42; John 3, 4; Sim. 300, 2; 317 mid.; JUU^? "for the second 
time" Bedjan, Mart. II, 562, 6; 605, 17. Farther we have the favourite 
construction of *£>p with j "to be concerned for that which is of . . " i. e. 
"to be concerned about" : ^oajlAj; v q^{L JJ fir] /ispijuv&rs rfj i/^Xtf $M6ov 
Luke 12, 22 C. (U*j? S.); JULoJkstt .sp "cared for the combat" Ephr. 
in Wright's Cat. 689 a, 3 ; ,6ot**p$£t; yJ ^pot^»f ^Jbj* °9°*9 "and they 
must care for them as for their own members" Ov. 216, ult.\ ^-sLj* 
^flM? "care for everything" Jos. St. 3, 11, and frequently thus, with j 
(and^*? § 225). Thus too Jfi* is used sometimes: <a1X& Jjj 009 ©»k*a? 
^h V ° l V h W^P?S "every man is concerned for his house, but for his 
flock he cares nothing" Isaac I, 288 v. 267; cf. Ephr. in Zingerle's 
Chrest. 278, 6sq.; Philox. 361, 18; Bedjan, Mart. II, 428, 7. Thus also 
Jboo*? J^**ktt (f>pou(iv itfjJkpM Rom. 14, 6; \*t±X\ *J? J^*k& Jjf? 8n ov 
<f>povsig rd rod &60Q Matt. 16, 23. All these combinations with j may, 
for the rest, have been suggested by Greek Genitive constructions. 

§ 210. The substantive which stands before the genitive is generally Deter- 
determined; yet among the foregoing examples some of those substantives Governing 
occur without any determination; thus particularly with the Abs. St., 
like (^ai&j *m» ^£^* "any flesh of beast" [i. e. the flesh of any animal] 
Spic. 7, 26. 

Even the Constr. St. before the Emph. St. is not necessarily deter- 
mined: (bo* *£» "films anni" "a (person, animal or thing, which is) one- 
year old" (often) ; JL&Sap MS ^a> "two king's-daughters" Aphr. 408, 
3, 4; J^a^fr V* "a son of the world" i. e. "a layman" Sim. 286, 6; 



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— 168 — § 211. 

jl> J^\y ja^ rig [Jaathfcog John 4, 46 (v. 49 J^\y ^ oil 6 fiaoiXtKog; 
C. merely Jn\v> ^.) ; ^1* JLij[ ^ "a brother's son" Mart. I, 149 mid., 
and of course quite properly in words like JA^Ny* "the enemy" or "an 
enemy". 

D. CO-ORDINATION. 

Attributive § 211. A. The Attribute as an Adjective stands in the same Gender 

and Number as the Substantive, and throughout in the corresponding 
State ; for a few exceptions v. § 203. It comes after the substantive : 

j^ j^*, it^ (1^, u& J^o, t^c* it^f &c 

B. ^*|juI and <-^^p, however, often come in before the substantive, 
e. g. Jjf% 'jW "dXkrp napapoXrjv" Matt. 13, 24 P. or Jlfcoo ^ fcjj C. 
(S. '*A '»);' 13, 31 and 33 P. (in both passages in C. and S. 'U '»); 
JUfcjJ* Jr^JJ dXkot; ysopyot; Matt. 21, 41 P. (C. and S. 'U 'fi^); llyJ 
Ikajuuxp "Srepov Xoyio/Aov" Sap. 19, 3; }KS\v IftsU^ul "other reasons" 
John Eph. 395, 12 ; and in the Abs. St. (§ 203) ^*> ^yj "another master" 
Mart. I, 235 inf.; J^ojl ^->J^ "in another name" Ephr. II, 555 A; 
l)l\ ^yJ "another secret" Ephr. (Lamy) II, 739, 14; cf. line 20, and 741, 7 ; 
o»^^^jjuJba "at his other side" ibid. 765, 2 and many others. — tjk'^m 
JLo^jo {JL*£j noXkoi irpo^yfroti kcu Vikouoi Matt. 13, 7 ; JL4S? <*i£ (JLi^sp 
"many men" Aphr. 505, 7; ^3&>) V V^P " man y times" Ephr. I, 398 F; 
i&J&j oot ItJL^ap "many souls, farther" Land II, 326, 2 &c. But 
both these words are far oftener placed after the substantive. ^A too 
is often put first: J&^kd ^a "such and such a thing" John Eph. 
192, 21; lhs+yz K.JNft^ "in a certain town" ibid. 1, 20; ^s jBot£» 
JBjjV ci m "on this appointed business" Ephr. II, 179 A; but ibid, also the 
usual order: ^d Jbuafra "on such and such a sacrifice". 

In rare instances the adjectivewhen emphatic also precedes, especially 
with the poets, e.g. {AuddM^ (Aoobtjp "the first foundation" Spic. 49, 20; 
jLaaj (Ka-pdj "of the cleansed soul" Ov. 261, 14; yl&Lots* I&Aaj "thy 
chaste virginity" ibid.hne 16 ; llox* )3l^* "greedy death"Ephr. Nis. p. 57 v. 67. 
Certain adjectives of praise or dispraise are frequently placed first, like 
Vulo "the holy (sg.)"; J&o^, f. I^oia^ "the (m. or f. sg.) happy (or 
blessed)"; JL&^io "the blessed (sg.)"; ty^oo "the excellent (sg.)"; J^-JLJ 



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§§ 212. 213. — 169 — 

"the wicked (sg.)"; j^V " tne accursed (sg.)" &c, e.g. *±+Lc>\ JLotJ 
"the splendid Akakios" Ov. 162, 21; A^p ^f Ihh^o "but the ex- 
cellent Sergius" Jos. Styl. 84, 6; y^o (kJ&o^ "the Blessed Mary" 
Aphr. 180, 2; *daJua^ |^>S JS& "this accursed TainSabor" Mart. I, 
124, 2 ; oaodjuXai JL^JLJ "the godless Julian" Ov. 160, 14 &c. ; also in 
accumulations of adjectives like <mn>S.»pn^ J&fo JUaj^[^]o Ja^qTv 
"the holy, elect, and great Basil" Ephr. HE, XL1H ad inf., and many 
like instances. But here too it is always allowable to put the adjective 
after the substantive; and with some it is oftener done. The two positions 
appear even in the same phrase : JA*fp ^S\Vig wpo Pr»o% "the blessed 
Mar Simeon, the holy" Sim. 269 supr. 

The attributive Adjective may be separated from its substantive: 
J5£t l\i*** ^-^ °* Ijr^* "opus est enim pulchrum hoc" Spic. 1, 20; 
(Au&tJ&jo i&£»o* ^ViVm JLaJ^? ooi w©to;j;JL=> {£&&$ t *o*^£o "for all things, 
great and small, lie in the hands of men" Spic. 9, 9 &c. 

§ 212. The Apposition may be either before or after the principal Apposition, 
word : «mnflmti| J*iVy "the emperor Anastasius" Jos. Styl. 28, 2 ; 42, 3 ; 
90, 10; JftNy ^d^ouj "Anastasius the emperor" ibid. 26, 7; Jfrvp 
.p^A^^tf }jivi^v> "the believing emperor Anastasius" ibid. 8, 8; 16, 18. 
Upon the whole, additional forms indicating respect incline to precede 
the leading word (thus always ^^ao "my Lord, Master") ; explanatory or 
descriptive forms come after it: yet this is not to be regarded as a fast 
rule. As one example of the prior and posterior order in one and the 
same phrase, take JLaonm«ft( i£&*Lj£ wpo JbkJkaafc* ^J° ifS* "^e 
excellent, Christ-loving, Mar Timotheus the Bishop" Aphr. Pref. 12, and 
many such. 

§ 213. The Apposition may be loose, and may become a mere sub- Loose 
stitution or parallelism. Examples like )JoaL ^ ^£;J$4»f \LsLz> ^jQpo ppos 
{y^^^gi\s JUqqjl» ^Jqj ^Vto ^"N "and he satisfied distressed, hunger- 
ing people with five loaves and two fishes — five thousand men" Aphr. 
42, 17; ofdaoj J^*M» wofda^^^af Av$Jb> "in the land of his enemies, 
in the land of Moab" (notice the repetition of the prep.) Aphr. 161, 12; 
oppajo oi/SN {^m^£$ o* J^pa* JL^o©**? V-^J^jj? "for the Passover 
of the Jews is the fourteenth day of the month, — in fact its night and 



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— 170 — §§ 214. 215. 

day 9 ' Aphr. 223, 11; l^a <^5 (Ka I^oJj t&o* ^jub "the wine was 
sold at a denarius for six measures" Jos. St. 36, 13 — may suffice to 
illustrate several of the most important cases. 

Rem. On the Person (grammatical) in apposition v. § 350 C. 
Apposition § 214. Apposition is generally made use of in the case of words 

denoting denoting measure, like JL&jup t?>*op W* Bkotw fidrovg iXaJov Luke 16, 6, 



Measure. 



cf. v. 7 ; JyhuV «ttJajo{ i«*^ ^-^? "f° r ^h three ounces of bread" 
Ov. 182, 10; JLgju <£o <Jta^L thirty measures of wheat" Jos. St. 21, 20; 
1/6/ ^I*!J i^m^ "ten loads of silver-pieces" Jos. St. 10, 21; JL?*aj9 
Jb&f o>^\fto "a measure and a-half of pulse" Sim. 360 inf.\ {$&; Jla» 
f^V "a handful of dust" Aphr. 154, 5, and many similar cases. The 
genitive connection with j would also be allowable here. 
Apposition § 215. v*4-flD and ^y^uo often remain, unaltered in form, like ad- 

"little"; verbs, and standing either before or after the qualified word: **^^& poJ 



*w\ ' "many fishes" Sim. 273, 14; v*^ap (*^&j "many leopards" Land HI, 
335, 17; v*^sp t&JU^ap "many pearls" ibid, line 21; fy&Sj **^» "many 
things" Spic. 6, 6; JLa-^o v*^» "many wars" Sim. 282 mid.; H****^ 
^^jp "a Httle consolation" Jos. St. 32, 10; ^y^jp fy»*& fa "this 
brief exhortation" Aphr. 331, 2; JLpejjjf JUfcj ^-^ap 67Jya lyfivbia Matt. 
15, 34 P. (S. merely ^Ajo Jku); (J&ooo* ^^Vo oi noXkdg i/J^pccg John 
2, 12 (for the same in Luke 15, 13, > 4j^j? Ik&o-); JbaJLa^^jp fa "this 
short demonstration" Aphr. 244, 7 ; JULjl t*^k» ^-^j? <V^ "these few 
words of peace" Aphr. 298, 19; JLfca* > \^o "a little sun" Aphr. 130, 18; 
cf. JLi$x» £ ^^jd "a little of Satan" Aphr. 130, 19; and > \^o ^ii 
v*^ap ^ "these few things out of many" Jos. St. 91, 15; Jul. 98, 13; and 
similar instances. The abstract word (JL^oia is also employed in this way : 
(JL^L» JUul "many men" Ephr. I, 520 alt— 521, 1; tt^om JLv&^ "many 
Levites" ibid. 544 F.; o^j (JL^» ^W^ - ™ D nrin ,TW Job *' 3 > 
*a*£? (JL^om Jb^, lo£$o tlojK\ntimo ^^ {Nvirio "for, wisdom and 
understanding and insight in much abundance" Ov. 191, 13; — J^dV 
*a*£j (JLLom (As^Lotaoo "horses and chariots in very great number" Land 

ni, 331, 8.0 6 



O On ?JL{^A "very", "much" v. § 243. 



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§§ 216—218. — 171 — 

§ 216. A mode of Apposition is formed also by cases like ooi ^^o Expres- 
JLSvyo oto4^» "and he first (as the first) entered" Ephr. (Lamy) 1, 535, 15 ; co°ndi«on 
i^iA JLiiaj JUao^ woi o<* "he was the first to show good will" Jos. St. ^* te 
23, 17; ^jJL ^fcsjt i£> on n\ N f^oi[ toAmJ "Isaac, when sixty years of 
age, begat Jacob" Aphr. 464, 10 ; tf*P» ^A lion ihsj "Haman had been 
left remaining as one who had escaped" Aphr. 52, 15 ; {&^.o£Jbp «a »o» »o 
U\rr.o»viS "and has been given as nutriment to believers" Aphr. 114, 2 ; 
otSh^S. JL4,* jxi Jsuf* vx>^Aj "Jephthah, the persecuted, came forward 
as the head of his people" Aphr. 407, 14, and many others. 



E. > \o. e. ^>. 

§ 217. ^£ (^da) may be used in the Abs. St. as a substantive in Ab 8 . 
for "everything", "everybody". Thus, in particular, expressions like Emph. st . 
> \o jd<-& "the Redeemer of all" Ov. 208, 24; > \o ^l "iravro/epdrop" 
frequently; ^^ (^o "the Lord of all" Aphr. 22, 12 ; for the same we have 
^? JL?;J> Spic.27, 24 ;^©j ooi JLpo Aphr.63,10; farther wo*bfJL=>^> j^mlI 
"put all things into his hands" Aphr. 123, 2 (from John 3, 35, where P. 
and C. have the more usual j*& > \o) ; {ooi£ > \o ^o )a^j "that thou 
mayest be all things to all men" Ov. 266, 15 ; > \o ^oo* "we would be 
everything" Spic. 20, 22; jfttfatoo otK*^a > \o *jj "while every one 
rejoices in his own house" Ephr. HI, 651 A; j > \o ^> vi'V^ "we de- 
mand of every man, that ..." Jul. 15, 5 &c. On rare occasions it appears 
as an adverb "quite", "thoroughly": (ioj ^oop )»&!& > \do "and roared 
on continually" Sim. 393, 12; o»}«.v |?\f J&?Jfc»» ^»? "whose eye was 
wholly lifted up to heaven" Ephr. II, 415 F. 

In this way the Emph. St. JJA (Jj«) is used for "the whole", "the 
universe" : Jjfoa ^wj( ||t| ^ju^ l&oi )J Jbo^f "does not everything (ten) 
go to one place?" Eccl. 6, 6 Ceriani; JJq-d ^> t*^* " wors hipped by all" 
Ephr. HI, 532 C; f. JJfd* ^> if^> ibid. 530 F; JU> ^l "the Architect 
of the universe" Ephr. Nis. p. 97 v. 110; J^o-o JIL JLLfo "everything de- 
pends on peace" Ephr. Nis. p. 4 v. 46 &c. 

§ 218. Much oftener ^o stands in the Constr. St. We saw it be- In c° n8tr - 

^ St. and 

fore substantives both sg. and pi., § 202 D; cf. ^mi*& v^^^aa "for with sua. 



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— 172 — § 218. 

in every way" JuL 69, 12 (§ 208 A). With undetermined words ^d 
means "every", "all" ("all" pi.). It may even stand before determined 
substantives: (w©t<LjI>) yJjJ^ t*apa£ > \o "all the days of thy (his) life" 
Jul. 14, 14, (Eccl. 8, 15). 

In its favourite connection with the relative pronoun j it means 
"every one, who", "all who", "all which": +S±m,) ^a "every one, who 
pleased ..." Aphr. 328, 14; ©^ ^^j > \o "all, who seek him" Aphr. 
198, 10; i&j |u>? > \d "all that he had acquired" Ov. 165, 25 &c. 

So also j JLL| > \o, j ^b > \d "every one who" [whoever], and similar 
combinations (§ 236 D). Farther, as adverbially used: f*j ^3 "quite 
near to" Cyrillona ZDMG XXVII, 578 v. 81 sq.\ ? ^^s "precisely 
as" Jul. 92, 7; j j&d^d «j us t as much as"; j ~h*f{ > \o "as often as", 
and the like. 

Very often a substantive has > \o in apposition with it, and placed 
either before or after it, and furnished with a pronominal suffix of its 
own, referring to the substantive. Sing. : {A^o 6t^*& "the whole town" 
Jer. 4, 29; JUua o£^£ nag 6 fykog Mark 2, 13; l*u^o 6t^o4 "the whole 
town" Ov. 207, 3, for which lin. 6 gives 6£kA (ftuu^o; 6»Va ***&* "my 
whole soul" Ov. 164, 21; JLWol 6*^4 "the whole way" Joseph 192, 12; 
214, 5 (in both passages Var. '* '{) ; JLcpdaaJ ^oj( o ^o a ^> ^^ "they 
are above the whole law" Aphr. 30, 12. — Plur. : Io^j ^po^i ttAvtoc . . . 
rd &jtiapT7J/Mtra Mark 2, 28 ; jLixi ,6o^£ "every valley" Is. 40, 3 ; Luke 
3, 5 (Eccl. 1, 3 JUj ^>) ; {t&aj ^oa ^i "all these things" Aphr. 
9, 10; v 6o^<xd on,y.\nV "to all. Clerics" Ov. 206, 11 &c. In other 
uses also the word has the pronominal suffixes attached: ^»&, v o-aXi, 
"we all", "you all"; ofV^ "in him wholly, in him everywhere" Ov. 165, 9; 
oj^*£ woiot^J wl&X "it remains entire with me" Aphr. 200, 1; +1> 
ooj j££ ©£*j JLL^J "a tree, which is all life" Ov. 399, 22; ^f ^ojSi 
^oo^d qjl^, .... "but they all answered" Sim. 321 mid., and many 
such. Also before relative-clauses ^p{f ^fs.^ "omnia, quae dixit" 
Joseph 256 paen. [Ov. 328, 7]; {<*^JU ^J&i,* ^iftNfi^ "in aU things which 
are worthy of God" Ov. 173, 18 &c. 

Notice, besides, the adverbial phrases : ©Cj^ ^i "entirely", which 
appears often; o^j> Jio* ("completely so") "very much so", "to that 



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§ 219. — 173 — 

extent", for which on stray occasions appear also J&oi oj\£>, 6^0 $o», 
oC^o och. So also > \d with relative-clause following : o*ajwjf pfy ^,04 
qju^jL{ llo i vi »o»y> "in all that they did, they distinguished themselves 
by faith" Aphr. 20, 8; ooo* ^^^ ouuIj r ^B^ ^d \^ao "and 
speedily they carried out his wish in all that he commanded" Sim. 344, 22. 
Cf. farther §§ 205 A; 347; 349; 358 B; 360 B. 



F. jc^d. 

§ 219. p+sp "something" is very often employed as a substantive; 
also in distributive repetition ]*& ^£& "all sorts of things". Thus it 
may even stand in the Genitive: ]*+& %j* "everything" — frequently; 
;&$»* l§±o "fear of any thing" Jul. 39, 9; p{& p$& k^jip "in greed 
for all manner of things" Aphr. 289, 17; ^£& pfy ^>^ " on an y P re " 
text whatever" Aphr. 292, 2; or it may be followed by a genitive with j: 
{^a_oJb£>! ^fi "something eatable" Ov. 221, 9. It has often an attri- 
butive adjective along with it: oua p£& "something evil"; ;->&* p+& 
"something more" Spic. 2, 20. Sometimes the adjective has the ending 
a, and it is a matter of uncertainty whether it is then the Abs. St. f. 
(according to § 201) or the Emph. St. m. : l^k* )&ffc Ov. 210 ult = 
214, 21 ; J&* pf*> "something great" Moes. II, 104, v. 428 ; 156 v. 1241. 
But the relative construction is more usual in that case uuS? ^o &c. 

Not seldom p^ stands in apposition to a substantive, and with the 
meaning "any one or thing whatever", or qualified by the negation "no, 
none" : ^a k-ik. vj^ }**** "* n wn ^ cn lies no advantage" Aphr. 230, 6 ; 
(Lojbo^ p+& ^ooqN ^a^ U^Bp JJ "no pollution whatever approaches 
their mind" Aphr. 428, 4; p+so ^^j» "a little" often; pfo JtoAi^a 
"a certain enmity" Jos. St. 45, 5; — y>^> (KaSiaap ^JLfi? "that he de- 
mand a gift" Jos. St. 78, 10; %io©» ^pL'k* JJf? J^o (iJLi^ap "many a 
thing that was not written" Aphr. 343, 17; (jLuj (L{ p+*i ri ayjfjLsiov Ihelv 
Luke 23, 8; Jbi^ka p** "a word" Matt. 27, 12 (there S. ja^k* '»); 
Luke 23, 9; ^po^. h^l y*+& (&/Lu? "that they had a vision of some sort" 
Isaac II, 218 v. 318; ;*♦*> fill "several men" Ephr. I, 549 F; *s*a 
j ]*f* I'is^f "among some dead bodies which ..." Ephr. I, 161 E &c. 



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— 174 — §220; 

j p^o, meaning "something which", and then directly "that which" — 
is very common in an attributive relative-clause (§ 236 C). 

y*^o also stands in negative sentences adverbially: ^ojI **£<[ Jjf p^» 
"did not injure them at all" Jos. St. 89, 13 ; y*^* Q)f©»i[ *if Jjj "no man 
hurt him at all" Sim. 357 mid.; P»f^ JJ J^o oul "no man whatever 
helped him" Sim. 312 ad inf.; JLuiif ^ (&i «A*itt ^o {io» Jj| "he was 
not in the least in need of sacrifices" Aphr. 315, 9 and the like. So in 
the interrogative sentence yftsAfiov» ^> p^o te-j «tfS^»tfra( l<&%\ "were 
the windows altered at all from thy measurements?" ZDMGr XXV, 
339 v. 361. 

Cf. farther §§ 169, 236. 

G. PRONOUNS. 
PERSONAL PRONOUNS, 
separate § 220. A. The separate Personal Pronouns are often still con- 

Perional ..-,,,,». ■, ., • i i 

pronouns, joined with the finite verb: ^*y ^u> "we (with no special emphasis) 
have heard" Aphr. 354, 8 ; ccdoJu kJ( ^jpp^po ^v\j ^u> ^ "if we 
have done wickedly and have provoked thee, be thou merciful" Aphr. 
491, 5; ,a*£ ^3{ v £ "if only you are willing" Ov. 117, 15; y*aj&{ Jfto 
"and I am to show it to thee" Aphr. 7, 9 ; o^i^N ^1a> ^oA^j JJ "let 
us not be unthankful towards [do wrong to] his mercy" Isaac I, 22 v. 462 ; 
loo* Ji^o ^ o&i yJ "as he used to tell us" Ov. 162, 8; ^qj& a*&; 
"they were asleep" Ov. 168, 8; oju, {|q»oj ^u<$t^*jLJf ^$&? "that be- 
cause of Daniel they saw the light" Aphr. 67, 9, and many such in- 
stances. Necessarily of course the pronoun becomes specially conspicuous 
through adverbial adjuncts, as in oxd ^b^Aa ^oidt "they alone remained" 
Sim. 269, 1, and thus, frequently, ooi 3?, %[ **{, ^f J#£ &c. 

B. Un-emphatically even ^oi( may be placed after the verb in place 
of ^ojdt: l^jL&a ^oj( d^jpiUj "that they have stumbled against a stone" 
Ephr. I, 404 F; ^oj( °M%ii Ji^j "whether haply they had dealt in 
subtlety" Ephr. I, 496 F; ^oj[ \*^4* fl " that the y should recognise" 
Ephr. I, 498 E ; ^oj( ^ir*? " an( l they flew" Ephr. in Zingerle's Chrest. 
279, 5 ; ^oj{ ^\ "they are coming" Jac. Sar. in Bedjan, Mart. V, 619, 3. 



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§§ 221. 222. — 175 — 

Cf., with position before the verb, ua>^y ^*{ ^lil "both of them (f.) came 
upon thee (f.)" Is. 51, 19. 

C. On the Personal Pronoun in a Nominal sentence (§ 309) as 
subject and copula, v. § 311 sq. 

On placing o©i, wot &c. first, for the sake of emphasis, v. § 227. 

§ 221. An enclitic ooi often gives prominence only to the word, Enclitic 

a Ooi for 

whether noun or verb, which it follows : ^u^^ap (chSs oot fZX "we adore Emphasi- 
one God" Mart. I, 227 paen.; JLbof W^oo» fffWv "for it (f.) resembles J^ ei ? UP " 
a building 11 Aphr. 6, 12 ; ^£ot; 009 }ls> m **% \ ^pot^k^V "their feet run to 
evil" Prov. 1, 16; ^ovi^Na JL£jl» op» ^-01 ^^o "on that account it was 
that Solomon sinned" Neh. 13, 26; *s*a£ ooj J2s.fl J "if thou art willing 
to learn" Spic. 1, 15 ; oo» ^J "go !" Ephr. m, XLV (twice) &c. It stands 
in this way as a strengthening particle after Demonstratives and Personal 
Pronouns: ^.o»: 009 v o,A v/xiv Ziborai Matt. 13, 11; ^6l,^v oot <1^ 
ijuol frrorqaars Matt. 25, 40; otLopaJij JUoiJ oiot "this (=> oot Jjq») highly 
celebrated person" Ov. 204, 20; ^^? aiooi "he has spoken" Aphr. 
5, 1 ; and thus repeatedly oo» otS, or 00^ "to him"; oo» ooj ^x "there- 
fore"; oo» o£» "th&t" &c. (m. and n>). 

§ 222. A favourite mode of accentuating a determined noun is by pronominal 
applying a Personal suffix. These suffixes are found applied as follows: — emphaVi- * 

(1) With the Genitive reference, v. § 205 C. Se? *"" 

(2) Along with prepositions, the attachment being contrived thus: — Nouns. 

(a) As in the Genitive reference by means of j, e. g. Jb^*oi ofy o»y\ 
"with that wickedness" Ov. 200, 8. This construction has been ascer- 
tained in the case of ^, tiX, r j, ^>, ^, ik& (also ih^LX), > ^^>, 
^£jd (uapjoJo), )|jl», u.ixa, >ft\t», 'L&a|, 'LqjuL; it is completely excluded 
only in the case of a and ^*, apart from those prepositions which never 
assume suffixes at all. 

(b) Through repetition of the prep., e. g. JLaJLa ^x o^S, "upon that 
stone" Aphr. 6 ult., or by placing the prep, which has the suffix after the 
other, > »^i^S^ c\>\r> JLL3& oot ^oJL ^^0 "and of Jesus [or Joshua] 
it is farther thus written" Aphr. 112, 9. Thus are construed ^>, > \**, ^a^, 
-a, -X (also to mark the Object; v. § 287 sqq.). Repetition is used also 
in cases like JL$£» Vca.iL ^ (op» ^o JB^£» JL*a& ^po^ ^°°* \?°^ 



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Pronouns. 



— 176 — § 223. 

JLo6^»o "Moses was a leader to them, and Jesus was Guide and Redeemer 
to us" Aphr.223,25. We have even ji£<i$X o^ JLi^a {£jl£ of^wjLuU 
"there appeared to him, the blessed one, a vision amidst the flock" Sim. 
270, 7 (where there is no special emphasis at all; the London manuscript 
has merely (oju> '^X o^X 'U) ; o»frof rr* ov=> JoC^ ©*» ^o>? "which God 
in his own person did" Ov. 164, 2 &c. 

(3) With an Object-reference by means of Object-suffixes to the 
verb (§§ 288 sq.\ 293). 
Bonoxivo § 223. Personal Pronouns must also be employed to express the 

reflexive meaning, when the Verbal form does not already serve for that 
purpose. In cases like oiL&X o^o <6otX "he led them to himself" Ov. 
193, 14; ^oopo^uu ^oojiNrv ^^p^y "they call up their sins to mind" 
Aphr. 223, 19, the simple Personal Pronoun is sufficient. In the case of 
a reflex Object the Subject-pronoun is often placed alongside of the 
prep. ^ with the suffix of that pronoun attached thereto: o£^» o©» ^*Jo 
"and he introduced himself" Anc. Doc. 90, 18; K*y\% 6£^» wp» "she 
wronged herself' Ephr. HI, 2 C (and so, frequently o<^ oot, 6C^ w©*) ; 
,* \{ ^ hj[ "baptise thyself Ephr. (Lamy) I, 126, 10; 1^slm.{ ^ JS{ 
wo^oJ^JLa "I have let myself be caught by his hands" Ephr. Ill, 382 A &c. 
Compare farther J&juao ©*» o^ o©j "he hides in himself' Ephr. Ill, 10 C. 
In the last case the clearer phraseology o^Aaia would probably have 
been used in prose. In fact, JULaji "soul" and, — though more rarely — 
Jboduo "person" are very often employed with personal suffixes to ex- 
press the reflexive relation with accuracy, e. g. <.»a9ii\ "to myself; 
o»4&JL£> "in himself &c. ; k**t^ y^i ^ jSaXe asavrdv koctcc Matt. 
4, 6; ^oom^j ojt^a "they separated (refl.)" Ov. 194, 10; o^dxo ^^ 
v^k&k* "is divided against itself Luke 11, 17 P. (C. is different) ; 
(Iqjol£ ^poppCiiriS o^oJ "they procured for themselves a priesthood" 
Ov. 194, 11;— 16* ^p( ^oue^ "spoke to himself Ov. 281, 23. Thus 
also ^6o)Vv>ofn and ^potftJ&jk "themselves" stand in parallel clauses in Ov. 
207, 25 sq.\ but such plurals are rare. Cf. too u*dxof Jbpj "my own 
blood" Joseph 26, 9 [Ov. 281, 23], and even <*+*# J&Q^fl^* "sibimet 
ipsi" Aphr. 455, 2. Even IK* "essence" is similarly employed; JL&^cp 
<*KlX "she suffices for herself Ephr. I, 428 E; otKlX )Joonm "self- 



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§§ 224. 224*. 225. — 177 — 

contradiction" Ov. 60, 15 ; oi&J JknAJg^oo o^jlSj lif>r* ~ot? "who guides 
and rules herself' Ephr. II, 451 B ; oiki ^> parallel with c*aaj ^> and 
op&aia ^ Ov. 59, 4; oifcj ja^ (jj "is at variance with himself Ov. 
45, 6 &c. 'a&j and 'aooxo stand also in apposition with the Subject, e. g. 
ofrAfiui ooj, ^oom^J ^oj^ "he himself', "they themselves" ; ^popodxo ^oiot 
"they themselves" Jul. 30, 3. 'aooi.0 is sometimes much the same as 
"quite", "at all", "altogether" : %gx*11 ty ^p iv»o i o? ju,ij ojjlqoou 8Xccg Matt. 
5, 34 C. S. (P. yflp); L^JL{ jo^ua yaooxo fcJ? sv djuapr/aig ov syswrj- 
&rjg 8Xcog John 9, 34 S. (P. ^£); ~oio!sJ JjJ <h&<u* tf£±Z "Fate has 
no existence at all" Spic. 9, 9 ; ^^ptoo JJ ^poppdxo JL*£^? "who do not 
at all approach women" Spic. 8, 1. Cf. farther fooi op&oxo (K*» JUL} 
^6o£^» "what sort of house had they at all?" Aphr. 352, 16. 

§ 224. The preposition ^ with reflexive personal pronoun often * leona8tio 
stands alongside of a verb, without essentially modifying its meaning Pronominal 
(Dativus ethicus); ©^ *a&J "he went away" Acts 12, 19; w^» y*o.& 
avdarri&i Acts 10, 26; <*> k^oi* "she ran" Ov. 161, 15, and thus very 
frequently with verbs of motion; ^po^» oK*& "they are dead" Matt. 
2, 20; Ov. 170, 8; ua\ ~K^j juaby Acts 12, 15; u*fo o^ {6o* 5^- 
irpoadiv juov yiyovs John 1, 15 and 30; U£<^p (o£s ^po^ ooc* "there 
were many Gods" Aphr. 121, 1, and thus frequently with loon and 
U+l: o&*Vi ^±» (to^x 6CV & JVftU "servitude was foretold for his 
seed" Aphr. 27, 10, and thus in Aphr. often directly used with passive 
verbs &c. 

§ 224*. The mode of placing a reflex Possessive-Suffix in Genitive Benexive 
connections is peculiar, as in the frequently occurring <ovvi« wpo suffix 
o^jo^f "St. Simon Styhtes" ("St. Simon of his pillar"), for which also £*** 
often stands JjoJ§dQo(? ("of the pillar"). So woiojija-Dj jo&JL "the hot 
July" Ephr. in, 593 F; oiIq*&jl? JLlSjj "the renowned"/ pi. JLuijj 
^ootJLopajtf Ov. 160, 4, 9; woiojJUij o£» 6 taijuov&juLevog Mark 5, 15, 
16, 18; 6&ii ~£ "she that had the issue of blood" Ephr. Ill, 554 E; 
^oo^'ffkrp? t^*^ 1 Vip^ "the sna Sgy barbarians" John Eph. 117, 13 (cf. 
398, 16) and many similar instances (cf. § 205 A). 

§ 225. A. The Separate Possessive-Pronouns with ^»j stand both w 
as substantives and adjectives. ot^~? Ji^»j\ ^kj "let us give to time 

12 



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— 178 — § 225. 

what is its own" Jul. 109 ult. ; s-oki^^ o ty oj^f o ll[ oj\^\ sig rd lha 
7j\Qe kou ol ihoi avrdv ov 7rap£\aj3ov John 1, 11 ; ^oniVif Jjfj to dXkorpiov 
(lit. "not your own"), and ^o^X.f TO-vpiiTepov Luke 16, 12; o£^*f ^> ouJJ 
"to one of his own people" Ov. 184, 15; oTfr«|S \P©H* +L fL ^$ ^^H? 
"but they remained every one of them in his own (his own belief)" Ov. 
160, 21; &o* wotofcj o^*f ^f "ours was his" Aphr. 119, 10; v*^f 
^6&o( "mine are ye" Isaac I, 22, v. 446 ; ^jll» ^-5 }otj "for we are indeed 
thine" Aphr. 489, 9; JLaa^mao JLA-J oC*u»f ^ oo^o "and gave us his 
own mild and pleasant one (yoke {%-J)" Aphr. 319, 10; ^*>f JBA "this of 
thine (thy distress JBjXo})" Sim. 331 ad inf. &c. — With substantives, 
to give more prominence to the possessor: ^Sk*f Jj|?a£X "for our ad- 
vantage" Aphr. 459, 3 ; o^-f JUdo* "his day" Aphr. 36, 5 &c. ; and in 
particular with those Greek words which cannot take any suffix (§ 145 L) ; 
o£^*? ifloo ^N jp "his clergy" frequently; ©i^-? ^mvi.f "its (f.) pubhc bath 
(jbytJt&Hw)" Jos. St. 70,20; o^f Jboj "his girdle" Sim. 317 inf\ tm*o>6t 
^ootX*? "their resources" (pva/ag) Jul. 37, 5, and many others. Very 
rarely the Constr. St. occurs here, as in y^? ^uqA^ "for thy trial" 
Ephr. HI, 302 D ; <6o^~? p*£* "their own person" Isaac I, 22 v. 454 ; 
o^f *al^^ "beside him" Ov. 273, 11; o£±+} j-p J"by his means" 
Ephr. Nis. p. 60 v. 261. But \*j, besides, often stands after the Posses- 
sive-suffix: sa^j w&s»o£J^o Ijulov fipujua John 4, 34; o*S*? o*j^ "his 
zeal" Ov. 187,17; sA-f ~UXj "my prayer" Aphr. 454, 11; ^f ^Jf**® 
"our command" Ov. 219, 1 &c. ; compare ou{ ^&}o ^p©^*? \po*i»JLj "in 
their sight and every man's" Ov. 184, 8. — Sometimes ^j stands first, with 
the effect of emphasis: y^^ y±+} "thy dwelling" Aphr. 494, 13; ^k*f 
^Yi»m "our treasure" Aphr. 506, 14; ^t^^ao faftp ^ ^*f "but the 
general of our camp" Aphr. 59, 7 &c. Compare otf&J JLa;J£io2> o*^*f 
"his soul is distressed" Ephr. HE, 651 A. 

Thus it stands also with Genitive combinations, (§ 205 C) and that 
too sometimes without, sometimes with, a suffix attached to the governing 
member: JLua*ao; o£**»j ^^i "the partition-wall of the (said) altar" Jos. 
St. 29, 7 ; 1%*V. <*^? JL$ "the Brothers of the very convent" Ov. 210, 10 
= 213, 4 &c. Cf. J^l^p* *H ^f Ik*** " the new race formed by 
us Christians" Spic. 20,4. — )&+$} o£^*? ^? wptoyop "but in the days of 



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§ 226. — 179 — 

the (said) Peroz" Jos. St. 11, 9; JJ^S>* o^f o*W| jafo "before the court 
of the (fore-mentioned) Temple" Sim. 271 mid.; JBAj oj^f wp»6£4» "in 
the hands of this man" Ov. 160, 14 &c. For the most part a special em- 
phasis, or at least a reference to something already mentioned, lies in 
this prolix construction. Compare farther Ui^*? >-*©• ot^~f ^h^4 "^e 
good is man's own" Spic. 6, 11. 

B. Farther \*j also occurs frequently after prepositions with the 
suffix, to add emphasis to the latter : s*X*f oo» JLX kjmoi Matt. 25, 40 in 
Aphr.381,2 (in P. merely op» d^); vA*j v*i& "from me" Jos. St. 3, 14; 
o^f P»tiX "at his house" Ov. 208, 19; o^f o^ "to him" often; ^frN? 
^v-f "without us" Aphr. 172,7 &c. We have even ^ oe^ ^k*f ^k, "to 
us he gave" Aphr. 181, 5. Farther it occurs with substantives: wotoLdjui 
JLi^pp? ©^~? "under the (fore-mentioned) altar" Sim. 272, 9; ©»i£^ 
1*4*? o^f "with the saint" Sim. 274, 13; JL^ad* Jiotj oj^f w6to*>fx> 
"before this Mopet" Mart. I, 181 inf., &c. 

Just as *S>p is construed with j (§ 209 B), so is it also with 2**j : 
o^? »S>J* or *2>jJ o(±+} juepi/tvyasi rd iavryjg Matt. 6, 34; o^f &y 
eTTi/teXyrriOi avroO Luke 10, 35 ; ... ^^o»? ^po^j (£o» *2>jJ "he was con- 
cerned for those, who ..." Sim. 333 mid. ; sA-J k*9* **-& "thou didst 
care for me" Jos. St. 3, 10 &c. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 
§ 226. All the Demonstratives are used both as Substantives Demon- 

strative 
Pronoun i. 
Adjective- 
and Sub- 



and as Adjectives. In the latter case they stand sometimes before, 8 



sometimes after, the substantive : jfrvy JLiot or Jiot Jfrvy "this king" ; ^ 6 g*™* 
JL^ij J) and wot JL^W "that country" ; ^i*>\ov» JBot "this counsel of stantive- 
ours" Aphr. 293, 2; ^i ^vVft "these our words" Aphr. 299, 2 &c. "" 
The majority of the ancient authors (hke Aphr.) usually put the demon- 
strative first ; others, however, prefer to place it after the substantive ; but 
there is no consistent practice. (*) 



(*) With the Edessan Joshua St. the method of putting the demonstrative 
second preponderates ; with Rabbula's biographer, on the contrary, — also an Edessan 
of a date not much earlier, — the prior position prevails. 

12* 



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— 180 — §§ 227. 228. 

Personal § 227. The Personal Pronoun of the 3 rd person, wlrich is always 

Pronoun of . . . 

srd pers. substantive, serves often to give greater prominence to a substantive by 

deTonBte^ bein g P laCed before it: *• ff' l\*4* J^»diaS 0<£ {ootO "thus it— the law— 

tive effect was ^ g uar di an " Aphr. 26, 5; JUa»$ o©» t*t ool "again he, — Jere- 
stantives mi ah — said" Aphr. 34, 1; toot 6*J^*f Jlivi\iiv> Jhoo* otl;A»m w6» &l +s> 

and before , * 

other ne- "while even his nourishment itself was a complete fast" Ov. 182, 5 &c. 
tiTe Q 8 8tra Also be fore farther demonstratives : {ooi Ika-j, J^°- *&* &«o ty ^ 0«jS- 
fiaTov sv e/csivfl r# iljutyq John 5, 9; !*>**,$ ©£ ooi wch*jL> t^o "and 
when tins evildoer saw him" Sim. 331, 3 (Cod. Lond., without oot); — 
Jj^o^ ^»ot ^qj$ onfli ^f t^ "but when these blessed ones went away" 
Sim. 332, mid. (Cod. Lond., otherwise) ; (Ikdiaa ffot wS» "this bene- 
diction" Aphr. 465, 13 &c. . This pronoun may even stand here as Ob- 
ject: t?r^" $*• w ^ JflP^* *®( ^ o^X' * a/ ' 0/ " rsXcova/ to auro ttoiovgiv^ 
Matt. 5, 46 sg. (C. S. quite different); J*i.^\ Jill* J& oot \l^ "the 
Church holds fast to this number" ZDMG XXXI, 377 ult. (Jac. Sar.) ; 
(jot wot w6io^jo( "informed him of this" Sim. 311 mid.; w6» ^of v&{ 
po( (?c* "David also has said this" Ov. 123, 19; ivmviV !?<* wp» "to 
do this" Jos. St. 3, 22 ; ^»o» ^ojo> . . . ^J ^ +$ "but when he learned 
this (haec)" Sim. 312, l&c. Compare in addition >^?a*p otA&J (|^jl oioot 
y^. "it, the truth, makes itself known to thee" Ov. 163, 16. 
weakening § 228. The distinction between the nearer and the more remote 

monstrative is observed with greater strictness in the sing, than in the pi. This is 
force. shown by ^*ot being very often employed as correlative: j ^V°* "those, 
who", exactly like j oS* "he, who", J wo» "she who", while j JBot, j (;ot 
mean "this one (m.), who", "this one (f.), who", and only on very rare 
occasions does the sing, demonstr. pron. appear as a mere antecedent 
(as in j JBo\ JL§J»d* *a+\ V3*j( "the chief Mopet Adharphar, who ..." 
Mart. I, 134 ult, cf. I, 234, 3; Simeon of Beth Arsham (Guidi) 7, 13; 
1, 3 = Land III, 235, 15. So Jul. 4, 4; Euseb. Ch. Hist. 274, 8. j ^dj©t, 
} ^jot do not occur so often as j ^*°V — I n other respects also ^ot 
shares with ooi &c, the tendency to weaken its demonstrative signifi- 
cation. Compare the cases opojf ^ot, ^oo»- yny ? ^*ot cited above (§ 224*) ; 
farther v d*^f ~i "yours" Mart. 1, 182, 8 ; J^ovjp ^\c^\ "to the first" 
Sim. 340 mid.; imoSS k-^? ^? ^*°^ "but the adherents of Illus" Jos. 



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§§ 229—232. — 181 — 

St. 14, 1, like l-^d&il &+*} v ojch "the prisoners" Moes. II, 69, 26 &c. ; 
whereas J^p-&? (fot Ov. 314, 17 is "this affair of the cup". It is apparent 
that o£», woi, ^QJot, ^uot and ^^ot are gradually approximating to the 
meaning of the definite article, for which in fact they are directly used 
by certain translators from the Greek. 

8 229. In rhetorical antithesis "this— that" (== "the one"— "the "Thi 8 »- 

. "That" 

other") we find JS«hX— JBo» Ov. 119 ult.; Jul. 223, 24 sq.; Moes. II, 100 
v. 371; -i i^& -<* ibid. v. 383, like o& ^> o& Ov. 119, 14; o©» ^. JS£ 
Moes. II, 84 v. 117; ^£?o ^o»? Aphr. 450, 16 &c. 

§ 230. "Tfee ven/ same" is expressed by repetition of the Personal "ti>. T»ry 

same". 

Pronoun with t-o interposed, which here has still the meaning "as" : U> 
JjlLd ooj t-? o^o oo» "one and the same nature is there" Ov. 80, 4; v!p» 
wot t^ (u^oi) wp» "she is the same" Moes. II, 90 v. 237 ; Ov. 67, 7 ; 
^ojA tjy ^oj( ^ojA "they are the same" Mart. I, 11, 9; }&o» o©»j (o£3S 
o©» ^ "God, who is (always) the same" Moes. IT, 106, v. 482; +$ o^ 
p»^fi\ o£^» "to this very companion of his" Sim. 370, 4 (Cod. Lond. 
oti^ju o6£w o^X); {k^yy w©*» 6& ^ 6*£ "in that very chariot" Sim. 
301, 11 (Cod. Lond. merely 'aa» ©*»); oj^*f ^ ^~? "belonging to the 
same" frequently, &c. With additional emphasis we have oio©» +% a*ooi 
Jbo^, "it is exactly the same people" Ephr. (Lamy) I, 467, 11. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

§ 231. £, ol*> (= OOt £©) "Who?"; J&, ^», fcJ), ^O* "what?" Interro- 

have a substantive character. Yet sometimes we have JLbo &c. placed pronous. 
beside a substantive, and signifying "what sort of?" : Ji|ia» JLii = JHJY 1 TO t ive- and 
"what sort of advantage?", "what profit?" Eccl. 1, 3; JLL^ioi JLLa "what ^ 8 d j ective " 
kind of penalty?" Aphr. 261, 6; UlJ* ^ JUL* "what sort of good now?" ""' 
Aphr. 468, 16; &J \LkioA v d» "what kind of distinctions exist?" Asse- 
mani I, 449 (Isaac Ninivita) &c. Such a use of ^S» is quite exceptional, 
as in too* d&*JLd ^V^- ^y\ "to what rich man would it be easy ?" Jac. 
Sar. in Zingerle's Chrest. 374. 

§ 232. A. The simple Jbo is considerably circumscribed in use, "Wnat?» 
through the forms which have n. It stands (1) in short questions like 
j Jk»% J^o, ©*aJ£ Jbo, ya.^ J^o &c. "how stands it with him, with thee?" &c. 



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— 182 — §§ 233. 234. 

(properly: "what is the news of him?" &c.) Ruth 2, 5; 3, 10; Ephr. II, 
505 D; Mart. I, 112, 2 &c; j **a^ J& "what aileth thee, that . . . ?" Gen. 
21, 17; ^ JL* ^ ri npog rjjuuzg; "what is that to us?" Matt. 27, 4: 
similarly (2) as a Correlative, j Jb© "that, which"; also in the meaning 
"when" "if' (§ 258, &c.) : (3) As an adverb,— like JbjJt ^^ JbS> ri Grerij i] 
7rvkyj\ Matt. 7, 14; i.nv\^ ^~K & "^ow no ^ e are thy words!" Ov. 
155, 22 (Var. JbLo); o«^Sbop W Jbo "how foolish his book is!" Ephr. 
II, 456 D &c: (4) In compounds like JLio "how much?"; Jiv>N "why?" 
(also frvN, frequently jLLb ^a^) and, Uke Jbk^i, "if haply", "perhaps", 
"lest perchance" (§ 373) and several like compounds. 

B. jUbb too is used adverbially in various ways, e. g. V&» JLiab 
Jiu^ loo* «iu^d "how then would man be different . . . ?" Spic. 3, 7 ; 
j Loot {piS JLLb "why should it be necessary, that . . . ?" Aphr. 350 ult ; 
cf. Ov. 67* 12; hj{ joJLi JLii "why standest thou?" Moes. IE, 70, 10; 
^>^\ JLLb TT&g fyovai Acts 15, 36; (koioa Li*** ^^JLLo "for in what 
way did the blessing help?" Aphr. 347, 11, for which 346, 19 gives oo* 
ottu»io£ Wt^, Uke yJ&l x$±y>> ojl& "why is thy face without shame?" 
Aphr. 318, 9; ^6fcs*jL>i[ 1^*-}* )&+***{ $*>* }&** ^i 30 "why, said he, do 
you appear in this sordid dress?" Jul. 42, 12. 

^jt. § 233. oiap signifies "who?" like ^ao: )*-+$* olap "who will main- 

tain" Jul. 15 ult; ^oov^l Q^p? J?V* ^^°^ "whose books are these?" 
Sim. 269 inf.\ JLjaaJ ^^oiap "for who counts up?" Sim. 368 inf. &c. 

But the oo», which is involved in oo^p, may also serve as copula: 
then oiap is "who is?" e. g. Jul. 43, 5; 56, 2 &c. 

It+l § 234. A. JLLl, (£*?, ^±+1 may be used substantively, e. g. ©ju{ 

(= oo> JbuJ) "who is?" often (amongst others Ephr. HE, 359 A) exactly 
= olio (but differently in j Jbooa 1*3 oa*{ "which (mouth) then is the 
mouth, which . . . ?" Ephr. m, 593 D); <+$L JLUo >\JLJ JLL(o ua*jj UJj 
"who may be just, who violent, who sinful" Ephr. HE, 310 F ; ^-»Ja 
ofk £oJL^ rial hi Trpoa&xQias . . . ; "with whom had he vexation?" 
Hebr. 3, 17. 

More frequently however the word is used adjectively, v. § 202 E; 
see, as farther examples, Ifr*** f^^f l{*\ "which religion is true?" 



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§§ 235. 236. — 183 — 

Mart. I, 182, 6; Ijpep ^>i( "which writers?" Sim. 368 mid.; t-^U^ 
Jbbad "for, what mouth?" ibid.; — Ji^boa ujj ^^ ^2^ "of what com- 
mandments then?" Aphr. 318, 11 &c. The separation of the interrogative 
from the substantive is more marked in l^^L fcjj JLL{ ^>o "and from 
what convent art thou?" Land II, 141 paen.\ JbjJj hJl JUL| ^> "of what 
seed art thou?" Apost. Apocr. 198, 1; JLiol \?^| W? °& y Trvsvjuarog 
iaTS v/JLsig Luke 9, 55 ; JLcbovi8\ {&^** ^pj? I^d \++\ "what cause pro- 
duced the laws?" Ephr. II, 453 E. 

B. All the Interrogative Pronouns may be employed as Correlatives 
also (§ 236 A). 

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

§ 235. The general Relative j betokens of itself the attributive The Reia- 
relative-clause : j JlA\y "the king, who" ("whom" &c, according to the Uom^" 
internal construction of the relative-clause, v. § 341 sqq.), — and so also j By itself, 
"he, who" or "one, who"; J KA "est, qui", "sunt, qui" often; ^^a? 
oot ££ ^Aa i-*^ "for He who is almighty is one only" Spic. 9, 22 ; 
(*jl> '^aa^jf "he who has exerted himself, is glad" Aphr. 114, 15; ^?J*9 
"and those who so wish" Aphr. 496, 12 ; ©^ 1 g^f ^ "him, who honours 
her" Aphr. 497, 3; t*J&*? »^SriN, "to do what is good" Spic. 5, 1; — 
}jLi ooi w©iajj{ ^$* Jj|; "what his ears have not heard, he sees" Aphr. 
281, 5; **£* ^> "from that which is evil" Aphr. 497, 2; vj^^o? ^^ 
"super ea (talia), quae praestant" Ov. 179, 6 &c. In particular this 
shorthand mode of expression is a favourite one with Aphraates. 

§ 236. A. Very often, however, in cases where there is no sub- with 
stantive antecedent, a Correlative takes its place. Thus with demonstratives, orre a lve ' 
j o£», j s-4, j ^qjc*, } ^i; j ^ot; with interrogatives ? ^; ? U-J, 
j l$J, i ^-{; and $ Jbo "that which". So for instance j JLL? and j op» 
"he who" interchange without any difference in meaning: Spic. 5, 1, 2, 
and frequently. But indeed these words are often heaped together be- 
fore }. Thus for example, } ^o o£* "he who"; "one who" Aphr. 138, 2; 
Spic. 3, 6, 11 &c, for which in Spic. 4, 7, appears even ? ^» oc* o£* 
"he who" = "one who" (universal statement) — } JLL{ oS* "he who" (de- 



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— 184 — § 236. 

finite) Spic. 12, 19; (general) Spic. 2, 2 &c. Plur. } <$J ^ot "those 
who" Aphr. 132, 15; 136, 19, 22 &c; Ov. 78, 5 (ea, quae f.) ; rarely 
1 ^~{ i£j& "those who" Ov. 200, 14. Apart from gender and numher no 
decided difference in the use of these expressions of the Relative is visible, 
seeing that different forms are frequently found in juxtaposition, with like 
meaning. For the expression ^oj^f cited above, one might also say 
^ai^i o5», '**} ^p, '*»} JLL?, '*») ,-*> ooi, '*»} JUL? o£; similarly with the 
PL— Thus too i J& o£ e. g. Ephr. in Zingerle's Chrest. 327 v. 177 (var. 
? <o»o£). 

B. The Demonstratives and JLLt, followed by j, also appear often 
alongside of substantives, e. g. JU**£ fy wot otk^»£*£ "by means of his 
knowledge, which is unerring" Jos. St. 6, 9; j ^ojot jB^aftpo JL^,V "the 
chiefs and leaders, • who" Spic. 12, 2 ; j (*^of v 6o^o <oj<hX "to all the 
male children, who" Spic. 16, 23; j ^^ot {^*j "the convents, which" 
Sim. 277 ad inf.; } l' r { 1^*4 "the good, which" Spic. 4, 5; llt>rV2 
j ^±+1 "the chastisements, which" Jos. St. 2, 6 ; } JKS03 ^*i[ "the 
stars, which" Spic. 14, 14 &c. Cf. farther j JULJ o£ $yj $ "from 
another one, who" Spic. 19, 9. The Correlative is conveniently intro- 
duced when the substantive is more distant from the relative, as, for 
instance in ? *^ot fkai otLoa*£{ (&ot (qju^o )ymiv> linnnfr ^>* fcs^fe^K* 
"especially for the poor, afflicted ones, he showed great zeal, — those 
who" Ov. 203, 25 ; j ^»o» . . . {fccL'V "the writings . . . which" Jos. St. 
1, 1 &c. 

C. For the pure Neuter there comes in very often j ^o£» "some- 
thing which", "that which", e. g. fc>t^JI s^dgjj ^p "something which 
would be foreign to God" Ov. 176, 5. Instead of this, there appears 
also j p£& o£, e. g. 1 Cor. 15, 37 (Aphr. 155, 8); Spic. 10 ult\ thus too 
1 ja£tt oot 00^ Ov. 121, 20. Jjot and ^^ot may also come before j ja£ao : 
y^ JLl=AJ>? )o£» Jj£t '**£•*' "hear this, which I write to thee" Aphr. 79, 14 ; — 
j pi& JSc*a Jb£ "has pleasure in that, which" Spic. 1, 7; )o£* t^^ 
y^ k»ka? "haec, quae scripsi tibi" Aphr. 200, 12; ^JLj pjap t^<* 
"ea, quae decent" Aphr. 116, 11. 

D. The variety of expression becomes still greater here from the 
possibility of adding, in many cases, a ^o. Cf. e. g. j JLL| ^d "every one, 



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§ 237. — 185 — 

"who" Ov. 164, 11; j ^J ^i "all those, who" Aphr. 133, 17; ^jS* 
<Viaa>? ^~{ ^V^ ^ "omnia vero, quae prosunt" Ov. 78, 5 &e. 

H. NUMERALS. 

§ 237. The numeral stands, by way of apposition, either be- Numeral 
fore or after that which is numbered. Thus the variants in Aphr. 467, 1 Numbered 
fmv&o&i Jlgi^y and ^\y Mn*Jtki&l "18 kings" are equally 0bject - 
correct grammatically; and thus ^JOjt fji Jul. 220, 23; 223, 4; 244, 24; 
JUjlA U* Jul. 247, 2, 22; 248, 3; and {J& JL 9 ** Jul. 222, 5; 223, 6 are 
interchangeable expressions for "100 years". Placing the numeral first is 
the more usual practice. The numbered object takes either the Abs. 
or the Emph. State, as these examples also indicate. For farther in- 
stances v. § 202 D. Except with +£*, (|jl» the noun is always in the plural. 
Notice however ^cu +Lo ^m\ Aphr. 56, 21; 57, 1; Jbioo* +Lo ^m\ 
Sim. 272 ult, "twenty-one days", where +L calls forth the sing.; but of 
course the plural is retained when the numbered object comes first: 
tex>o ^*»*i[ ^JL Aphr. 466, 17. 

The pi. of t&SN sometimes governs a Genitive with j: ^jLSs Ikm, 
jUiiif "six thousands of years" — "6000 years" Aphr. 36, 20, and fre- 
quently thus with JLUii; jUtLuaf t 1 *^ t#- u2000 men " Edessan Chron. 
ed. Hallier 146, 6 (Doc. of 201). In the same fashion ^4aj ^ym) 
JEU^tt^af "20 myriads of Christians" Jul. 83, 8. 

Between the numeral and the numbered object a short word may 
intervene: thus frequently in the O. T. and elsewhere the word (&p», in 
the phrase "filius n erat annoruwF, e. g. ^SJL foot (Jbo ia "he was a 
hundred years old" Aphr. 235, 18 ; farther uK»^r» x JJk, %^ ^m\ {p» 
"twenty years have I been in thy house" Gen. 31, 41; ^pj[ (J&^a${ 
^jS% "it is 400 shekels" Gen. 23, 15 ; J&^» oop» jLj "*%& "for they 
were one people" Aphr. 207, 22 &c. A particle comes into the midst of 
the statement of number itself in ^.Li, ouajLo ^Jt^o ^i( (Jbo&^i "it is 
395 years" (or lit. "three hundred there are and ninety and five years") 
Aphr. 399 ult Rarely is the numbered object left to be understood, as 
in o^*t? JJL^poji JL&X "at the completion of his nine" «=» "when he 
was nine years old" Jesussabran (Chabot) 509 ult 



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ii num- 
bered. 



numbers 
used for 
Ordinal 
numbers. 



— 186 — §§ 238—240. 

Determi- § 238. The simple numbers may always be used even in "deter- 

ttiVwMch mination", e. g. wokuo^, ^'jl "his two cloaks" Aphr. 404, 21 ; tfc^tek. 
wOjopSh \ I "to his three disciples" Aphr. 460 alt. &c. Cf. the examples 
in§§202D; 203. But the forms set forth in § 149, for numbers up 
to 10 inclusive may appear also in this use, e. g. JLuo'j ^op^a>| ^ 
§/c t&v reaa&pow avijuoov Mark 13, 27; im*i»VA ^*o» ^£-1^1 "these 
three views (opinions)" Spic. 9, 14; ^o»-.t < ^l ^^^ "these three things" 
Aphr. 319, 15 (by the side of which, line 13 &*Jl ^^ ^X&a "for in 
these three things"); Jy\> \?o*-jI "the two worlds" Aphr. 493, 2; 
| ? \y v 6o*'!sJbaI> "the five kings" Josh. 10, 22; ^yfthifiV <*}{ JLko 
"smote the five (women)" Mart. I, 126, mid. 

cardinal § 239. The Cardinal numbers in the genitive are often employed 

for the Ordinal numbers: ^Vlj J&*~ ■= fr*^ J^ao* "the second day" &c. 
Thus for JUJ >v>t ({{a "in the eighth generation" Aphr. 474, 21 the var. 
is JUU&JL; (>$a. In numbers above 10 the genitive association either 
quite preponderates (according to § 153), or alone is in use, e. g. ktaS. 
. l^o ^mvo ll&**il "to the year (of) 421" Aphr. 475, 2 &c. The 
repetition of the numbered object at the end of the clause, as in 
^jLa, ij&Kf, kt^ J^>^. "up to the six-hundredth year" Aphr. 476, 2 &c. 
is a Hebraism. 

Distributive § 240. A. Doubling the word to convey the idea of distribution 

Expression. ^ Distributive Repetition) is a favourite practice in the case of numerals, 

e. g. ^xi. ^AJt "by sevens" or "every seven" (f.) ; ^>y»g> ^y» • "by 

seventies". 
Grouping. B. By means of the preposition k*a "between", numbers are 

sometimes taken together as a group : (<p^*It^ ^a-* k*£ <Jr"H " seven 

women together shall take hold of one man" Ephr. II, 26 A; ^V^ni *j> 

U^il k*a o£s "while four persons together carried him" Mark 2, 3; 

<oo*-L* ^jt K ^ "for two of them together" Jos. St. 85, 10. 
Approxi- C. Approximate numbers are indicated by two numbers following 

ben! nUm " eac k °^ ner without being otherwise connected : ^nfivc * v> \hfeX ^jL "two 

or three eunuchs" 2 Bangs 9, 32 ; ^oop^o ^^i{ ^*^ "thirty or forty of 

them" Land II, 48, 13. 



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§§ 241. 242. — 187 — 

§ 241. The Cardinal numbers in the feminine, even without an ac- Adverbial 
companying Jlaji, fk£s*J, denote the numeral adverbs of time : 1+±j "once" ; presiioni. 
JVil "twice". Thus ^IVto Ihaaf "once or twice" Mart. I, 135, 9, and 
often; although fc^J»o ^^° J^*°f "f° r the first, second, and third time" 
appears. So too (|jl» fcx> "again and again" Land II, 356, 7. "For the 



n 



th 



time" may be signified also by means of } (§ 209 B): ^p'l? Aphr. 



19, 16: 31, 15. The time within which something regularly recurs, is 
expressed by means of ^ : ^lit >*£*')! l+*> "once in the four years" Jos. 
St. 26, 8; ^£q~ Jy^gN ff** "once in the seven days", or "every seven 
days" Spic. 19, 19 ; cf. qa^ (|jl» anaviog (literally, "one in ten thousand 
[times]") Lagarde Anal. 145, 14; (^olX f|x> i/c haksijUL/idruv ("once 
in a long time", "at long intervals") Sachau, Ined. 90 ult.\ JtoniS (|jl» 
"sometimes" Joh. van Telia (Kleyn) 23, 16 (var. JbaA merely) : 61, 2, 
and frequently. (*) Instead of this {i. e.^. to express recurrence) we have 
a similarly used in (Atijp ?|jl» "once a-year" Ephr. I, 223 E. 

Multiplicity is expressed by means of *£ set before the number 
concerned, with or without a: ^Vk» *£ "double" Ex. 22, 3, (6 ^Vt *x>); 
(J&a ^ iKarovTankaaiom Matt. 19, 29; Mark 10, 30; Luke 8, 8; +L 
fymy> "tenfold" Jul. 115 utt.\ jL&a&Aa oa^ +L juvpiOTrXaaicog ifkiov 
Sir. 23, 19; ~oK^ \^l +L rpnrXaaioog Sir. 43, 4; } y*& ^ ^VL ^ 
"twice as much as that which" Ex. 16, 5 &c. Thus, often JbLo +L "how 
much more". 

Bern. In Ephr. II, 227 C, ^Vt ^ stands for "for the 2 nd time". 

Manifoldness may also be expressly denoted by means of JLa^J (Ja^) 
"doubling": ^vfrfr ltf**» • . . cl£ o^ "was ten times greater" Sim. 373 , 
mid. Cf. ibid. 301 mid.; 325 mid. 

§ 242. The method most in favour, at least in the older writings, «one 
of expressing the reciprocal relation is by means of a doubled +L : <oimj 
t JC^ ^ juuGrjaovaiv aXkrfkovg Matt. 24, 10 ; cf. Matt. 25, 32 ; Mark 1, 27 &c. ; 



another" 



(*) For the more ancient period however, the expression is hardly ever found, 
except in translations from the Greek. Generally speaking we are obliged for ob- 
vious reasons to have recourse to translations, oftener than is desirable, in dealing 
with these numerical expressions. 



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— 188 — § 243. 

+L ih& +L "one behind the other" Aphr. 507 alt. and frequently: 
+L} +L ^ojJ )Ko n n> "they are opposed to one another" Spic. 12, 3; 
*JL» ^a^ +Z} JL^Joiaa "through mutual intermixture" Spic. 4, 23; (]*£o 
^o-ajjj J^ *j£j t-^* "and let not one calumniate the other" Sim. 396 mid. &c. 
Cf. §§ 319; 351. Or else the words are run together into the single word 
?f£i>, as if the foregoing expressions might be read l}^a ^otmi, it^a 
l$y* &c. Thus we find (j|j^ ja^». Luke 4, 36 P., where S. has +L y&p, +Z 
like Luke 2, 15 P., and thus too 1$}J* often with prepositions ; farther com- 
pare 1}+J$ ^m, {^oAajua "they reside in the neighbourhood of one 
another" or "they are neighbours" Moes. II, 84 v. 115; ^ V.f {^M ^ 
(?£!>£ ool {[ m u <Jo oot "if there is honour, it is ours, and if there is 
disgrace, it again is on both sides" Ov. 151, 17 &c. Notice ^JLyja ^*o£»o 
{?*!>? <& ,6otJL&jutt "^nd their strokes differ from one another" Sim. 296 
mid., and {?*!>? ^> ^oo^JJJi ^ft\**jiv> "their odours are different from 
each other" Sim. 382, 8; (ffiif Jl^i ^? y+l "as on a common footing" 
Philox. 154, 7, where the genitive relation is expressly denoted. 

Bern. The somewhat childlike method too of denoting the second 
member, even when both are impersonal, by ?4p^£, f. ?^t^> "fellow, mate 
(m. and f.)" has been greatly in use in Syriac even from ancient times, 
e. g. uNy> ot^ju ^ JL^? " one s ^ e P i s bigger than the other" Aphr. 
434, 17; 6t^ oS fk»o| $ "from one place to the other" John 5, 13 
C. S.; Land II, 349, 2 &c. — Or the word itself is repeated: l%^|[ 
l^^| ^> <*^b "one reward is higher than another" Aphr. 434, 17 &c. 



- * J. ADVEEBIAL EXPKESSION. 

substan- § 243. Some few Nouns of Place serve, just as they stand, for adverbs 

Advert*. °f pl ace * Thus in particular b*& with Genitive following — Hn the house 
of, in the place of" (completely to be distinguished from the like-sound- 
ing word which means "between" § 251), e. g. Jm*iv» &*» &r/ to rek&viov 
"at the receipt of custom" (E. v.) Matt. 9, 9 ; s**\ &*» P. S. or J&J k*a 
C. to rolg tov narpog juov Luke 2, 49 ; jxm\ k*a to By&Xs&pt, Matt. 2, 1 
C. S. (P. Jbuaa); 2, 16 C. S. (P. otherwise); JLuijj {?6*a> *s*a "in the 
sanctuary of the noble martyrs" Ov. 163, 25 ; JLf'^aJL k*a "in the country 



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§ 243. . — 189 — 

of the Samaritans" Jul. 100 tilt. &c. Also "into the place of: o^oil 
l^J^l fcs*a "threw him into prison" Jul. 129, 7 &c. Farther ^otopapl "at 
his head" 1 Sam. 26, 7; ZDMG XXV, 342, 453 and frequently (also '{ ^ 
John 20, 12)— JLSy *Oj^& "in the midst of heaven" Spic. 13, 24 (15, 18 
'jl As>*gttLd, and in this way A^jtt and kvjvi~» are frequently inter- 
changed) — J *U "in the place where" (§ 359) and several others. 

Much more frequently there occurs an analogous use of Nouns of 
Time: I^jl v |^ vttq tov dpdpov Acts 5, 21; U^> o^wd v pw "at mid- 
night" Jos. St. 28, 19; pd-X$ "every day" often; U*jl, v^a^p "at 
sunset" Matt. 8, 16 C; Mark 1, 32 S.; Ov. 168,1; Jbio] r.Vyp "at the 
beginning of the fast" Sim. 282 mid. (Cod. Lond. otherwise ; cf. 'a 'aia 
2 Kings 11, 5, 9); ^JL^p JMs)> "many times" Ov. 167, 24 and fre- 
quently (and similar cases); ^oofy/fr J^&;( "during the day time always" 
Ov. 183, 8; p&+{ J±J± "by night and by day" (§ 146) Sim. 372 inf. 
and often; "throughout both night and day" Ephr. 1, 14 C ; III, 253 C and 
frequently; )&4Uo JL'\> "throughout both night and day" Sim. 275, 3 (not 
in the Lond. Cod.); Jb^p Jlaji "for a definite time" Ov. 167, 15; t^oJ 
"for a long time" Ephr*. II, 127 A; III, 423 B; JU^f» Ifc^J "a very 
long time" Spic. 22, 5; JLUiif J^^^ " for lon g years" Sim. 390, 8 (Lond. 
Cod. different) ; Jl*i^ JSota ^A° ^Hf* t$ °^ '**? <? "but a ^ ter ne na( * 
been at this work for one or two years" Sim. 279 mid. (wanting in Lond. 
Cod.) ; Jbboj o^*£ "during the whole fast" Sim. 282 mid., and many like 
instances. Compare besides ^£o~ v?y**i "for forty days" Ov. 186, 1 ; 
fjo^M JSpw ftpoiyv ti "for a short time" Acts 5, 34. 

So too with other expressions of Measure of various kinds : ^Z 
6£vi JLWo{ ooot "they rejoiced the whole way" Joseph 192, 11, cf. 214, 5 
[Ov. 294, 6; 305, 16]; JaJLp J^otf JLU^o {fa£ "the stone runs a long 
distance" Moes. II, 88 v. 197; ^yfl k#=>i{ 1&*%1 <**s^x» ^ )A+£ij 
"which was four miles distant from the enclosure of the blessed one" 
Sim. 391 inf. (Cod. Lond. Ih^l y+l) and similar cases. So too {jL^om 
"in large quantity", "very", "very much", e. g. yX i9i^mv> {JL^oj» 
"hurts thee much" Ov.87,21; ^J^ JJL^am? "who are very sinful" Ov. 
102, 22 &c. In the very same way are used the adjectives *s^p "much", 
"very"; ^^x> "little"; wp* "little", "less" (e. g. ^Ja l^vKvl t ^Lt 



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— 190 — §§ 244. 245. 

^ai{ ^°t "thirteen years less forty days" John Eph. 320, 21 ; ;-J^ 
^u^o "with very little exception", "nearly" often); t*k* "more" &c. 
An expression of measure is also implied in (laa d&su "he went out for 
a night's watch", i. e. "he kept a vigil" v. Ov. 167, 25; Wright Cat. 6646, 
18 and frequently. 

In fact even the Object, when it is not formally indicated, might be 
brought under this category (i. e. of adverbial expressions), e.g. in {||a ;jBul» 
"he dug a well", and, in like manner, cases like JLio* *Aflj "he went into 
the wind(?)" i. e. "he sought to excuse himself'. Farther, to this section 
belongs the construction of words like toJt "worth", n ? L> "guilty", 
and several others, used with a Noun: JLtaJL (read thus) J^&> "which 
is worth an obolus" Spic. 15, 23; (toip ^ I *» "deserving of death" fre- 
quently; fH ; « m u ^^(K^ {|ju "for, one good thing I am lacking in" 
Jesussabran (Chabot) 568, 5 &c. 
Adjectives § 244. Adverbs of Quality of the following kind occur, but they 

of Quality." are not numerous: Q-&^£) ^%^ "they went naked" Job 24, 10; 
^^ i„n}nn-iii "they leave thee (f.) naked" Ezek. 16, 39; ... ^jj 
*Aau*o ^4>^ %?° JhhvS^ • . . [K>^a "he shall lead away the 
captives . . . young and old . . . naked and barefooted" Is. 20, 4 &c. In 
cases like +±~l{ HHF 10 *$ f^ "^ut one ^ad keen ^ orn paralytic" 
Sim. 291, 11; Jbap ^^^ SJJ ^}i ^^^5 " an( ^ ne came U P glorious out 
of the midst of the water" Ov. 360, 7 = Jac. Sar., Constantin v. 656 
there is an actual adjective, for in the pi. it would be o^*U ^** &c. ; 
v. § 216. But usually there is a special clause, with +3 "while", for 
such indications of condition; thus Lond. Cod. has in that passage *a 

loo* wp^O. 

Adverbs § 245. An adverb belonging specially to an adjective or another 

to an Ad- adverb may stand either before or after it: j*\ «a^j {|o^ dpog iipvjXov Xiav 

inolher 01 Matt * 4 ' 8 5 ****!* °^ "^^ str0n g" Sim « 269 ^^ ( C ° d ' L ° nd ' without 

Adverb. *a^); «a^ JLa^s^J "which was much polished" Sim. 271, 8; ^o*j» t^k* 
"more bright" = "brighter" Ov. 150, 18, for which there is a variant 
(Roman edition) ^&* Wo*J. 



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§§ 246. 247. — 191 — 

K. PREPOSITIONS. 

§ 246. The relation of Prepositions to what is governed by them separation 

of the Pre- 

is, in Syriac, as in Semitic speech generally, that of the Constr. St. to position 
the Genitive. In both cases the governed word must immediately follow seamen, 
the governing; although in both cases short words may, by way of ex- 
ception, come between (§ 208 A). Thus <*£/d^ ^ "&^jl> "but instead 
of Kosbi" Ephr. Nis. p. 71 v. 65 ; {fcooa ^^ j^a "for without the First- 
born" Ephr. II, 411 E; w£;{ Km3 j^, ^^ "on the palms of my hands, 
as the saying goes" Ephr. II, 267 B ; wi* ^^ ^? "for in the interval 
between" Ephr. II, 3 B ; farther p|{| o».g."v* w^b ^^ "because of the 
captivity of Adam, O Lord" Ephr. Ill, 383 E; u^ii{ ^ ih£ "after my 
affliction, O Lord" Ephr. Nis. p. 18 v. 72 (cf. § 327). Such a separation 
however is impossible with a and^*. — Compare besides, on the Construction 
of Prepositions, § 222, 1 a and b. 

§ 247. In what follows we mean to say something about the use v,. 
of the most important of the Prepositions, viz — ^, a, ^^, <», as well 
as about &*» &c. "between". 

^, the Preposition of direction towards, employed in manifold 
fashion both with reference to space, and as marking the Dative, serves 
also to designate the Object (§ 287 sqq.). Cases like JLl£ «a9l£^ pf{ l&oo 
"and Adam became a living soul" Gen. 2, 7 are to be regarded as 
Hebraisms. (*) But we have relevant examples in (JLbi^LajX |£aa£ ^Jj? 
"who has bought a pea [bright Indian seed] for a (instead of a) pearl" 
Isaac II, 12, 135, and JL*^ fc^S IfaJ^ {<p^ <-ajLi K { "if one buys a 
slave as a good slave" Land I, 40, 5. As ^ repeatedly indicates the 
end, so does it in certain cases indicate the cause : J&9I nN, LJLao "is dying 
of hunger" Jer. 38, 9; JLo$X ta&l "thou art dying of thirst" Aphr. 
74, 12 ; La&l y~*^- "thou art dying because of thy cold, or of cold &c." 
ibid, line 17; |a|a^A tootl y**^* "thou art in distress through thy cold" 
ibid, line 15. — With considerable frequency X serves to denote time: 



(*) Notice how the Pesh. employs circumlocutions to express "to anoint (him) 
king fttoV]" and the like. 



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— 192 — § 247. 

J*ajj,j J&cuX "on the 7 th day" Judges 14, 17; ^^S^ "at last" often; 
J^.fl\ "in summer" Land III, 210, 10; (^^alX "in process of time", 
"late" Land III, 106, 25 and in other passages : also "after a long time" 
Ephr. 1, 55 F = 152 B ; $uA jl ga, AX "on the second Sunday" Sim. 269 
inf. ; — ^ao-* {l^k^ "after three days", "on the third day" in the Credo ; 
vi^f? k* l!**^j ^ &™ v ^ nXsiomv Acts 24, 17; +L JLu^»o {NTji\ 
nnym "they arrived a year and a month after" Sim. 351, 12 &c. 

Direction in space or time is farther denoted in expressions like 
{K^JnnV JLLa^^ "to the north of the enclosure" Sim. 290 mid.; 
o»kri9iWV ^V* ^^^^ *%^ ^ "thirty months after his departure" Mart. 
I, 70 mid.; ^ocuVv o A \ 11^*1? Jia- "the third day after their coronation" 
Moes. II, 72, 5 &c. Cases like p^Mpt ^'j*^- lf*5 M» ki*? " in the 
hundred-and-first year of Abraham's life" Aphr. 479, 4, and those of the 
same nature, — probably arise out of the Hebrew idiom. 

With the Passive participle X very often denotes the agent, — the 
logical Subject (§ 279). In the connection of this preposition with certain 
reflexive verbs the same conception suggests itself, but in reality^, signifies 
in that case a direction, or a dative relation. The common ^ ^l^^{ is 
properly, not "to be seen by", but "to appear to one" (like b rwii — near 
it in meaning is ^£jd ^J*Al). So {&*»*? y^ J^oAudb JLa^( "how is the 
word intelligible for thee?" Aphr. 209, 4; &l ^o^? tya&j |£^Jkooo 
J f ^ **^ "and their form is perceptible even to the blind" Jos. St. 66, 13 ; 
Jboj 6^ )*^^( JhM? "how she Uked the blood" ("how the blood tasted 
to her") Simeon of Beth Arsham 6, 5 ab inf.] ^frm ,|l ^4*&j? hcc 
(fravepccxtfj T(Z lapayX John 1, 31; yX ^^JJjh^i L&j>& "may they (f.) be 
thus esteemed by thee" Spic. 26, 2; u^. ^KodL ty "that it may not 
appear to thee (as if . . . )" Jos. St. 34, 18; ^ jxjj&h^ ^ . . . {Koo£a 
"let it not be put for thee in place &c." Spic. 26, 3; l\^^ % qJld!^mi 
"let them be found for the truth" Philoxenus, Epistola (Guidi) fol. 29 a, 
2 mid. ; Jih'i^fc ^atjdo ot^s^fe^? ^d^» "because that men surrender 
themselves prisoners to the longing for it" [i. e. "are made captive by 
their lust for it"] Spic. 46, 7; ^of*v.\i\ © r jlU "they fell to the share 
of his apostles as their catch" Aphr. 284, 2; ^ Jff uxuiL£J&ob "I yield 
to thy persuasion", "I give way to thee" Spic. 13,6; ©^ o^aXlU "they 



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§§ 248. 249. — 193 — 

became his disciples" Ephr. m, XXXIX, 3; j $o*v&\ t ai*&U} "that it 
may appear to Sapor, that" Jul. 181, 13. And similarly is it with several 
other verbs. Of those which have been adduced, \. ^fc*JL{, ^ im»ft^U, 
X tVi\tU, for instance, occur frequently. Also {ojjS ; vTV ^^Kjo, in 
the ancient inscription ZDMG XXXVI tab. 1 nr. 8, belongs to this 
class : "and let him be brought before the Master of the Gods as an ac- 
cursed one", or of like tenor; compare JTirT* ^tb BhHH WH Josh. 6, 26. 

§ 248. a is the proper preposition to indicate locality and time, and ». 
farther, to express instrumentality, for which often the clearer **a, "by 
means of", "through", — appears. Thus also it indicates the medium of 
exchange, the price, and farther it signifies absolute equivalence of value : 
u^na . . • <^?P? irpaSpou noXkou Matt. 26, 9; l^r* • • • ooo» ^ia?JLap 
"were sold for a denarius" Jos. St. 33, 18; Jjf ^ootloa&a JLkJbay cuL 
J^ J$ oo^ "my life in Christ I do not give up to thee for their death 
(i. e. — in order to prevent their death)" Mart. I, 23 mid. 

a, like ^, is employed in intellectual references of most varied 
character, and it is associated with verbs of many kinds. A peculiar use, 
and, what is more, a very rare one in Syriac, is met with in ^qj£ *±%° 
tv&^a "and denominated them (or designated them) rich persons" Aphr. 
382, 7; a*i3t{ . . . tji-Ja "they were called wild goats" Isaac II, 326 
v. 1513. 

Notice farther: fyof^frnp^g t|Lo£a ^potX t^'fW* fy^j tf°^^° 
J%^»? ILuVomao R&N o /no JfotVoA^o "and all the things which 
happen to them, (made up of) — riches and poverty, and diseases and 
sound health, and bodily injuries (are . . . )" Spic. 9, 5. 

§ 249. A. ga is "from", "out of, in the most diverse uses, both as £. 

regards space and otherwise. In certain connections it loses altogether 

its meaning as denoting the starting point of a movement in space or time : 

thus, o*4*ai* ^ "on his right hand" ; wotopap} go Trpdg tq KsefHxkjj "at his 

head" John 20, 12 ; i^i go "after" ; and in a great many combinations 

with adverbs and prepositions. — The starting point of the direction is 

denoted by go when associated with Xo, like Jl/*t^\o l^a? ltp^» g& 

"from the other side of the Euphrates and to the East", i. e. "eastward 

from the Euphrates" Spic. 15, 25; JL&wo jojj go "from Adam and up till 

is" 



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— 194 — § 249. 

now", i. e. "from Adam onward" Aphr. 496, 5; ^o£wO ov£& "on the 
other side of him", "beyond him" Ephr. Ill, 136 B, and frequently: 
JLa^o ot£& "on this side of him" ibid. ; ^^.0 ot^p "besides him" Jac. 
Sar. in Moes. I, 31 v. 296. 

B. Another application of these two prepositions in combination is 
the favourite one of 0^0 ot£& "by himself', "alone" ; 6£^o 6*1» §card 
fM6m; 1 Mace. 12, 36 ; Vj^b ^povXo ^60*1? t^oi ^P^ *V*{ v * ia ^? 
^60^0 ^ooM^p J^^*>o "that these men eat with me, — the Egyptians by 
themselves, and the Hebrews by themselves" Joseph 203, 12 [Ov. 300, 6] ; 
iwoot 0^0 04^ "I was alone" Land m, 73, 1. 

Rem. From the Jewish idiom is borrowed the favourite phrase in 
Ephr. 0^0 ot£p "in and by itself'. 

C. The partitive use of ^ is pretty extensive, cf. JbL£ ^» A^j* 
o*a )»JLo? "there is no one of the good who stands therein" Aphr. 451, 2 ; 
otl&S* wotop'viN I ^ ^aa*o t-? "while some of his disciples stood beside 
him" Sim. 381 mid. ; ^ yJLoS ^ "[a portion] of thy spirit is in us" Aphr. 
488, 11; — ^kflolf ^*j ^ ooKot "scribam (aliqua) ex Us, quae facta 
sunt" Jos. St. 80, 1; p+vg 0*4*0 J&{ £>©J oo* o^> 0^ "the Father did 
not procreate one part of him, and Mary another" Assemani I, 310 & inf. 
(Jac. Sar.) ; Jjfo^* ^ 6*£ ^q^juL ^j "if thou mingle any iniquity in it" 
(f.) Ephr. Hi/678 A; V?jJ? t 1 ^? *> <*^ ^ "^ became (an 
adherent) of the religion of the Nazarenes" Qardagh (Feige) 58, 2 
(= Abbeloos 68, 11); t JL*>o JLoijitf fy.fln^ <jl>q JjoJuS ^qj©^ v 6o*ao 
^i |i^ JLLs^a "and these Canons we have followed, — some of us by 
constraint of necessity, some of us of free will" Statuti della Scuola di 
Nlsibi (Guidi) 10 ult. &c. So, frequently ^oo*i& — ^6oti& "some — some", 
a and ^ may be put before such a double ^ with suffix: ^60*1*^,0 
{|oJj jB[n^S, o^OL^Jt^ ^oovup^o |y>£T>a n^» ^t?* " an( * some °^ *ke 
saints they killed with the sword, and others they consigned to burning 
by fire" Moes. II, 72, 14; ^ivtN — ^tvi\ "some of us — others" Clemens 
56, 25 ; Jjf ^oVi^ao ^ju-> ^Jtfccib ^eo^a "with one part of them we are 
satisfied, with another, not" Spic. 10, 19, 20. To this use of ^ belongs, 
not merely ot£a»g ^o . . . woU^o "struck him on (a part of) the liver, 
or (somewhere) in the liver" John Eph. 81, 18, but probably expressions 



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§ 249. — 195 — 

also of time like ly*§ ^o, JLiaoJ ^o "in (a portion of) the morning, — or 
evening", frequently occurring ; JL^up ^» "in summer-time" ; w6»o-Ji ^, 
woto^po-j ^o, ***po~ ^o "at any time in his, or in my life" frequently. 

D. Farther ^o denotes, generally, the starting point of the action, 
L e. the agent, with the passive construction ( x ) as in ot$ap ^^jdU he 
was killed "by him" &c; but with the Part. pass. X is oftener used for 
this purpose, v. §§ 247 ; 279. 

E. As being the preposition of 'removal from', ^ in a comparison 
denotes that which is surpassed, whether the relation of comparison is, 
or is not (which is the commoner case), distinctly expressed by means of 
W^ "excelling", or o^ 'much' ; ot$l*$ JLuC ^ ULg o^Iaj W^Jte ^XJi 
"for his goodwill was stronger than the vigour of his nature" Ov. 181, 25; 
c*x*> «aujju? "who is more insolent than he" Ephr. Ill, 658 B ; 16©» U$$ 
JLiu&jl ^o ^*Kj "who was fairer than the sun" Sim. 272, 11; ^JL*^ap?o 
^ooti^ and *a^ ^oo*i& '.cdjo "and more than they" frequently in Sim.; 
t&5» i^ ,yo ooj woto'^ju ^poj g^ p ^o ;->fcs* "he was nearer than all his com- 
panions" Anc. Doc. 42, 13; )**a^*? ^> ^g&md {f£ )Ju£ "this folly is 
worse than Rehoboam's" Aphr. 251,19; of%.r> $a otLoidxj^* ouqj oJL£o 
"and Noah was better in his trifling number than the whole race" Aphr. 
347, 4; v*jkaju{ y*&* ^ *-*&* "thou hast loved me more than thyself Jos. 
St. 2, 17 ; JLuaai ^o e±£ . . . l^L>{ foot jxZio "and he loved honour . . . 
rather than glory" Mart. I, 166 inf.\ $ Kiafr "was stronger than" Jul. 
170, 4 &c. — So also tot^i> ^» l6o* |L£ "he was too young for sins" Aphr. 
221, 12 ; )JNy ^ *■»©» J&j "is too great for tellers (of it)", i. e. "is greater 
than one can tell" Ephr. Ill, 42 B ; and many instances of a similar kind 
(in which usually a relative clause stands with an Inf. and X, e. g. ^u& 
o£J^aaj^f ^» "become too old to procreate" Spic. 11, 8). The corres- 
pondence of the two members, in sentences which convey comparison, is 
not always quite clearly expressed; compare cases like ^o t^K* ota l+L 
J^aXo ^jtt xaipei stt carry /idXkov % far/ roig iwqfcovrcc /cat hw&a Matt. 



(!) My attention has been directed by Siegm. Fraenkel to the fact that « 
stands even with intransitives used in passive meaning, e. g. lp^ . . . yi& "was con- 
sumed by thee" Simeon of Beth Arsham 10, 13. 

13* 



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— 196 — § 250. 

18, 13; ©^ H*^ J^^? ^> ^4> °J> &°%* "moreover she pleased him 
more by fasting than by perfume" Ephr. HE, 668 A; t*lL» ©tLi^, I^jq^I^o 
^^qq-I o)\.o ^ "it (the ark) was honoured with him more highly than 
with all Israel" Aphr. 329, 5 &c. But in such cases a relative period 
usually occurs with a more precise form of expression, like v^j ^ i+K> 
"more than me" Matt. 10, 37; JffjDoa oo» ^<J^ ^J^Aaj ^o i+K* 
JLfci^a <A^*I» "man has more power in the case of these commandments 
than in anything else" Spic. 5, 16 Ac.^) J 

§ 250. Of the manifold uses also of the preposition ^x "upon" 
we only bring forward a few. It means in the intellectual sense "resting 
upon". Thus, often ot^£p "^w, j l^f^? ^^ "upon hope of", i. e. "in 
the hope of; J^civi>my JS^ool ^x "in rehance upon thy benignity" 
Aphr. 492, 10; tyo£*5JL tf£ ^. "in this confidence" John Eph. 359, 3. 
Similarly Jbo ^x "why?"; J& ^ "therefore" &c. Farther it denotes 
often the being that has been affected by anything pleasant or un- 
pleasant: ^>^-9^ Jj *$ ^^wj Sti TravraxoO avTik&yerai Acts 28, 22; 
ot^o "^w ^^jpl{ "was acceptable to his master" [Ov. 287, 23] Joseph 
38, 1; ^o+ »'(p ^^^ ^^V^i "were beloved by their husbands" Isaac 
I, 244 v. 414; ^pftJV* {^au "is burdensome to you" Ov. 173, 27; yi+Ai 
^, ^ ^.^f> "beloved by" often;— JJi ^. ^-u&i "dreadful to the 
universe" Moes. II, 98 v. 336, and in like usage, — frequently; w©*d^*{ 
t&ot JjLod "who was odious to him" Ov. 161,20; similarly ^[>^m JULsI Nfc^j 
JjJLd "who were considered by men as righteous" Isaac II, 192 v. 633. — 
^*w denotes the subject of speech or thinking &c. — "about" (= Latin 
"de");^^ is often similarly used. It occurs in data of measurement, 
in cases like JL£j? }L& ^Vi^x "at a place, 2 miles from the prophet" 
Land II, 345, 9; f*s^» ^ ^j^d tf^t ^±* wo»©*Jf "who found him- 



(*) ot, in imitation of the Greek f, sometimes takes the place of this phrase 
of comparison , «. Thus Matt. 11, 22 P. 0. S.; 11, 24 P. 0. S.; Mark 6, 11 P.; 
10, 25 P. S.; Luke 10, 12 P. (0. S. 2 «); 10, 14 P. (0. S. , *); 15, 7 P. S. (C. and 
Aphr. 142, 9 « without *); 18, 25 P. 0. S. So with a complete sentence •? instead of 
? * is found in Luke 16, 17 P. S.; 17, 2 S. (P. 0. j •!). Thus too in rare cases even 
in ancient original writings, c. g. Ov. 175, 22. Servile versions accordingly use this 
of = 7 even for the simple comparative 40, e. g. John 5, 1 Hark.; Is. 13, 12 Hex. 



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§261. — 197 — 

self three miles distant from the monastery" Sim. 359, 10; «^~£& l\*% 
^S*ao ^VL ^Aw ^oo»k*; 6^> }6©» "the mountain was two miles distant 
from their town" Sim. 354 inf. (where ^a* might even have been want- 
ing, § 243) &c. — ^j Jfu ^x "once" Bedjan, Mart. II, 609, 3 ; ^±s>f ^ 
v U>^p "many times" Jos. St. 50, 6. — t&su^JL 6»»\v hs+l "ixovaa akd- 
paerpov Matt. 26, 4; ^v^o^jS ^oio^ &J lyei irtors dprovg John 
6, 9; JIL* wota^. foot *L| "he had grace in himself' Sim. 334, 4 &c; 
«^N^ hs+[ 1&J[ tou/xoMv tyeig John 8, 48, 52 S. (P. ^); — ooo» ^Jtf 
v 6o».«^v^, "upon whom (as a burden) they were quartered" Jos. St. 87, 16. — 
^ scarcely ever indicates the mere direction "to", but often on the 
other hand the hostile sense "against". (On j ^a* "within" v. § 360.) 

§ 251. The construction of the words ftua, Maa, HH? ^ as con " "P etw6en ' % 
siderable variety. They may have a simple noun following, as in h*& 
{kS "between the houses" Ov. 212, 9; JLaL^tsi^ "between the wings" 
Moes. II, 146 v. 1081; ^potKLa, ^potkLa ^ "among them" often; ^ 
otK^AJu^p KLa "in his thought" Aphr. 338, 2; JB^^uju *-ju» "amongst 
the Powers" Spic. 12, 10 &c. But when various members are concerned, 
these may be connected by a o merely, as in the Testament of Ephr. 
JL&o?o {<po J&i| h*& "between the Father, the Son, and the Spirit" (where 
Overbeck's text 147 ult. has JL»o|^ fc^O; and thus frequently in the 
O. T., but no doubt a Hebraism. The usual practice is to mark the 
second member by ^., with or without o. Moreover in this method there are 
several modifications, in which it is to be noticed that the most usual of 
the three forms of the prep, viz &*», cannot take a suffix directly but 
only through the interposition of X (1) JL^pVci9>\ J^»6©»V k*» "between 
the Romans and the Persians" Jos. St. 9, 4; vJl^ K*& k*a "between life 
and death" jjjuudccvrjg Luke 10, 30 O. S.; {^1(1 tjp^uuua "between the 
man and the woman" Matt. 19, 10; «-^ ***-^ "between me and thee" 
Zingerle's Chrest. 411 v. 46 (Jac. Sar.); J£j4j ^otojua "between him and 
th6 tree" Aphr. 448, 6 &c. — woia^JJ ©^ &*» "between him and his 
father" Ov. 400, 19; ^oLJIo (Var. yaojlo) y*\l ^ k+a "between thee, 
thy mother, and thy brother" Joseph 225 ult (— Ov. 311, 21) &c. 
(2) JLtS^ts^g Jli^ k*» "between the higher and the lower" Moes. II, 
122, v. 724; fyojLfrXg Osjla, k*a "between sleeping and waking" Zingerle's 



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— 198 — § 252. 

Chrest. 396 v. 7: .ftn\o tfloit «»i*a "between Mars and Saturn" Spic. 
17, 17; yXo wJUa "between me and thee" 1 Kings 15, 19, and frequently; 
oiVo woio t »a "by himself alone" Ov. 122, 26; tloAjriV.o .60*^1^ 
"between them and the ark" Ephr. I, 294 F. — JLioot^o ©^, k*» 
"between him and the Romans" Sim. 327 mid.; ^00^X0 otX k*» 
"between him and them" Ephr. I, 101 F &c. A modification of this 
method is met with in o£^» *»( ^ fcs*» "between thee and him" ZDMGr 
XXV, 339 v. 348 (with "also" for "and"). (3) More rarely with k-^: 
^aid* ^ pSfSkJai k*a "between Rehoboam and Jeroboam" 1 Kings 
14, 30; J^V4 &9 k'? s h*** $ ^*^f J% *^? "between the water 
above the firmament and the water under it" Aphr. 282, 13. (4) With 
repetition of k*a: ^ajo- k*ao • • • JU^{ tud "between Abia . . . and 
Jeroboam" 1 Bangs 15, 6, and frequently in the 0. T. (Hebraism). — 
Several other variations are not quite settled. 

With regard to meaning, notice otXo ^po^uua tear tbiav "they 
with him apart" Matt. 17, 19 C. S.;( a ) 0^0 wojojua h idvrcf John 
11, 38; so Ov. 122 v. 26 quoted above; cnfl?ii\ ~o»*JUa "by himself' 
Mart. I, 243 mid.;— farther, J£j>* J*^^ *^? tfuxLo ^ xA**^ " twent y 
five, however, between men and women" Mart. 1, 137 inf. ; JLi^ ;^^oiap 
^jt ^i^ "for which of us two is a magician?" Bedjan, Mart. II, 612, 14. 
For the comprising or grouping sense, when used with numerals, 
v, § 240 B. 
Preposition- § 252. Jfc^w tua "that which is between the eyes" [rd /JLiTVTra], 

treatediike ^l°4 k*a Msgottotcc/ju'cc &c. are treated altogether like substantives, e. g. 
wo+o i;\ La ^x "on his brow" Sim. 282 inf. : %-»©»aAdV La ^ "on 
his neck" Bedjan, Mart. II, 229, 10 &c. — The expression 0*4* K*£t J^m*> 
in Ov. 185, 3 is of the very same character, and means "something sufficient 
under his head", or "something large enough for being under his head", 
L e. "as a support for his head". 



Substan 
tivei. 



(*) In Matt. 18, 15, even the Greek text has the Aramaic idiom fieralv gov 
teat avrov; Syr. *X© yuua. 



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§§ 253. 254. — 199 — 

2. VERBS. 
A. PERSON AND GENDER. 
8 253. Participles are connected with the finite Verb by this cir- subject of 

the 3rd 

cumstance amongst others, that they may include the subject of the 3 rd p e r 8 . not 
person within themselves : cf. t^*j ^ao "and all, that he does" (fW») expr08ied - 
Ps. 1, 3; JB? ppp o£» "that which he withholds" Aphr. 6, 4; oo» JL 9 i^\ 
llaof ^^"for it is like a building" Aphr. 6, 12; )Jajdk& "it is adopted" 
Aphr. 8 paen.\ lipjqp ^ $ £kX aXjf{ J&AX t ^? Jf^>o&> W^o^. 

"for not in confidence that they would come back in life did they proceed 
thither, but in the expectation that people would torture them and kill 
them, and that they would die the death of Martyrs, were they em- 
boldened to do this" Ov. 170, 2 (where special persons, Eusebius and 
Rabbula, form the subject of some of these participles, and the indefinite 
body "people" forms the subject of the others), and so is it frequently. 
A similar use is found in the case of the predicative adjective, § 314. 

§ 254. A. From cases like J&aaV* ftsa^ <-*aj Dr6n rTCjJ WM impersonal 
"our soul is weary of the bread" Num. 21, 5; <*ja£& i*a&j jJL HPM PRE ••ST" * 
1&B "my soul turns in loathing from thee" Jer. 6, 8 (= Aphr. 402, 18); 
uAm^L >&!QjpU "thy mind despairs" Sim. 301, 5, — there are fashioned the 
so-called Impersonal Forms, by leaving out the Subject, at first obvious 
to thought, but afterwards growing obscure. In Syriac the Fern, pre- 
dominates in these forms. Thus we have frequently v**» k*V£ , <*V- ^9*V 
"I was grieved, I was distressed"; ^ w^ Lfj or a ^ Uj "I was dis- 
gusted with (this or that)";^** v^» kSLoJ "I was zealous for"; ©£^ Ma 
"he was out of his mind" ; jopfc o*X IpS "something was a necessity for 
me"; a v^, kijbfc "I was vexed with", and many others. With 
Participles and other verbal Adjectives: o£*>, j^upAcb? "who is in 
despair" Aphr, 108, 12; ^ JSJUo L£o» ty "we had no vexation" Aphr. 
392, 20; v oaX JL 9 ^S {oo^ JJ ^J^>h ^Vl ^-? m ?i ™ v KSKMjMf/t&mf ha 
ixri \myo6s 1 Thess. 4, 13 ; o£t» loot Uh$o o£*» Uoi JL^Iju "he was 
pained and grieved" Aphr. 161, 8; o*X too» |&»U k "I was sorry" (§ 118) 
frequently; ^ f ^ oo u Jjf "thou hast not been provoked to anger" Joseph 



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— 200 — § 254. 

258, 4 (=- Ov. 328, 25); 6^. J&a^} "she was full of complaints" Ov. 
155, 10, and thus frequently (as ^w kaf^J Joseph 206, 4 aft inf.) &c. Cf. 
farther yM\> JJ l^^v ^x "let it not come to thee (as an annoyance) 
to blot out" = "and be not concerned about blotting out" Isaac II, 348 
v. 1858 (sprung from cases like l^o> {f£ ^£ ^^ {£{1 jj "let not 
this thing come [as a vexation] into thy mind" =■ "take not this to 
heart" 2 Sam. 13, 20). — The original Subject is farther indicated by a 
personal pronoun in uafttfSi ©£j* wot J^-? Trep/Xvirog iartv rj ipvyjj juov 
Matt. 26, 38. 

In other cases, however, the Masc. appears. Thus ^aj* u^, oJLp 
"something pained me"; } ^*t ^^ {N«fin*% ©^ {009 oJLi "he mourned 
sincerely for those who" Ov. 180, 5; ^Sk, u^» ^§£»l»t "I was eager 
for" (literally: "I had leisure for"); ^ v-^ ^^a "I am zealous for"; 
u^ ^->oP "it is spacious for me", "I have freedom" ; u\ oj^, p^, «*j^, 
"it is pleasing to me", — "it is displeasing to me" &c. One says (*s£o?) *£>£o 
J^ and o^w &*& "I am offended", "I am vexed" (with a and ^** 
"about"), and along with these the personal form te^o is also used. 

B. In meteorological occurrences we have in the fern. l&,^, 
Njao "it has become clear", "it has become dark", but also *©M (m.) 
"it has become clear". So too ot^L? JU*£ ^ "before it was yet mak- 
ing for daylight" Sim. 313 inf. (Lond. Cod. quite different), overagainst 
*<$v±jj JLfc£ ^ ibid. 306, 6 (Lond. Cod. merely foUJ ^) (cf. j^£ ^ 
JJuoi loo**} "before it was yet making for evening" id. 306, 4). Similarly 
ytkAkY\\ loot J&*^£ "it is coming near the darkening", it is drawing 
toward nightfall" Luke 24, 29 C. S. Cases like l\^o{ "it rained" and 
♦J$^ol "that it rain" James 5, 17 Hark, do not appear to occur in ancient 
original writings. Notice however woto^x to©^ 1 ) Jtap| )L^jl JJ^j c£» y*\ 
"as if it dropped heavenly dew upon him" Sim. 382, 3. Cf. farther 
loo* «ju£jd ipifyog ty "it was cold" John 18, 18; Aphr. 343, 10; *6jl& ^ 
CKQTfag 8r/ ovojg John 20, 1. 

C. When an indefinite "it" is comprised in a phrase it is generally 
expressed by the fern, sing.: ^n>\\ t^ou J| J^** 2 ? ^? %l "tut if it is 



(*) The correct reading in Lond. Cod.; the printed Ed* gites lo** 



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§ 254. — 201 — 

possible, and is not burdensome to you" Ov. 173, 26; JLiU{ yJ "as it 
comes", "any way" frequently; too» JU>g*p aSs "if it had been possible" 
Ov. 201, 1 ; ^©Ji, ^ Jba^JL ^^ jjf "for it does not suit Saul" Aphr. 
342, 4; w©»o£*J& &Xjaxp "it was possible for him", "he could" (literally 
"there was room in his hands"), e. g. ^6©*^*J& &-£&*» ollb^, Jjfo 
"and they could not fight" Ov. 89 ult, and even s-ojopJLa JL&&QD? ^& 
"whatever he can provide" Lev. 14, 30; w©»of4a i£©» JL&Axp^ j»£& "what- 
ever he could" Jos. St. 23, 16, Note 2; and also with the phrase enclosed, 
**±*l$ **&)£ JL&&qp <-& "what can I do?" Kalilag and Damnag, 52, 16, 
and many like cases. Along with wojo^J^ JLL£oo "it comes as far as his 
hands", ["it is within his reach"] "he can do it" Ov. 217, 15 &c, the masc. 
is found in s-ojo^JLa J^o Spic. 5, 13. The masculine occurs also in passive 
forms of expression like ©*S* «&*&*,{ "it has been forgiven him" Aphr. 40, 8 ; 
o& py* wJL»L2{ JlaJ "as it seemed good to that being" Spic. 12, 19 ; 
v oa\ c>o^ta %o6yaeT<zi ijtiiv Matt. 7, 7 ; ^nn\ > \*oL&cb jtsryaeTai i/tfy 
Matt. 7, 2. Cf. farther <*J^f j& y+{ "how it is" Aphr. 31, 6; Jl^ 
c*J&J "thus is it" Aphr. 154, 8; 1^d°J ^Vl ¥° " and ii; is not of 
foreign sort" Ephr. m, XXXIH mid. 

The gender fluctuates also in those Verbal expressions in which a 
complete sentence with j "that" takes the place of the Subject: j Ji^^ 
"it happens, that" Aphr. 505, 15, and j *f^Ov. 63, 21; j «*f^ Aphr. 
68, 12, aud frequently; j »^*A<d and j J£*A<d "it stands written, that" 
frequently; j otS, K>JUul{ }} "it did not seem to him, that" Jos. St. 57, 16, 
but i . . . ^k, *>U*L{ JS^o» "it thus appeared (good) to us, that" Aphr. 
304, 14; ? ^ ^kȣ fy "that thou mightest not think, that" Jos. St. 
34, 18; } l±+l4 "it is well known, that" Ov. 63, 12, but f >\^ ^id. 73, 
1 and 4; ? *^Jbl and j lif&l "it is said, that"; j )umy Jjf "it is impos- 
sible, that" Luke 17, 1; j yX {jiX? "that it may be to thee certain, that" 
Aphr. 168, 7; and thus frequently j Ifa, j ;j*t; j {^a^m^p ^p( "al- 
though it be thought, that" Jos. St. 8, 2. It is always masculine, however, 
in j *jj, j (Jo "it is fitting, that". 

The masculine prevails in the case of the Inf. with ^, e.g. fa +JL& tyo 
ifirnvviS "and it is not enjoined thee to tire thyself out" Aphr. 230, 5; 
except in established phrases, as in wd|o£*j^ai At$stfip (v. supra). — 



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— 202 — §§ 255. 256. 

Thus too the fern, is retained in verbs like j ^ AoJ¥> '-^ *^ ^jJ^ "I 
am vexed, that ..." or "I am vexed to . . . "; u^, k^f, V * J %^^! "* 
desire" ? "that", i. "to" (cf. ja^ojl *$} ^^J W " thi * 8 I desire- 
to go to Jerusalem" Ov. 164, 23). 

D. In such cases pure Adjectives also are treated like Participles: 
j ©^ ^^jl }j "he is not convinced, that" Aphr. 498, 6, but j ©^ J^t^ $ 
ibid., ult, and frequently; itfv JlyV y>fty> "it is well to learn" Aphr. 
446 paen.\ ;v»JNn\ wot (jL^ap . . . ^qj^jdoa "his commands ... to 
tell, — is too much" ("his injunctions • . . are too numerous to mention") 
Ov. 178, 16; **M?^ >-oi JL=>j . . . Jto*L^ ^^ "to speak of the prudence 
... would be too much" Ov. 190, 24. But the masc. preponderates in 
such cases. 

Compare with this section, § 201 supra. 

B. TENSES AND MOODS. 

PERFECT. 

Tempus § 255. The Perfect denotes past action; accordingly it is the tense 

b oncnm. ^ Narration, the proper Tempus historicum : every narration from the 
first verse of Genesis onward supplies examples in abundance. 

pure § 256. It farther denotes the completed result (the pure Perfect): 

fc^-g . . . y^-^£ "thy letter I have received" Aphr. 6, 1 ; ool ^^i ^(o 
. js^p-AV K\ pp£ JSlj^ "and so the Lord has farther said thus to his 
disciples" Aphr. 7 ult ; ©*JLd| Jj}{ ^^X JLU*& otmnov^ J^t-9^ "the 
scorpion with its sting strikes him who has given it no offence" Spic. 
7, 20 &c. Such a Perfect, expressing the result of a prior occurrence, 
has often for us the appearance of a Present: thus foot "has become" 
yiyove often — "is" (but also "was"); {&©» JJ "is not", e. g. Aphr. 84, 
12, 19; 158, 20 &c; v-J^s^f "desire has come to me", "I desire"; k^ 
cuLa ^ "I am (become) weary of my life" Gen. 27, 46 (§ 254 A); 
^.p "novimus, we know" Aphr. 497, 17; y^* &fe*{* ^*fi "now I know" 
Mart. I, 244, 8 &c. Yet upon the whole this use is not of frequent oc- 
currence in Syriac ; with >x^ in particular the more distinct active par- 
ticiple is employed in preference. 



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§§ 257. 258. — 203 — 

§ 257. The action which is expressed by the Perf. may have hap- pluperfect, 
pened prior to an action already narrated (Pluperfect): JllaJ o^ **J^? 
©^ +$d? y»?^i\^^ "and he did according to his will in all that he had 
commanded him" Mart. I, 124, 9; >^mij> w©» "whom he had married" 
(sydjULTjasv) Mark 6, 17 P. (S. {009 nmif); ^potX QJD tr w ? toft j^flp?^^ 2 * 
tiu£a{ vo/aiC&v 6/c7r6(f>evy&vai rovg 'hscjuubvg Act3 16, 27. And just as little 
is expression given to the relative distinction of the tenses in cases in 
which we put the pluperfect first, e. g. in l\\*^ oos uldj *±4>\ o4»f t*^~(J 
"those whom that one had led astray, he turned to the truth" Ov. 159, 14, 
or after j ^ "since" and similar conjunctions. 

§ 258. The Perfect in certain cases stands also for the Perfectum Future- 
futuri. This is specially common after the conditional conjunction ofp eT fectin 
time — J Jbo "when", "if', — where sometimes the principal clause is also^*^*° nal 
furnished with a Perfect ; ^)k^? Jbo "when we shall have circumcised our- 
selves" Gen. 34, 22 ; «aoj{ . . . jLpo ^*{? Jbo "when the Lord shall have 
delivered up ... I will thresh" Judges 8, 7 ; o^4f,j Jbo ^rniy ^^? "^o 
"and all who seek, find (at the last day), if they have asked" Aphr. 304, 9 ; 
^d*j&fc» ^potX Quadot attjo? Jbo "as soon as they have risen, they turn 
back (forthwith) to Sheol" Aphr. 433, 11. So is it with the statement of 
permanent conditions, or of actions continually repeated: ^&~ot? Jbo 
«auu^p "if he believes, he loves" Aphr. 7, 11; «^tH?M *"*^ *^ ^° 
JLdJLp ^x ©£^ ja..*,n>U ^cinh .ofs. "when man draws near to faith, he 
establishes himself upon a rock" Aphr. 7, 2 &c. But in all these cases 
the Part. act. may stand after * Jb&. In tfi&tltAooo JU'JLdj l%^» pJLi? Jbo 
Jl^Jj o^laa o£w wplt *2^LJ^> jjfj JUg JL^cul ©^ ~±°l{ "when the 
body of the righteous rises and is changed, it is called heavenly, and that 
which is not changed, is called earthly, in accordance with its nature" 
Aphr. 157, 12, the Perfect is made choice of directly in the principal clause, 
and correspondingly in the parallel sentence, where j JLi[ appears for the 
temporal conjunction j Jbo. Moreover f Jbo may be used to introduce 
even the pure Past, e. g. 0^0^ . . • j Jbo "when they had done away with" 
Aphr. 15, 1. 

The Perfect is used as a future Perfect in true conditional clauses 
also, although more rarely than with j Jbo : {jJLa l|>fc> ^o k&v /i&v irorfofl 



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— 204 — § 259. 

K&pnov Luke 13, 9; ^laji( yl "si potueritnus", "if we can" Spic. 13, 2 ; 
y^ JBl J^t*p jl &^ Jjf{ "unless thou enter, I do not let thee go", that is, 
"thou must enter" Sim. 286 mid. ; KJ Jjf JLqpioa o*K»jU* J^{o "unless I see 
him, there is no way out (of the difficulty)", that is, "nothing will do, 
except my seeing him" Jac. Sar. Alexander (Zeitschrift ftlr Assyriologie 
VI, 368 v. 155) ; Km.9^ij v { JJ{ "unless I am first convinced" Spic. 2, 14. 
Cf. also Matt. 18, 15 — 17, where however C. and S. (like Aphr. 298, 
4 sqq.) have in part the Impf. In the apodosis we meet thus with JJ|{o 
wo^Ka»o»J "and if not, thou restorest him" Jul. 217, 26. 

In the same way the Perf. stands in sentences with ©j — ©ij "either 
. . . or" ; "whether ... or whether" : JJ o{ ^Anjij o{ ot^^viS l^l <aoL JJj 
"that thou mayest not again have to weary thyself in seeking him, whether 
thou find him or not" Aphr. 144, 22 ; Jbsj&J 6<( ^juaol **^&| )*&** o{ 
Jbooottak, ^k, "he either greatly exalts our consideration, or he humiliates 
us to the very depth" Joseph 196 ult [Ov. 296, 17]; o^. Jtf ^J( J&V*? 
ot&Vfta o| ofSi^ja cl "I go to meet him as a foe, whether he kill me, or 
I him" John Eph. 349, 13 (cf. Jul. 88, 21 ; Simeon of Beth Arsham, 9, 14, 
and many others). 
inHjpo- § 259. The Perfect is very extensively employed in hypothetical 

thetical 

clauses, sentences like ^&£o* ^f ^-o ^Jjuo^aj JIqSs "if we had not delayed, 
we should already have returned" Gen. 43, 10 &c. (§ 375 A). With 
these are ranked cases like ^^^ ^f ^p Tig &7roKvklasi "O 
that one would roll away!" Mark 16, 3; ^ *^l t*$ oiap "0 that one 
would say to me!" Sim. 301 inf.] ^ ^oKofo uacLu ^o i .o u ^f ^p 
^pfAn £&jb "0 that one would show you my sins, then would all of you 
spit in my face!" Ov. 140, 19; cf. Num. 11, 4; 2 Sam. 18, 33; Job 11, 5; 
13, 5 ; 14, 13; JUua| toot ^f ~k*p{ "when might it indeed be evening?" — 
"would that it were evening at last!" Deut. 28, 67; cf. Ps. 41, 6; <-*> 
oo^-j ^f — ]W np frequently in the O. T. To this class also belong Kaiap 
ujLJLu JJ ^.o ^f "then would I have been ended and no eye would have 
seen me" Job 10, 18 ; ^f M$± "then would I have sent thee" Gen. 31, 27 ; 
wtu^£ ^£*c*o . . . ^f wfc^iLuj "then wouldest thou (f.) have been bound to 
be afraid . . . and to be zealous" Aphr. 48, 10 ; thus even ^ot^^ ^f ^*o» 
vO^A^-a, JJ ^f ^wito tccQtcc l£ tlst noiyjaou tcd/celm /xij ccfyihou Matt. 



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§§ 260. 261. — 205 — 

23, 23 C; Luke 11, 42 C. (S. and P. express themselves more clearly in 
both passages). — Thus the Perf. is often used after (^f) ^o\ and %96k*{ 
<*§ "0 if only!" "Utinarn!". 

§ 260. The Perf. too» often stands before an Adj. or Part, to loo* 
denote a Wish, an Advice, or a Command. Originally the Perf. was p * Te * 
meant to indicate the accomplishment of the action as completely 
certain, — as good as already done. This occurs particularly in the 
2 nd pers. Thus often yi»No As»5°t "farewell", gpp&xro; Av»oot JLjoi 
*a^, TTolsi bjMoiug Luke 10, 37; ^?op^ v ©k*oo» juvyjuovevsTs Hebr. 13, 7; 
v^» Ks| v^jjjl ^*3°t? J*^% ^P "take pains (take thou the burden) and 
curse me" Sim. 316 ult.\ Jboojp ^}&\ ^<>k*oo» ^£*ot «2&*jl» JJ{ "but instead 
of this, be ye assiduous in fasting" Ov. 174, 14; >\.$i ^f k*$°* "but know" 
Philox. 570, 11; >^f! As*oo» JS* %%* "know therefore" Aphr. 55, 18. 
So farther, Matt. 5,25 ; Luke 13, 14; Mark 11, 25 S.; 13, 33 S.; 13, 35 S.; 
Eph. 6, 9 &c. In the 3 rd pers. : i^JLo ^pj* ©oo» JU "the priests are not to 
use force"; Ov. 215, 11 (where there are more cases, varied with^poo*J); 
JbLJL> too* "let her be esteemed" Addai 44 ult ; ^ JLiJbo toot jl fxr\ 
ifCfcafcti/xsv Gal. 6, 9 ; ^oVf»J ^}**{ °$°» "they are to be constantly with 
them" Ov. 215, 11; Jtoipp ^Snn^ ooo» "they must receive blame" 
Statuti della Scuola di Nisibi 25, 9. 

§ 261. So also loot with a participle following is often placed in a U m sub- 
dependent clause, to express an action merely purposed or aimed at: vo ' 
. • • JLf r^^ ?i ^potl &i'A a ^kJ> ooo» P . • • ? ^ojo» <pot^o? . . . looi jjaso 
tfoJta ^AtJ> ooo» ^ooti& fJoaZ "and gave charge . . • that all those who 
. . . , should not pass the night in their booths, but that five police- 
officers should pass the night on the wall", in the Document of 201 
A. D. in the Chron. Ed. (ed. Hallier 147, 16), and so, frequently after 
fj&d; ^^J ^oot wfcj ^.d? ^m^&tfjf ^ »^juj"let us take delight to 
observe the fourteenth day of every month" Aphr. 230, 1; ooo» ^aj 
6£^ ^»Nnt oooif "they wished to carry it [the Ark]" Aphr. 264, 6; 
(1, r :vV ^ll wooi (^jl> (fof Jba-Lo M^. ^0*4 JU "they shall not allow 
the deaconesses [daughters of the ordinance] to come singly to the 
church" Ov. 217, 9; 6>£ ^vumttofe ooo$ "that they might be placed 
in it" Jos. St. 23, 14; ^o*o ^$<*t ^©V^» ^>J»o "and induces them^to 



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— 206 — §§ 262. 263. 

stand" Moes. II, 90 v. 233, and thus, often. By reason of {oot being put 
first in such cases as the following, these cases also may be referred to this 
class, viz : > \aja*o Joo$ . . . loot o£I*» "it was his custom ... to receive" 
Aphr. 391, 8&c. Cf. farther Jtfjbo too* JJo ^ \dAd t ^po ^ooo^o 
^6otX (npog rd idv) iravrors irpoasfyseOou, /cat jultj e/c/cccfcsw Luke 18, 1 
C. S., where P. has ^oa^ v Jbpt JJo;— JLsUo JL©$ k*po* Jjfj ha jjltj lixpi 
firjhi Itipxoojuai John 4, 15 C. S., where P. has JUL? k*oo» flo 16^1 oot JJj; 
— ^frvjfesA ^oft^oot fy fxrj Trpo/xsXsTOti/ Luke 21, 14 C. S., where P. has 
'» vpoo^L |Jj. The last examples show that in these cases the Impf. is 
interchangeable with the Perf. And, in fact, the Impf. is the more 
usual form, 
other do- § 262. The Perfect of course often stands dependently in still other 

pa^t!. circumstances, e. g. opg^ ^*p l^^J W** r? " w ^ en ^ e saw that God had 
spoken to him" Aphr. 236, 19 &c. Frequently in these dependent clauses 
either the Perfect or the Imperfect may be employed, according as it is 
the notion of the past occurrence of, or that rather of the sequence of, 
the relatively later event, that is being specially emphasised. Thus after 
j Jbop^; o^j»9 Jbo£** . . . ^oj{ Qjuao "they struck them, . . . until they 
thought" Ov. 170, 7*; 1$ Jbof^ "till there came" Aphr. 26, 6 (cf. the 
Impf. § 267). So in Jt^Jjj ^ Jl? ^ . . . o£^ too» U^ . . . Jufcw 
(la^att? "why was he vexed that he did not enter into the land of pro- 
mise?" Aphr. 161, 9, ^q^j might also have been used. In o^tf Jlif *jad 
^oj[ "the judge gave orders to hang them" Anc. Doc. 102, 3, the Perfect 
plainly indicates that the order has been actually carried into execution; 
thus it is to some extent a compromise between the usual constructions 
v o*JfcJ ? t Ad (§ 261), and o^to ^ (§ 334). 
perfactwith § 263. The strengthening of the Perfect by means of an enclitic 

toot brings into still greater prominence the force of 'time gone by'; so 
that we may often translate this combination by the Pluperfect: l^?f 
^oA k-oo» "that I have told you" Spic. 18, 18; K*oo» ^kxnu^ "I h&ve 
explained to thee" Aphr. 172 ult ; foot +±+l{ +$ "when he was born" Aphr. 
180, 7; ©oo» o t ^N U( (JjuldJ "they had been taught together" Ov. 162, 23; 
toot AogiX^jtlo "and had been delivered up" (f.) Jos. St. 10, 2 &c. The 
Jo©* is not absolutely necessary in any such cases, and it is often wanting 



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§§ 264. 265. — 207 — 

in cases exactly corresponding to those which have it and standing close 
beside them. It has become so much of an expletive that it is found 
not seldom in narrative proper: 2K»fdaa^ap o££» ooot °^ot* "they gave 
him baptism" Sim. 268; o^a]f foot jxo "he arose and took him with 
him" Ov. 169, 26, and thus often in the ancient document in the Chron. 
Edess., in Ephr., Jac. Sar. &c. 

IMPERFECT. 

§ 264. The Imperfect stands in complete contrast to the Perfect Future, 
in cases like J^a^J^a ^&J ©*aj f&^* J-M«? JM "the righteous judgment of 
God in which he will render account" Ov.200, 13; Jls*^ «aot (oop \i 
"there will not again be a flood" Gen. 9, 11 ; "these three things I have 
explained to thee by letter" (yKm*5jo kak.o) : 'other matters' ^a; ^?A? 
^mJio ooboj "I shall explain to thee by letter from time to time" 
Aphr. 319 concl. &c. 

§ 265. In conditional sentences the Impf. not seldom stands after imperfect 
^(, in which case it is the participle which appears for the most part aon™* 1 " 
in the apodosis: 6t*jdaa^ ^5«ir> y+s>l y9°^ vi "^ ^ ou turnest away SentencC8 - 
thy countenance, the inhabitants thereof come to an end" Aphr. 493 ult; 
o^ai&j \tp+l k m*1 $ 6>> l^te* loo^t \p*sf ^*o ^^J ^ v ( 
"but if it happens that it proceeds actually from us, the knowledge of 
its operation is uprooted from our soul" Philox. 552, 20 &c. The Impf. 
is found in both clauses in jrpui *apJLi ^J "if we speak, we come short" 
Aphr. 496, 8; J^tfj? ©4»oi ?<uu^ J/ uoia^ftjt^o ^ ^om.^H J 
%olill JL^jLf 6t£oj£ *»( Ji{ ^ud2^ "if ye will be persuaded by me 
and will hearken unto me, ye shall not only eat of the fat of the 
earth, but also inherit the blessedness of heaven" Ov. 174 ult. (para- 
phrased from Is. 1, 19) &c. In like manner with +%: — v QuamJ ^ Jj&j 
^Jk*M ilfl "fishes die, when they come up into the air" Aphr. 494, 9; 
jL&x»oto j&*ajD o» ^ yi^ Jbof (|a^ "^ *tf jooAj ^ Jisfo "and not even 
when one stands on a high mountain, does his eye reach to everything 
far and near" Aphr. 199, 12 &c. But in these cases the Participle is, 
throughout, the more usual form (cf. § 271). 



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— 208 — §§ 266. 267. 

MoJai § 266. For the simple statement of the momentary or the conti- 

* nuous Present the Impf. is not readily used: on the other hand it is 
common whenever any reference to the future, or the slightest modal 
colouring, appears, e. g. l^{ "I will begin" Spic. 13, 19; pojb oul ^9 
"now some one may say" Spic. 6, 21; ;.*pjb %ai? y+l "as one might say" 
"as if, for instance, one should say" frequently; i6*bJ Jjf ^p "who 
would not wonder?" Anc. Doc. 103, 13; **>Jb ^f JLo "what are we to 
say then?" Sim. 303 mid. (wanting in the London Cod.). The Impf. 
is precisely the proper form for a wish, request, summons, or command. 
Thus, for instance, y^, $Jjo(t "dicas mihi" Aphr. 313, 12 (mocking 
request); Jjokj^ ^f*i© "and then may you promise" Aphr. 71, 21; ;Jj§J 
"let us await" Aphr. 103, 4; ^a&}^*aoi y^i "let us then humble our- 
selves" Aphr. 119, 5; ^aj "let him" accept" Aphr. 86, 13; II JkJUiojo 
^pod ^ ^Aai "and let not revilings come out of our mouth" Aphr. 
105, 2; ooVfcT jJo «Vvwkj "let him suffer oppression, but not oppress" 
Aphr. 117, 9 &c. 

The 2 nd pers. of the Impf. with jJ is the direct contrary of the Im- 
perative: ^uu^L jJ "fear thou not" &c. Without jJ however the 2 nd person 
of the Impf. is but seldom used with imperative force; the Impt. is the 
proper mood for this. 

Dependent A 267. The Impf. is farther the tense of dependent, subordinate 

Imperfect. or x 

clauses pointing to the future, even though the principal clause may lie 
in the past: ^po^x Jlyji wojiiom»ftig "and they will urge him to pray 
for them" Sim. 290 mid. ; ^Jbu JL$*| +& ^tf? JLiof l^km. ^^ Jfi^ 
"for this is an admirable thing, that one should know how to ask questions" 
Spic. 1, 20; JfcJi| ouujjdb jl J^vl] v { "if thou canst not justify thyself" 
Aphr. 270, 5; yjcp*a$ 1% Jb£ "I wish to explain to thee" Aphr. 345, 1; 
JLfcJod yQ^Ajpt^ Jx&^jl asoJZi "love peace that ye may receive the 
reward" Aphr. 304, 17 — ot*2u[ ^d^daJ? JL^a ^jusXkev iavrov amipelv 
Acts 16, 27 ; ^Ktd{ pojL? t^taio i&J "Mordecai advised that Esther 
should fast" Aphr. 414, 5; Jboj ^qj? ^?*2? loo» |ijj +* "while he wanted 
to give them blood to eat" Mart. 1, 122,6; J^>mJ? wfcij, "began to attack" 
Moes. II, 64, 1 ; ^p£^&£ . . . v 6o£w ^£9 ^-^ V "for it is not com- 
manded them ... to worship" Anc. Doc. 43, 25 ; oxpj? ojjS^ "he obliged 



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§ 268. — 209 — 

him to take" Ov. 167, 17; )axp o£t* ^kajj ^&¥ "he set himself to he- 
come agreeable to him" Mart. 1, 122, 16, and thus in many other instances. 
So too after the words which mean "until, before, ere": jJ ll^{ ^Q-J 
toVSs ota&*» \&aajj p^o & i^mi "Noah did not take a wife until God 
had spoken to him" Aphr. 235 ult. ; )&*i&kj JJ ^ Jmovii-vf (^ojJLo ;J$j 
Jimovii "he kept the righteousness which is in the law, before the law 
had yet been given" Aphr. 25, -5; o*ap* oot* «Vs.^j jl *^ "gave his blood 
before he was crucified" Aphr. 222, 5 ; ^>*&J? )»fo pojf? J^J? Q- 8 ^*!? 
"^yflDuJ uiSV jniSy "who reigned in the land of Edom before there 
reigned a king over the children of Israel" Gen. 36, 31; w5»o!^Ji y+l 
jxml^J JJj pfo ^> . . . {oo» "as it was, before he had yet taken a body" 
Ov. 198, 1 &c. Here the Perf. might stand in every case (§ 262), but 
the Impf. is more usual. Similarly ^o^j )) *»o ^> "before we entered" 
Jul. 45, 2. — Cf. farther jL^o* oo-ajuj Ji^jf JL^» +a "when the time 
came for Moses to die" Aphr. 161, 7. 

The Impf. appears with this sense, even when the dependence is not 
plainly expressed: J£»( $ >x^ jl "I do not know how to build" Sim. 
271, 4; j&*a li){ ^oJL^o ^ {^ajd v { "if thy holiness commands me to 
go down to the sea" Sim. 336, 13; lo&{ t*i*d*j "leaves me in shame" 
ZDMG XXIX, 116 ult; \^m{ (J&p) ^ oot log jmi ttisiv John 4, 7 
and 10 ; $£j»| <»i»nh^a "let me send" ("grant me that I send") Jos. St. 
76,5; Loa&j w^ tAdi "bring out thy son (that) he may die" Judges 6,30 
(similarly Judges 20, 13); ^pS^Jb ^oj©» JLaLp w^jl anokvoov rovg iykovg, 
hoc aTCskQovrsg k. t. X. Matt. 14, 15 C. (P. ^a^jji*), and often similarly 
used in the Gospels, especially in S. (Cf. on the one hand § 272, and 
on the other § 368). 

§ 268. A. The combination of the Impf. with the Perf. {oot ap- imperfect 
pears sometimes in conditional clauses, to denote an action frequently 
repeated: (o©» *apJU o$ ^J "si quis dicebat" Land II, 97 ult.\ ++%*> vj? 
loot *2ucpl ^j m > ^** "et si plus quam viginti surnebat" ib. 93 ult, and 
so foe* ^jjj ^oVL? ^ i ** ^ ^^ t? "^ or as °ft en as he came to any 
place" ib. 251, 14; toot ji^j t£ "whenever he was angry" Ov. 186, 21 &c. 
Similarly tooi J^tt? . . . o£j ^a-aa "in every thing . . . which was re- 
quired" Land II, 201, 7. For such cases the Part, with ?o©» is far more 

14 



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— 210 — § 268. 

usual (§ 277). This combination is met with rather more frequently in 
hypothetical clauses like {oo> ^fluu JJ JLa-J "how should he not have been 
handsome?" Joseph 38, Note 5 (Ov. 287, 26); toot c*JJ> "he would have 
had to love" Ov. 278, 15 (incorrect reading in Joseph 19, 3 *a^jC#o); 
{oot udo**J ^tjvi\ "why should he have fled?" Anc. Doc. 90, 22; ^> 
Jbs*oo» a^I "what should I have done?" ZDMG XXIX, 117 v. 235; 
loB) {jLu# oLo "who would see?" Ephr. Nis. p. 64 v. 203; U^ ^ JJ li{ 
Jboo* ^j o^J^moJu {oo» jjbpkj? t^'^t <P t^° ff°*°-* "* s I1()t then ^ ie light in 
one month stronger, in order that the loss of that day might be supplied?" 
Ov. 70, 17, and many like instances. Similarly {4o» tAflunj ud ^p "who 
could (can) then be sufficient?" Ephr. (Lamy)1, 175, 19; ^Jt+jobo Jboua +L 
wOch "how much more must they be sanctified" ib. i)aen.\ JLaj . . . JLmlo *£ 
t&o» "how much more must . . . injure" ib. 205, 16. 

B. But this combination is particularly common, in place of the 
simple Impf., in dependent clauses after Perfects : jj|; JL&J . . . oljuldIJ 
^,oJyi\ JtIthuV ooo* v ojuaju awipxsrai — wars jj.7j tvvacQou otvrovg julyjts 
dprov (f>aysw Mark 3, 20 ; Coo» ^;Jikjj ^j? uuu| "he gave them life that 
they might be moved" Moes. II, 104 v. 448 ; ooot v o££adD&j? k&jpLlo 
y^jpVojo "and thou besoughtest that thine offerings might be accepted" 
Ephr. Ill, 254 D; 6^^ U* o<5^l^ ioc* JJo pty "it [{*oj* 'the sab- 
bath'] would have had to be given to Adam, to keep it" Aphr. 234, 2; 
loot ^aJL£ • • • ika*o£ v 6om^> {JL^4^ab ^^j ooot ^ V^*» . . . wotoAuui 
"his clothes they brought, in order that the blessing might be conveyed 
to a large number of them" Ov. 186, 26; JLguujj y>& {&* ^i . . . Jlafo 
ouuL»Kjo foot "nor even . . . was he alarmed before he fell into sin and 
was fettered" Ov. 81, 10 (line 8 has merely JLguuJj ^^ pp) ; {oo» ud?) 
o^. toot >*^j? "he would have had to make it gush out for him" Aphr. 
314, 4 (where one MS. leaves out {o©0 (*) ; fyof^yv? loot ^uut<J Jjf y^| ^ 
loot (kouktj "should he not have been afraid (v. supra A) to reduce thee 
to slavery?" Joseph 15, Note 10 [Ov. 277, 2] &c. In all these cases the 
simple Impf. would be sufficient; and in fact it is much oftener met with, 
even in this application, than the construction with l&oi. 



(*) This tedious construction is rare with Aphraates. 



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§§ 269. 270. — 211 — 



PARTICIPLES. 



§ 269. The Active Participle, when it forms the predicate, denotes, Active 
as a Nominal form, first of all a condition, without reference to a de- Present, 
finite time. Such a condition generally represents itself to us as a present 
condition ; and in this respect the Active Participle is not distinguishable 
from any other predicative adjective: JBl^gdS "killing (am) I" is exactly 
like JBl *A*f ) "just (am) I". But its close connection with the finite verb 
gives the Participle a more verbal character, which is specially shown 
by the circumstance that the bare participial form can dispense altogether 
with the expression of the 3 rd person as a subject (§ 253) ; it farther 
appears for the Impf. over a wide range, and becomes almost a tense, 
without, however, losing completely its Nominal character. Although its 
chief use is to express the Present, yet it is not a true Present ; precisely 
where it has the appearance of being so, it might for the most part be 
taken as an Adjective proper. 

The Active Participle thus denotes very frequently the continuing 
as well as the momentary Present, and in this meaning it almost entirely 
supplants the Impf. Examples abound : the following may illustrate the 
transition from the representation of quite constant conditions to a state- 
ment of what is momentary: o)|?jp ^> ^p? ^k ^? **^^l "f° r tne ^ on 
by its nature eats flesh (always)" Spic. 7, 14; ^olA*o* JLL? o+jaSu *aa£p 
JL-u jjuoi ruyivi\ Jfcp?o lj*»QA "he ruins himself whoever accepts a 
bribe, but he who hates to take a bribe lives (rw)" Prov. 15, 27 ; J^-u» 

^oo^ojuV ^juL£o "for as soon as his friends hear the dear name of Rab- 
bula, love for him is inflamed in their hearts and their bosoms glow" 
Ov. 202, 12; ot&ea& JLil ^cla* JUL©* &l "now also I receive his com- 
mand" Ov. 172, 5; JLLooi . . • ^ju» ^y^ "we figure (for you herewith) the 
image" Ov. 159, 4 &c. 

§ 270. The Participle stands plainly in direct antithesis to the past future 
in otgmN, |$£ of J^ao <ju! jjf {£*$ ot&^A " the word of God— no 
man has come, or comes, to the end of Aphr. 101, 17. Thus the Part, 
often appears for the Future, whether it be that the condition is set be- 

14* 



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— 212 — § 271. 

fore us in a more lively fashion as a Present, or that the construction 
suffices to relegate the indefinite statement of the condition to the Future. 
The Impf. in these cases might he more obvious, hut the very possibility 
of exchanging the two here shows that neither is the Part, a proper 
Present, nor the Impf. a genuine Future. Cf. Ji^k*> (f>avspdv yevqaerat 
1 Cor. 3, 13; JL^ Zyjkwjet ib. (Harkl. loo>* U±^ and ^?a{); hu^m 
$ s Ma gv> ooLo ioo^aacc /cai Trakiv oo^daoo John 12, 28; LJbo JJ y^v^N. 
ov ix^i airoSdvfl elg rov alma John 1 1, 26 S. (P. Lo&j jj f \) ; ^jl»6{ ka;*£ 
ja*S>>V J^k* W ooio "Jerusalem has been destroyed, and will never 
again be inhabited" Aphr. 483, 18 (and frequently thus with )o\n\, • • • Jl); 
!otSS? JLSjLp o^f ys» <jjt^ ^^a "speedily the righteous judgment of 
God overtakes thee" Mart. I, 125 alt] {jkidb JLUAj ^xaSs l^M, .^«»Av 
J\niS>x ©£** "on the completion of six thousand years the world is dis- 
solved" Aphr. 36, 20; JLiJ «am*p ^f»£to "and then I bring up" Aphr. 
72, 15; ^otjb {j^d JLLJbo ltv& ^^i jafck. U*4 ^o* . . . Jfii^ "con- 
troversy . . . continues as to how the dead rise and in what body they 
will come" (where the Impf. without more ado exchanges with the Part.) 
Aphr. 154, 1; ©^ kiJ \lx* ;mviSi "to-morrow thou seest him" Eplrr. 
Ill, XLIII mid. ; ^oo» v!*^ ^* <*Vi "those who shall come after us" 
Jos. St. 80, 2; ^Xio Ja^ J^oJ v o<*Xd ^>JL o<* l^L 1*^? kLltiao 
'm.o lf+& ^ootXa "and on the establishment of that new world all bad 
movements cease, and all oppositions end" (farther participles follow) Spic. 
21,7 &c. With special frequency they occur in eschatological delineations, 
as in the 22 nd chap, of Aphr. where the Impf. scarcely ever occurs, 
in Condi- § 271. Thus also the Part, appears very often in Conditional Sen- 

tenses, both in the protasis and the apodosis: ^i*o&jup *+JhJL ^w &l Ao 
y&^ "and if it also pleases us, then we come to an agreement with 
thee" Spic. 2, 4; o^j^doL vvf.^> |J JbSi^ ^> JLiap ojyt ^^ v ( " f °r if 
thou takest water out of the sea, the loss of it is not noticed" Aphr. 
101, 9, and many others. Similarly in quasi-conditional sentences with 
^5: Jto-i^ J&t- ^°^ JL^ n i} f? "when riches increase, avarice becomes 
great" Aphr. 267, 21 (cf. § 265). 

In all such cases the Part, is neither an actual Future, nor an 
actual Present. So too in sentences like *tf ^o[ ^f ^o "but perhaps 



tional 
Clauses. 



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§ 272. — 213 — 

some one may say" Jos. St. 5, 13; 42, 15, where the Impf. might stand 
quite as well. 

§ 272. In a considerable number of instances the Part, stands for ** Depend- 

ent Clauses. 

a Future action, instead of the Impf., even in dependent clauses: ^ 
©•fe^a J^jk* "till his body rise again" Ov. 208, 21; ©*aa£ 1$ &$** 
"until love for him come" Aphr. 39, 13; Jv>m^ ^v^m? Jbb^ "till they 
should offer incense" Guidi, Sette Dormienti 24 v. 43; JLla, iamao 
driVtkmfr t-^- ^V*^T "and he ministered for many years till he was 
taken up" Aphr. 273, 2; *£a» ^ ©ttr* ?*•£ ^WP *? JIAjc& v 6chL<^ pj* 
^potX "he placed with them as a pledge and hostage Kawadh his son 
till he should send (them) to them" Jos. St. 10, 17 and many like ex- 
amples with t^, } J&£**. — ^JUu ^$j&? ^JLal ^ rYCJ? "that we confidently 
assume that we shall live" Aphr. 459, 18; ^pAul ^daJ Ijfj iv^pot u^, ooi 
wil^i "give me hostages that you will not come in pursuit of me" Jos. 
St. 61, 2: hJ{ ^£D ooL jj? JboJLo toj ja^a* "dost thou engage, not 
again to do . . . ?" Sim. 292 sapr. ; W<^? o^Jai o^ ^4**>? i^o t-? 
"while he thought that they would restore to him his iniquitous possession" 
Mart. I, 127, 11 ; J^{S,y% *$*Aa* w£*6j ^ &l} 00* ^^rcj "who 
thought that the enemy would also seize upon Edessa (Orhai)" Jos. St. 
7, 18; ^6©^ JLi^ JLAaj Uto ^alv? ^^»? Jl^fip Q^j»U° <^-p V° 
"and the fools did not know and did not perceive that sorrow and regret 
would soon overtake them" Sim. 388 mid. ; JLLaj JLIj . . . yi*l t-*^)»fj 
^»JL** U-ucp "for he had come to understand beforehand, what grievous 
harm would befall" Ov. 197, 6; ^ . . . JLUbo &ly J^ojdj JLio* <*? l^ua 
,^*^» ot^$J "the Holy Spirit made choice of him (Noah) that from his 
seed even the Messiah should be born" Aphr. 236 paenr, o*fokjt(j 
iotSs ti^ ^f&Aoo? "that they had promised to turn again unto God" 
Sim. 321 mid. ; ;yfr |lo yhp ^mji ^f^i ^? jdq-91 |J tlon.^nrt y&oa ^> 
y£ "let not vanity issue from thy mouth, lest He withdraw from 
thee and cease to dwell in thee" Aphr. 185, 20; o^L JUuf III ^ Jtf^J 
"lest perhaps he find fault with me when he comes" Aphr. 340, 19; 
oul tjui J^\f "whether perchance he saw any one" — Guidi, Sette Dor- 
mienti 27 v. 158, and many like cases. But still, the Impf. is far more 
usual in these cases. 



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— 214 — § 272. 

The Part, stands in like manner loosely as a consequence of a verb, 
especially an Imperative : *JL&^, ^il J&**£ ooo^i d(f>srs rd naudia Mp- 
X^oli npog jus Mark 10, 14: Matt. 19, 14; ,6©^l^ob ^^J& l^** uso^a 
d(j)6Ts Toi/g vkicpovg &d\pou rovg sccvr&v v&tcpovg Matt. 8, 22, and frequently 
so in the N. T. with udo&jl, ooo^ii; ^J( wpt "let him go" Sim. 
283 inf.] ^i©i?jL& (S. ♦J&d) ^oaa /cSXevoov defaXiodpai Matt. 27, 64; 
u*V ^^ }QJ*& "bid them kill me" Mart. I, 25 mid. ; o&* ©^ ?qj&9 
"bid him sit down" John van Telia (Kleyn) 51, 3; uViS, y^vy v^juJJ ^p{ 
llol++ sJtts t& dZsX(f>cf juov juspiacco&at just sjuov ttjv /ckypovojuiav Luke 
12, 13; ^pfa t-o^° \Q JL>a ^ °tr° "call Samson, that he may dance be- 
fore us" Judges 16, 25; ^i*&*£ ^i.nffil jdojd "rise, that we may go forth 
and pass the night" Jos. St. 29, 11; >fc^£ wo»ojf* Up$*1 Jbd^^ ^L* 
Jllmua "into one of the pits which are in the desert cast ye him, that 
he may sink in the mire" Joseph 29, 7 (Ov. 283, 11); wo*a£jl «*oto£ao? 
{juio III "take him to his father, that he may come and see" Joseph 
280, 13 &c. With other forms of the verb : jL&ai o^n^af, jJ "suffer her 
not to go out" Sir. 42, 11; "^Lk* Jfr^?\ uDoajtt fy "that it (f.) do 
not allow the body to be corrupted" Philox. 524, 11; ^aj J^u£ jdoj^ju 
"permit (subj.) the wheat to increase" Ov. 192, 20; ^£jt 6 ^ojJ £s*;-a* 
"I allowed them to go" Sim. 328, 4; ^mVv ,6©^ (S. fk-dj) ^Jbj 
lobcoojuev avToIg (f>aysTv Mark 6, 37. (Cf. supra § 267). 

Farther, notice J&JLp JLmJ^o *o*aj? JLLodJ "the physician, who was skil- 
ful in healing pains" Anc. Doc. 90, 23; JbL'kX )j^nv» 1\oa^ JUa| JJ 
"grace will not accept the penitent ..." Aphr. 153, 15 (cf. 187, 10) ; 
oot* ^o "is accustomed to give" Philox. 473, 23, and frequently thus 
with **ao; ^ v»?v> ^X*&2? "who constantly injure us" Statuti della 
Scuola di Nisibi 13, 8, and frequently so with ^o{. With special fre- 
quency, however, the Part, is found with "can" and "begin" ; ^na^fo JJ 
+aj^ (^p ov hvvarai 6 viog ttoisiv John 5, 19 (C. ^s^iN) ; \fc. ^ja^ft 
"can constrain" Aphr. 491, 13; ^S,^>^v> ^o |l "(they) cannot bring to 
nought" Ov. 62, 21; ^^*> a^ 7]p&VTQ r/XXe/v Matt. 12, 1; a*v*, 
^|ji^ "they began circumcising" Aphr. 210, 4 ; ^o»> Q^ot* "they com- 
menced fleeing away" Sim. 342 mid. &c. Compare also (^&xd o }~ 
v 6oA. *,jbk.» J**'f£o ijp^avTo oi ypajujuccTsig /cat o! Qapmouoi hsiv&g 



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§§ 273—275. — 215 — 

£vi%sw, Luke 11, 53 P., for which C. S. have 'X {o©» «*Jb&a» wpt (cf. 
§ 277 Concl.). 

In like manner the Part, appears, connected however with o, in 
ys. JBl <m<.ft^ftoibo ujqju (jA "show me this, and then I shall be con- 
vinced by thee" Spic. 13, 6 ; ^40 ^poil&X ltp& $ oul ^JJU "let 
one go to them from the dead, and they repent [= then they would 
repent]" Aphr. 384, 3; Jk*^» ^jj^^o v 6o^-^^d ^oJmcls^ o^pj? ^$& 
JL&sI»As&o ,p©^-£^3 k*» "because they had said that their bodies 
should be divided and that the queen should pass through the midst of 
their bodies, and then she would become well" Mart. I, 57 mid. 

§ 273. Exceptionally the Part, denotes something on the point of use of 
happening in the past, in sentences like LJL&? J1»J JL$ao t-§ "when the denoting 
time came for him to die" Aphr. 312, 6; J^^a ^o ^o*>? U4J ^J* 8 
w6»o>iao! "they led him away to where he was to suffer punishment" p°»*t of 

happening 

Mart. I, 246 mid. (a like case ib. inf.) ; *a*juJ Jb^ii o*a uul^ak&j J&&* in the Past. 
{oot "the day on which the door was to be opened was still distant" 
Sim. 363 mid. But the addition of Jo©» is more usual in this case (§277). 

§ 274. Narration scarcely ever employs the Active Participle (as Historical 
historical present) except in the case of po(; but this ;ap{, {^0?, ^P»(, or re8en ' 
\£*\, "he or she said"; "they (m. or f.) said" — is very common. Thus 
^po{o oi^o Kal a7rofcpifr£vTsg elnav Matt. 21, 27, and frequently; ac- 
cordingly the form fttto )jl^ common in the N. T. must properly have 
been ppjo Jk*. Something different is the Part, in lively description of 
dreams, as in fH (ju£ )i^«vi~» JSl y-oof t-? J*V>? ov^^&d . . • t^of ^oo 
{^p^ "and after I had said . . . about midnight while I am sleeping in 
the tent, I see a man" Sim. 328 supr., and thus frequently. 

§ 275. In brief subordinate clauses the Part, often stands (like contempor- 
adjectives of another kind), to denote a contemporary condition in the ary 
past, especially after t-3 : &oojufcs& ^d . . . Ji^ ocTTOKpidsig . . . ayavecKT&v 
Luke 13, 14; rJO-3 . . . ^&uui *j& KarajSaivovrccv avruv . . . ivsreiXccro Matt. 
17, 9 ; ftuuJ j-» f?J*X o**^ )^ *■**?? a be sacrificed himself to the demons, 
to wit, when he descended" Ov. 160, 15; {jL> JJLa^o*:* *JLo ^oo "and 
while he stood in the temple, he saw" Ov. 163 ult] *£6tf ^°^p ^9-00^ 
J^ju ^ "to meet death he ran with joy" Anc. Doc. 90 paen.\ o^?^ 



tion in the 
Past. 



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— 216 — §§ 276. 277. 

^poJ t^p . . . t-I> 1%^^? • • • ($*£ "accusations were brought against a 
man, while they said" Mart. I, 123 ; ^*p» ooi +%* "while he yet spake" 
Gen. 29, 9; Matt. 26, 47, and frequently thus, after ^ "while yet". 
Cf. oMj . . . wo^i JjL, e7he Asvfo . . . tcadyjusvov Mark 2, 14; ^*&jl +j*o 
I aa *\,m (^jd^ooj "and when he heard that the epistles were read" 
Sim. 269 ad inf. (Cod. Lond. 'a. '» +s> >aaajto); ^ojuuj? • • • ooo» ^^i a ^H L 
woici^jj «d^p \l "they began to watch that they might see if he 
moved his feet" Sim. 275, 15 &c. Notice the contrast with the Perf. in 
lllo ^*o(? Qoy«,\ tjL> ^jd "when she saw that Jehu had become king, 
and was coming" Aphr. 273, 9. In all these instances loot might have 
been added to the Part. 
Modal § 276. In several of the foregoing examples a beginning has been 

Colouring. 

made in employing the Part, in room of the Impf., even in optative and 
other moods. Compare on this point rare cases like ^i.;iyv) TrpooooK&juev 
"have we to look for?" Matt. 11, 3; Luke 7, 19, 20; IJLi J& ^ "why 
is he to die?" 1 Sam. 20, 32; Ml IJLi ^N "why wilt thou die?" Guidi, 
Sette Dorm. 22 v. 142 = 28 v. 168; ^ ^ft^k JUJ yk. "how are they 
to forgive you?" Aphr. 37, 12. Of course it is at the most merely the 
first approaches to a modal use of the Part, that can be discovered in 
these instances: modality itself still remains entirely with the Impf. 
Actwe § 277. The Part., properly expressing only a condition, is dis- 

*ith1««?. tinctly referred to the past by subjoining l&o* or, though not so frequently, 
by placing that word before it. Thus there arises a form expressing 
continuance or repetition in past time; l&oi +a^ is nearly = faciebat. 
The foot does not require to be repeated, when it refers to several par- 
ticiples : it may be altogether omitted, when the connection clearly attests 
the sphere of the past (§ 275). Farther, even the simple tense of past 
time, viz the Perfect, may appear instead of this combination, whenever 
the impression of continuance or repetition is not specially conveyed. 
Thus, in particular, we have almost invariably {oo» alone, instead of {oit 
Joot as erat. The combination is very common: ooo» ^;nv> vrpootyepov 
Mark 10, 13 (S. o^o) ; ooot ^Idjbo dnlnpawcw Acts 2, 45 (and in v. 47, 
farther instances) ; ooot ^JLi, ot&& %°^ "auocilium ab eo rogabant" 
Mart. I, 122, 10; ^o( t-^°?^ "edebant enim" Sim. 274 mid.; tjuotto 



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§ 277. — 217 — 

^oJLopo Jiaj toot "used to light a fire and place on it (incense)" Sim. 269, 9; 

)r^ui OOO) ^JUAiA OOO) OJ^j^f 6)|jutt oK**b? M&'fp OOOf ^>09>V> t^ 

"while they were bringing out the first who had died, — as soon as they 
turned round, they found others" Jos. St. 37, 17. Notice that the Part, 
here, along with *^», takes {oo», though the simple Part, would have been 
sufficient (§ 275). It is somewhat different when a condition is entered 
upon suddenly: $?&>*{ • • ♦ j&ot? • • • otV {oo» vfl&*Att . . . ooj **» "while 
he was still seeking to persuade him, the gold was (suddenly) sent" Jos. 
St. 35, 9. Similarly ^> toot uaai *jl> JLid^o ^^dAc*) o*£Ji t^o 
JL£$oj£ toot ;^vo {l^i*^9 "and when they began to be put to death, 
a magician came (just then) from the city and passed by on the road" 
Mart. I, 94, 14. — The notion of continuance is more strongly im- 
pressed in ^v\t ^A^- Jbo^o {%fl§ ^> r^ViX ^ju&oo *j» ooo»o "and 
they kept wrangling with him from daybreak till the ninth hour" Jos. 
St. 58, 20. 

This combination farther denotes something on the point of hap- 
pening in the past (without Joo* § 273): oo©i ^^jpAs* 6|£? wo* JKdo£X 
"to the place where they were to be put to death" Mart. I, 91, 3; 99, 1; 
jL&^*p? \f\ n ay o»V {oo» loi*} J&Q-* J^» t-» "when the day arrived on 
which the departure of the king was to take place" Mart. I, 106 inf.; 
{oot Ljbo* o*J£t»a£a oj^. &+*+$ )i^i\f "why he grieved in his sickness 
that he was to die" Aphr.468, 14 &c. — Ji^o ^^\ toot Jta;ite» v0D ^^ 
l&o) "he wanted to put Persia to shame and build up Singara" Ov. 9, 25. 

It stands also hypothetically in JLlfioJ {&o» jd^ ^ciiriS, "why should 
the physician flee?" Anc. Doc. 90, 23 (close beside {oo» udo^j § 268 A); 
k-oo» Jb£ "vellem" Mart, I, 167 mid.; k*oo» t^» wa\ "would that 
thou didst reverence" Mart. I, 26 inf. ; loot uoAm J&o£* JUo "and what 
means of conveyance would be sufficient?" Moes. II, 112 v. 550; ^o*{ 
Awoo* \\Jl Jfc*!£ "how could I have undone the loads?" Joseph 229, 14 
(Ov. 313, 24); foot ouajdb JJ "could he not have &c?" Sim. 374, 7; y+{ 
^oo^. {oo» t ^^ ^Qo^yvwf "as if he were carrying them (his wars) on, 
in their interest" Jos. St. 9, 18; o^Iaj toot jjhok* w^Jf^a "for thereby 
his will would be fulfilled" Spic. 1, 9, and like cases. Thus too in clauses 
with oSs "if" (§ 375 A). 



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— 218 — § 278. 

Similarly also l&o* l$±*po ^££ jkfo lo*A v^of "perhaps he will be 
ashamed and will not put to death, and he (another subject) will take 
away" Mart. I, 124 mid., where at first the {oot is wanting. 

This combination stands in a dependent position, — amongst other 
instances, — in: loo* LJL&? ^po»X6 wojq\\ ooot ^fiyo *jj "while all were 
grieved for him, that he was dying" Anc. Doc. 20, 14 = Addai 48, 8; 
ooo» ^uafr fy )&&£ ojbo* "the holy men made a sign that they would 
not offer sacrifice" Anc. Doc. 103, 20 (line 25 has merely ^v^fo J|j). 
And thus it sometimes stands, even when the dependence is not given 
expression to by j (§ 272) : o^p ooo» ^£ ^qjS* a*v*o "and they com- 
menced to beg of him" Luke 24, 29 C. S. and even ^£J ooot ^u *»vr JJ 
ooot "they were not able to keep" Aphr. 15, 2; ooot ^^^a ooot ^»>H* 
o^ "which they had been accustomed to worship" Aphr. 312, 21 ; JL&*io 
oiX (oot «aAiap loot Jjao )i t-o oi^w loot ^Ny foot {jao "and how could he 
have cultivated it when he could not summon up the needful strength" 
pit. "when he could not suffice for it"] Ephr. I, 23 D &c. Here the 
tedious {o©» beside the dependent verb might throughout have been dis- 
pensed with. 

Passive § 278. A. The Passive Participle expresses the completion of an 

Fof the 16 action, and stands as a predicate instead of the Perfect, just as the 
perfect. Active Participle does instead of the Imperfect : o^Ko yiypocTTTai Matt. 
2, 5, and often in the N. T. and elsewhere; ^oo^ JA >o» if i^o»JL» w op 
J&SS ^o "in that liberty which has been given them by God (= Ka©wji{)" 
Spic. 13, 17; ^;.n\ jbd£ )^P? 'V^ a ^^ ^r^S* ©»k*LJbaA ^*.a& 
'm.o K§^ l\lp )Un« i&^o?o "but now, through the coming of the son 
of the blessed Mary, the thorns have been uprooted, the sweat removed, the 
fig-tree cursed &c." Aphr. 113, 19; ^KLk*> Jjo, . . . ^A )1* ^Auu JjJ? 
"that these words have not been sealed and are not to be sealed" Aphr. 
101, 5 (where the difference between the Passive Participle and the Re- 
flexive Participle with the effect of the Active very clearly appears), and 
so in many instances. But what we have in all such cases is the true, 
result-announcing Perfect: — as a narrative tense this participle hardly 
ever appears. 



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§ 279. — 219 — 

B. With {oo» there is thus formed a kind of Pluperfect, L e. the 
statement of a result reached already in the Past: oooi ^%*JLl> "had been 
got ready" Ov. 172, 22; JLp^f ~<Sf Loot J&ki*> W^)| "for this testament 
had not been completed [lit. 'signed and sealed'] Aphr. 28, 8; h^ I o*aj 
(l^D^aa lo©» "in which the blessing had been hidden" Aphr. 464, 15 &c. 

§ 279. A. A favourite mode of employing this Part, includes mention with V 
of the agent introduced by^* (§ 247): v^S, t ^^ "(has been) done by 
me" =* "I have done". A logical object may stand with it as gram- 
matical subject; but such may also be wanting, so that the form of the 
verb may be impersonal; thus it may be formed even with intransitive 
verbs: v^ ^aju J^ ;^^avc)pa ov yivcba/coo Luke 1, 34; J&l^o y^* ^.o 
"hast thou read the books?" Spic. 13, 8; y^* o^, ^IJ&ojaDf "whom I have 
prepared for thee" Mart. I, 182 inf.; ^ojo*J of^. ,oj{ ^Ja I'foJ^ ^J 

*}*? vM *■*? *«HI* f4*1 ^f ° °*V <■*** ^^j? Jaa£o <*V ^jLJa 

^ojJ "if by him the mountains have been searched, the rivers plundered, 
and the depths of the seas fathomed, and he has examined and searched 
the recesses of the thickets and of the caves" Ephr. II, 319 D (where 
the Active form continues what was expressed by the Passive) ; JLguf 
^ <**&*? "as we have heard" Spic. 16, 22; J^YVg, pf* ^ ^u5 JJ 
"it has not been stood by me (= I have not stood) before great ones" 
Kalilag and Damnag 88, 8; o^ jquud "he stood" Hoffmann, Martyrer 
108, 973; u^ )^<H» "I have walked" Spic. 43, 7; ^^ JJ JL^ooAao 
u^ "and I have had no experience of domestic ties" [lit. 'with 
marriage I have not met'] Ephr. (Lamy) II, 599, 8; )U|~» JL*>6o*V ja^, 
^w (009 JJ "we have been engaged in no treacherous dealing with the 
Romans" ('it has been engaged by us in no treachery with &c.') Mart. 
I, 152, 9; c^* {oo» (^iLo 1^+* "true and straightforward have I been" 
Mart. I, 27, 5. Cf. the troublesome sentence yoo 6^ (0©$ JL&*{ ^& 
{)^*fda&**p ^09 wo* (tolljuJJ l$y± toX JaSviVs "from those quarters 
where the people had contracted any of that relationship with one 
another which comes from baptism" (or "where, for the people, that 
relationship &c. had come into existence" or, still more literally, "where, 
for the people, existence had been assumed by that relationship &c") 
Jac. Edess. in Lagarde's Reliq. Juris Syr. 144, 14 &c. 



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— 220 — § 280. 

B. With lo©» we get also a Pluperfect of this type : oo©» . ^f 
JLtdVo^N "which had been built by the Persians" Jos. St. 17, 9; v*$ JJ 
wot o^ Loo» Jb*.*aji o{ . . . oC^ l&©» JUfjp u had he then not read ... or 
had he not heard, — this?" Mart. I, 127 supr.; oo©» ^ ^- J?^° ^^V 

oC^ "for the books had not been heard of by him" Sim. 269, 9 &c. 

Active uie. § 280. Several participles of the form ^*^d are used with an 

Active signification. This arises partly from the circumstance that the 
verbs concerned may be doubly transitive, and partly from the influence 
of the analogy of forms allied in meaning. Thus t *^ "laden with" = 
"bearing"; t^tju, v-^o "thrown round (circumdatus)" = "encircling (cir- 
cumdans)"', *-uil, y»^\, dx»ju> "holding"; A.mi "possessing"; j^Jo 
"having placed"; ^u£a "carrying"; ^*»j "dragging away"; **^ "leading 
away"; ;^v^"pulling away"; *n«ftv "holding embraced"; v^»? "remem- 
bering" (according to others i-*£j); ou'Vy "clothed with" = "wearing"; 
*++as{ "girt with"; ^J£> "shod with"; y»£j» "leant upon (X)" = 
"supporting", and some others. The pretty frequent JLo^) "having ac- 
quired" = "possessing" (as contrasted with JLS "acquiring") deserves 
particular attention. Some examples: JbjJjjl JLo^fJ 6^ ^\»nt "the 
righteous support the earth" Aphr. 457, 8; J&p wooj %J'^b *$ ^?i "^ut 
women carried water" Jos. St. 60, 14; JA*]L> (o*SSj Jiaj^JL^o JJ oSSo 
J^^y^ ofS. "and had not the protection of God embraced the world" 
Jos. St. 4, 14; <6<h^ t?***^ !"5 °$ J**? m "blind people who came, as 
they led them" Sim. 346 ad inf.] {oo* JULo )&l ioii^ "candour [literally 
"openness of countenance"] he possessed" Anc. Doc. 90, 25; {&o* ^o»J 
JLi*tt? {k°i^ "he was girt with a girdle of a skin" Mark 1, 6, cf. 
Eev. 15, 6. Several examples are found in Philox., Epist. (Guidi) fol. 
28 & &c. Cf. also J&p «jl*Lo, pi. JL^p ^JLLo "having gathered water" = 
"dropsical" Luke 14, 2; Land IV, 87, 9; Geoponici 95, 2 &c. 



(*) Just as this word is in a certain sense an Active Part. Perf., so also may 
the like be predicated of the Verbal Adjectives dealt with in § 118, e. g. *-ll "come", 
K**& "dead, died"; a*&-> "having seated oneself" = "sitting" &c. Similarly l^t 
"dwelling", Part. Perf. of / j* "to settle". 



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§§ 281. 282. — 221 — 

These words, however, may also be used in a true passive sense, 
e. g. Va& "taken"; ;^v^"pulled, torn away". 

PARTICIPLES USED AS NOUNS. 

§ 281. We disregard in this place such participles (Peal act.) as a b Pure 
have become nouns completely, like J&x»| "friend", JU^*f "shepherd", t ives, an " 
tkaki and \\V*p>~ ij oi/covjuAvij, JW-J& "a pillar", l&J»\ft "a bird", lk+±+ 
"herb", tk-^o rd Trpinov &c. 

§ 282. A. The Part. Act. of the Peal may be employed in the A <*. Par- 

. .... ticiple of 

Constr. State and with possessive suffixes, while the object is set in the Peai. 
genitive connection, contrived sometimes by means ofX: — prepositions a gZtu 
too may at times come after the Part, in the Constr. St. (§ 206): oo*~ <*«»ePe«i. 
Jhnlg "he who concludes the covenants" Aphr. 214, 14; Jrpoyii pJL^D 
"lawgiver" frequently; uv\ a^» ^^| "he who eats my bread" Ps. 41, 9; 
U*a (ioi JLJL& o( "0 thou who diest an evil death!" Mart. I, 180 inf.] 
JLf J&oj^ ty°^-? "Justice which demanded doom" Aphr. 462, 5; N j\io 
{klicp "she who gave hateful advice" Aphr. 110, 10; ^&jl <-ijuu$ "those 
who fear thy name" Ps. 61, 5; }°"**? ***?**? "l° vers °f money, — covetous 
persons" Ov. 190, 2; ^ojI l^ma u^b( "are flesh-eaters" Spic. 7, 15; 
^j{ Hm\ ^»( "are grass-eaters (f.)" ibid. 16. — JLuJboSk pZ\ 0/Xo- 
XpiCTog frequently; ?oC*4l ^^\ ^oixnju "thy God-loving holiness" 
Jos. St. 1, 1 ; {Kj*$a w-pS "trumpeters" Aphr. 260, 4 = (KS-fjp u^ 
Aphr. 147, 13; JJfajj ~f^ "who lead to destruction" Aphr. 271 ult] 
Jid^Ja «,.Nfr{\ "those who rush into the fight" Aphr. 149, 18; u^ 
(Ilia JLu ^^ "who build an edifice upon the sand" Aphr. 285, 9 (where 
the governing power continues notwithstanding the construct state, the 
object being placed at the end) ; JLuJba^ jr>[Shi\ ^ ***f±>i "who love 
Christ in everything" John van Telia (Kleyn) 3, 8 ; 11, 9 (same form). — 
o^ftf "his rider" Ps. 33, 17; ^oto^uuf "those who fear him" frequently; 
y^»juu "those who see thee" Is. 14, 16 &c. The connection with suffixes 
is less frequent, it is true, and it is confined more to special words. 

Only a few of these Active Participles can farther be used attri- 
butively, e. g. lk+±% J^o* "an erring spirit" Is. 19, 14; lk±${ oo* {Joj 



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— 222 — § 283. 

"is a devouring fire" Deut. 4, 24; 9, 3; Heb. 12, 29; {^j^ (|qj "a burn- 
ing fire" Daniel 3, several times ; J&^o ??v^^> ^^ "idols fashioned and 
false" Anc. Doc. 42, 22. Thus too JL^JL, f. U^gJL "foolish" ; J£ax» 
"sufficient", "dexterous"; JLijuS "fitting"^ 1 ) 

B. For all those uses in which the Participle but rarely appears, 
the Nomen agentis comes in : %+aqq\a "thy redeemer" Ps. 35, 3 ; otfo*^ 
"his helper" Ps. 10, 14; otJ&dXi. "he who sent him" Aphr. 289, 8; 
v OuP&S»h,pJ}| ojspi^ "nourish ye that (f.) which devours you"( 2 ) Mart. I, 
194, 10 &c. Thus in particular, as independent substantive, and as at- 
tribute {fo-£tJ "watchman" &c. 

other § 283. The Part. Act. of the other Verbal classes [Conjugations] 

Participiei, ^ s a l so employed in the constr. st. On the other hand it seldom appears 
mfaaA w *^ possessive suffixes: ^i |Nci.v> "he who produces everything" Ephr. 
(Lamy) II, 247, 3; otK^o^k. ^^2^0 "who makes his cursing ineffective" 
Aplir. 236 ult.\ tiffin o^.n\o "who offers prayers" Aphr. 66, 17; JLu^^b 
?lorn*>l Ac*.*** "salt, that breaks up rottenness" Aphr. 485, 16; 
?Vjl^&?S>^nv> fynrn "the shield which intercepts the arrows" Aphr. 44, 2; 
Jlftmo <>\Snv) "those who accept money" Aphr. 260, 16; JjfLoi v^quu^d 
"who exhibit a profit" Aphr. 287, 2; ^«\v^ i[^jiv> . • • JLiLs "women, 
who subjugate their husbands" Spic. 15, 19; <»n^v> (kuuao JUa> 
^po^^f JI&JO&? Ujlo Ij^vnt K*£L (*^Ll^ "weak passions that 
yet subdue heroes under the hard yoke of the need of them" Ov. 
182, 18. — K^JlsLort ^oo+n^N oJgjLuis "who urge on their people 
hurriedly" Mart. I, 16, 6; v 6o(S,..f*a v*jdbsi>Ac& "those who fight vigor- 
ously (with all their might)" Moes. II, 75, 5; Mart. I, 159 mid.; t*iifc^fiob 
^o*J^> "who are strong in pride" Aphr. 430 ult. (cf. Is. 13, 3); JLIjuo 
J^'JJL^, iaa»Tv» "oil, that revives the wearied ones" Ephr. (Lamy) II, 
179, 4 &c. 



(*) Notice that Abstract Nouns in Ilo, Relative Adjectives in «* — and Adverbs 
in Krfjfc— can be formed from those Active Participles only which are also used as 
Adj. or Subst. 

( 2 ) Or vtAA^t*! without a (§ 146 F.)? 



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§ 284. — 223 — 

A very few of these Participles occur, besides, as attributive ad- 
jectives, and as substantives. Thus J^^a^o JLjJbo "splendid vestments" 
Anc. Doc. 42, 9, and elsewhere JL^*-a.*>; frequently P*i .<$>*> "faithful" 
(of which the fern. emph. state {Aua&^opo shows by the a, that it is no 
longer regarded as a Part. Act.; so is it too with jkni>y "a wet nurse", 
and others which have become substantives). 

Bern. Quite unique is the instance woo* {I^ju^d lk&+*L Ih^ok^ 
jod* ^£ ^ "the wise maidens gladdened thee daily" Ephr. Ill, 344 E, 
where in spite of the emph. st., — in itself singular indeed in more 
respects than one, the power of governing remains. In prose it could be 
nothing but ^juab. 

B. The Nomen agentis is, on the other hand, very extensively em- 
ployed here: JIlo&^d "the restorer" often; ll'l**l lUiyo "founders of 
churches" Jul. 125, 27 (immediately beside JLm^$6Dt <*viYnv>o "and 
upholders of orthodoxy"); ^ail^j»^of oQYi.nap "upholder of Chris- 
tianity" ibid. 126, 5 ; uivvw^ "my helpers" Ps. 3, 3 ; ^jLLod^^o "who 
nourishes us" Ps. 84, 12; ^ooq^^gap "he who destroys them" Aphr. 
452, 13; ojk.tv^'fcg "she who destroys him" Aphr. 47, 1; v oAxJ 1 pf» 
r£v Yjyovju.£mv vjucqv Heb. 13, 7; 6*-4^*oKjl& "those who are obedient 
to her" Aphr. 47, 2 &c. But the Nomen Agentis does not take the 
Constr. St. before the substantive expressing the object.^) The Nomina 
Ag. of reflexives of passive meaning are on the whole used rather 
as adjectives in the sense of "capable of . . . ". 

8 284. Passive Participles are employed both as substantives and ^ai™ 

° r r J m Participles. 

adjectives. They may be followed by a genitive as Subject or Object, 
and may even stand in the Construct State before prepositions ; ^o>o < v«;a 
wO)'o^.\ • • • JL;jo; "they that be blessed of the Lord . . . they that be cursed 
of him" Ps. 37, 22; J&%* ufi£bp "expert in war" Cantic. 3, 8; yVftn 
^W^l "who are weaned from pleasures" Aphr. 260, 8; (joa upjfiv* 
Jfi&^Jb* wJ^o^oo "they who are girded about with byssus and adorned 



(*) In J-cmj^lW <*&&*»* ll^j £&j}J» "founders of churches and upholders 
of orthodoxy" Jul. 125, 27 and iUi4**»«»? *1*aa» "upholder of Christianity" ibid. 
126, 5, the Constr. St. of the nomen agentis is plainly avoided. 



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— 224 — §§ 285. 286. 

with purple" Aphr. 261, 9 ; J&p ^ ujliiy "those who are born of water" 
Aphr. 287, 16 &c. Farther te*3s$ usttap "taught of God" Aphr. 293, 17; 
(Kapo Jjjbb "garments adorned" Anc. Doc. 42, 9; JNN^ nx> o^to^j "a 
prayer accepted (heard)" Aphr. 454, 19 &c. Other constructions, how- 
ever, are preferred to this employment of the Pass. Part, as a Noun, 
except in the case of a few words. 

Some of the participles mentioned in § 280 are of common occur- 
rence in the Constr. St., e. g. l^J u\;na "those, who bear the yoke" 
Aphr. 260, 20; l^ol ~f^[ "those who hold the keys" Aphr. 260, 7 &c. 

IMPERATIVE. 

imperative. § 285. The Imperative mood cannot be used with a negative: 

>^<LgdD "kill", but ^d£4 jjf "do not kill" (§ 266). 

We have one instance of a dependent Impt. in ^»ju*o >\jj ^^* 

"for (properly "because") know and see" Mart. I, 160, 20. But this is 
at bottom an anacoluthon. 

INFINITIVE. 

infinitive. § 286. Where the Inf. is not the Object Absolute (on this point 

v. § 295), it must always have ^ before it. This preposition gives to 
the Inf. the sense of direction, of purpose, &c. ; o'^JVyviiS ooot oa^lo 
r/p&VTO XaXelv Acts 2, 4; ^ooi ^l\ of ^jjvftfc. t-5 "while they (f.) came 
to pray" Aphr. 112, 12; l r aah<& ofruviiS J^aiap ^jo "and while the 
sword receives the command to destroy" Aphr. 451, 4; ^6oiS» ;y*» Jjf 
omSfaKvi\ "they did not fail to make provision for themselves" Aphr. 
452, 9; I^l^ J&p ^j* JbLblcp^ "which is in want of water to drink" 
Aphr. 199, 1; ^vyiS **A^, "dispositus ad faciendum", "facturus"; 
o)jLitop-X . • . too* tO^jbo "he cried out . . . , that they should abstain" 
Ov. 179, 17; ©tla^cLaaa^ ^oi JLoJt "it is worthy to be received" Aphr. 
103, 1 &c. This signification gradually passes over to that of the Object; 
thus after verbs like "to wish", "to be able" &c. : o*£jujbo£»* o^a ^r/rovvreg 
avTov Kparyjaai Matt. 21, 46 P. S. (C. <hj<vl>Jjj ooot a*»); ouj*jdb )J 
Qlcntky^. "cannot be healed" Aphr. 136, 4 (line 8 JL»(^JJ ouuxjl& J|)'; 



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§ 286. — 225 — 

>xr*\ JSl l$* JlaJ "how can I know?" Ov. 163, 2; ^?Jbo^ ^pKn^jt 

"ye have neglected to go" Jul. 123, 5 ; Ji^viV . . . ~±m> "began to build" 
Jos. St. 24, 11 ; ch?v^yjV ooL &&>ol JJo "and no longer continued to 
seek her" Jul. 98, 11 &c. 

Thus too the Inf. with ^., as a kind of epexegesis which specifies 
direction, represents even the Subject. Compare o^*. pJLo Vo{^ 
qjLLd&ooX ^^fla^JJ "it still remains appointed for Israel, to be brought 
together" Aphr. 359, 3; 367, '5 (^aix^ <6o^ pi* ^^ v [ 367, 11); 
oJLL^is^t, ^^^flcujjl ooL oC^ ^^ "it is not possible for Israel yet to 
be brought together" Aphr. 359, 7 ; ,^vviV JJo v-^, JLo ri jus cSsf ttoisiv 
Acts 16, 30, and many other instances. Cf. § 254 C. 

In all these cases the Inf. with X might be replaced by the finite 
verb with j: Compare, besides the examples already given, uaaa& 
**&*; JJjjfo Jl^Pj- ^oJL^Xo oa^o^o y\ L; y \ "he is able to love, 
and to bless, and to speak the truth, and to pray for what is good" 
[last member of sentence being in finite form] Spic. 5, 11 &c. There 
are even rare instances of a blending of both constructions, namely 
; and thereafter ^ with the Inf.: J&JLd ^ȣt xf? JASS uuajue? 
j£ia ovifiviS. Sri Zwccrai 6 dsdg i/c tcov X/6cov tovtccv hyslpcci rifcvoc 
Luke 3, 8 C. (where P. merely has ovinvi\, and S. p-uiJ •••?); 
t^SjV <**{ ^f^ fc^H^ajuf h*j*l v { "if thou desirest to learn 
these things with diligence" Spic. 48, 16; jba A~%t &a flo£j $£♦? (oo) ^tpoj 
;)my\ "he dared to do this on the first day of the week" Apost. 
Apocr. 197 ultC) 

Of necessity * must be prefixed to X when the Inf. depends on a 
farther preposition (almost always ^>; cf. § 249 E): y^juooXf ^> ojok^I 
"dehver me from seeing thee" Mart. 1, 126, 10; V&&^ ^> *S *©fe3kjj "that 
one is saved from observing" Aphr, 22, 18; ^K» l&£*>£ ^vyiS o©» ^-^? 
Itsjua ^ oiifjjLsg^j ^b "it is easier to do good than to keep from evil" 
Spic. 6, 10 &c. More frequent is the form n 9N*iN j> ^o* ^> • • • too* Jli JJ 
"he did not cease to teach" Ephr. Ill, XXXIII ult. (or the completely 



( x ) However little I am disposed to guarantee the integrity of the individual 
passages, the instances are so numerous, that the idiom must be recognised. 

15 



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— 226 — § 287. 

verbal form ooi^J j}{ ^ Vm^o "too weak to keep from stealing 
Spic. 5, 7). 

With kj or (6©» the Inf. denotes an Obligation, Necessity, or even 
Ability: ^pJLttfet. u^, K>[ "I have to say" frequently; ftvihviN {oo*j ^J 
y^nN k&v Ityj /as aw aoi oc7To6ccvsTv Matt. 26, 35 ; «tfv JicN b-A "must be 
learned" Ov. 63, 24; *»Jl*^ k<^ "cannot be told"Aphr. 496, 3 &c. 
Sometimes the Inf. with X is sufficient of itself in such cases: {?£*£» 
o*a opojk^c sv Tovrcp ydp rd d-avfiaarov eortv John 9, 30 S. (P. tfoVa 
'aofck. ^*a£i o©») ; ^JLfcofcj JLja ot»jf&*^ ty "we need not wonder at 
him who is caught" Prov. 6, 30; JLix» jSots* opajk^o ^? i£)K^ "but 
we must feel amazement and wonder at this old man" Jul. 4, 10 (and 
frequently thus); ;o^\o^o^i t[*np\ "we must therefore rejoice and 
exult" Jul. 9, 7 ; ,6©^ oi>tsavi\ jbb^uu yj "they must dissolve like a 
dream" Spic. 44, 1 ; ot&oi ++$ y^m^i\ JLI "it is impossible to reach its 
height" Ephr. (Lamy) I, 645, Str. 15; JjfxxLa oKiviV v-^, j&* "how 
many commands have I to write" ibid. 303, 11 &c. 

In very rare instances a Subject is attached to the Inf. with X, as 
if it were a finite verb, as in ^oot^+J (jg*£ ^o*a o^Jiao^ "that trie 
priests may wash their hands therein" 2 Chr. 4, 6; cf. {oopaX {;£t?o 
oC^ o©** ^1 Jlaji If*] JL^s^p "and that this should happen publicly, fate 
did not grant him" Ov. 201, 2; ~5» \i\H\y fa t^nriviX JLul "that the 
brethren should do homage to thee is a hard thing" Joseph 9, 6. 

Rem. On the Inf. with Obj. v. § 293^.; on the Inf. Abs. § 295 sqq. 



C. GOVEENMENT OF THE VERB. 

object ex- § 287. Syriac has no thorough-going mode of designating the Ob- 

pressed by 

thePersonaiject. (*) It is only in the case of the Personal Pronoun that the language 
possesses unequivocal Object-forms, and these are affixed to the finite 



( x ) For the Hebrew AN, the Targum has the corresponding fl\ This ancient 
Objective mark K* is found in the O. T. about a dozen times. That the word was 
still known in some measure to the Edessans at the time of translating the O. T. 
we may conclude, from its employment in the ancient Gnostic (Bardesanic?) Hymn 



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§ 288. — 227 — 

verb. Occasionally, however, this method of indicating the Object is 
exchanged for another, — that, namely, which is contrived by X, followed 
by the Pron. Suff. — It is true it is a less exact method than the former, 
because it serves other purposes besides. Examples : ^w A|jU "he may 
torture us" Joseph 204, 4 [Ov. 300, 12] ; ^ ^»jb "has received us" 
ibid. 194, 13 [Ov. 295, 15]; v 6o£w K^dj "I have conquered them" Mart. 
II, 233, 1 (Jac. Sar.); ^ o^ "have escaped (3 pi.) me" Ephr. Nis. 
p. 62 v. 83 &c. We have the form set before the verb in <oJ»H?3 u ^° 
"and me ye have honoured" Ov. 141, 17 (var. ojiot^jQ^o); JL^v ^onNo 
Jbl^"and I made you thieves" Joseph 220, 4 [Ov. 308, 17]; u^-f u.>,o 
oo\ "and accompany me (to the grave)" Ov. 142, 23 (var. otherwise) &c. 
With the Participle, however, which does not take Object Suffixes, the 
personal pronoun as Object, is of necessity denoted by X, when the 
combination proper to Nouns is not preferred (§ 281). 

§ 288. A. The X serves besides as a means of indicating a Definite object 

designated 

Object. The Determination is more emphatic when the Object Suffix, by means of 
answering to the Substantive, is, besides, added to the verb. In the latter CM ™ of ^ . 
case the X may even be omitted. The personal pronoun may be still termined 
more emphasised (§ 225 B) ; or it may be construed like an independent tives. 
noun. Typical cases may be given thus: — 

(a) Without Determination [Indefinite Object]: "he has built a 
house" l&+2> Jia or Jla (&*» (there being no Object-sign). 

(b) With Determination [Definite Object]: "he has built the house": 

(1) {&*£* JSia or Jl^ f^J (without any Object-sign, just as in a). 

(2) ty ? \ Jla or Jla (L^X. 

(3) IN>^\ woUid or wojJLa ?K>^\. 

(4) {&t*a wc>»JLa or woi.K 1^?* 

In the case of the Part, taking the place of the finite Verb, X 
with possessive suffix is used instead of the object-suffix; thus in our 
example o^ J& is the regular equivalent of w»oj»K. 



in the Apost. Apocr. 279, 7 (~K» Vxj "he took me"). It was completely obsolete 
in the 4 th century. The reflexive use of K* (§ 223) is quite distinct from this. 

15* 



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— 228 — § 288. 

A few examples may suffice for all these cases : 

(a) ll'^J^ J^*<^p ^ml& Zsa/xsvovatv Zi (popria fiapia Matt. 23, 4; 
{&£& ffc^l. ****! "he raised three dead persons to life" Aphr. 165, 14; 
vJLo ?loup*mv»o JLioJ io£*^j ?oju^£» "only acquire thou forbearance 
and patience" Sim. 270 ad inf. 

(b) (1) iotSs? oTS « u JJo Jbl^a ^okif t^r ?* ^ sfofreg rag ypa<f>6tg 
/i7jZi rijv huvajuuv tou 6sou Matt. 22, 29; JLuJb»f o*juo> ^ouaiof ^p "he 
who receives the spirit of Christ" Aphr. 108, 3; otfotoj o)L> )J "they have 
not seen his light" Aphr. 15, 13; J^&^o»at;^ fco>jJ "let him adorn his 
inner man" Aphr. 108, 4; ^£~p *^* JKjl "thou restorest Nisibis to me" 
Jos. St. 17, 3; ^ajf o^»? cm^VoJo "his villages he sold" Ov. 166, 14; 
&N^o u^i^o yl*4^ "thy letter, (my) beloved, I have received" Aphr. 
6, 1; foot r^l JL£©> te^L ^* ^* "these three winds he held" 
Aphr. 93, 9. 

(2) <mhfi> N v>flN >^ftil evpk/csi $>i\nr7rov John 1, 43; «o*xa»| ^p 
JAJbo; o*j&o£X "he who grieves the spirit of Christ" Aphr. 108, 5; 
jLo^k^ ^nM "ye have forsaken the Creator" Mart. I, 124 inf.; 
^ak>U "^£j? "that he may ruin Jerusalem" Aphr. 249, 16; t JuL»d*o 
^jSu N a *jj Jl ?vy ■ V (JL> "and John saw heaven opened" Aphr. 124, 2 
(immediately after JL^jl ^^* J^i "EUjah opened heaven") ; Jl^fl^o 
Jbj^ ( mVi jN>»^;^ "and the lambs of thy flock thou slayest" Mart. 
I, 125 mid. (and parallel to it hj\ ^aJoo yfi^J fy^'S " an <* the 
sheep of thy flock thou destroyest") ; uod^JtJ JflV}\ "the world will I 
forsake" Ov. 164, 22 &c. Compare tK» < mSg l tej^J spo^f v?°^ "them 
the flame devoured" Aphr. 183, 19. 

(3) ^ii\ blfi^ ^oi/S. ^o»otaf irapakccfiovTeg rov '\tjgovv slg rd Trpat- 
rdpiov Matt. 27, 27 ; oC^ ^6to^ju(o ofk >SS wojof^Lo "and they surrounded 
his house and took him prisoner" Mart. I, 123 (and then ot&**£» oj^o 
"and plundered his house"); (lioju^* dioN^p "have received circum- 
cision" Aphr. 210, 1; ^kiyifA ^[ JLko "smote all the five (f.)" 
Mart. I, 126 mid.; J&©£X o£^ «*f£* *©»? £ Ayiaaag rdv ypvafo Matt. 
23, 17; «mNofti/fli'flnr»oo uiSV Jfio^ vpoC^ too* «jl^;y> "the tyrant 
flattered the inhabitants of Constantinople" Jul. 99, 21; xtV^i ^*& 
i^£uj& JBoi J&lSj&t J^oiVoJ o^ oooi "the people of Edessa held this letter 



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§ 288. — 229 — 

in very great regard" Jul. 125, 18; ^^ju{ o^Kafi U-^ii "Jezebel perse- 
cuted Elijah" Aphr. 123, 18; <*<5*X &©» »<5tf* l*» Jb^I* o^AXo "and 
he warned the whole of the female orders". Ov. 177, 7 ; *jQJd Pch^N *a(6 
^cul "and he likewise commanded the priests" Aphr. 112, 13 &c. Cf. 
farther )iivi;v» o&X o^ w©toJ)u> "they saw that deacon" Sim. 294, 4; 
^S, <$fv <po*X ,qj{ is*} "he took these" Jul. 72, 21 (a similar con- 
struction occurs often); <6otX ^qjJ A^ 9 ^ "^ (f.) devoured them" Aphr. 
62, 7; ^ ?'>•$> *N. %&* $ *■$-£?*? " and I rescue from death all 
three of you" Mart. I, 56, 13; ,qj{ *xi$l ^och^ «a{S "he also brought 
them out" Mart. I, 32 mid., as also JL2^» uJp&d ^o "and the Lord 
commanded me" Deut. 4, 14. 

(4) s*otojL»JI oiibJ? 6>&*jl atyyjKsv rip ywalica avrou r§ abs\(f>cp 
ccvroO Matt. 22, 25 P. (different in C. and S.) ; Jlftmo ^^ fify&S T ^ 
dpyvpia Matt. 27, 5 ; ot^a^, ©•k-'t"*' "I threw the dust of it (m.) away" 
Deut. 9, 21; w6k>^| ^{ «fi^oJi * "changed his hands" Gen. 48, 14; ^ 
Jbo^kd JB£t w^JL "when he uttered this word" Aphr. 420, 18; ©»feMp 
u^oi "closed my mouth" Ephr. Nis. p. 57 v. 73; iL&ia> ^i{ r»mi? 
v <ft\* ^ii "that he take all these parts" Ov. 71, 10; ~©*da{ ^{ JAm 
JL^)JL> "cast his face upon the earth" Jul. 131, 3; ^»ota&y ot^*| o^? 
l^Nfi "the dogs licked his blood" Aphr. 183, 16; o^fAia |idaot¥ <po£^a£ 
^l ^^"all pledges he had fulfilled in himself' Aphr. 459, 19; JL^ 
o^ ^^t^ J! "stubbornness they know not" Aphr. 177 ult. &c. The 
fourth method, however, is far less frequently used than the others, 
at least when the object follows the verb, though it is still common 
enough. 

The 3 rd and 4 th methods are combined in Jiaa^opo jJlA ^<J* ^f ,qj£ 
&Ss$ JLL^ ^qjI ^$jl ^QJo^ ^60^ . . . t-o "but when a godlike zeal . . . 
carried away these believing ones" Jul. 138, 1 : we have here at the same 
time another instance of the drawling accumulation of demonstratives 
and personal pronouns, which occurs not seldom, though it is avoided 
by some writers. 

B. In most* cases complete uncertainty prevails as to the selection 
or rejection of a mark to indicate the object when definite, as several of 
the foregoing examples already show; cf. farther: ?&ng\ 6to^Lu| "they 



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— 230 — § 288. 

have profaned the sabbath" Aphr. 242, 16, 18, by the side of (kaji o^jl 
"have put away the sabbath" ibid. 17 (twice); Sri Kkypovojunjaovai Trp yrjv 
Matt. 5, 5 J^JJJ opoUJb ^ty S., \±M omoUJi C, K« ^pUJi '©•* P. (like 
Is. 60, 21), cf. Aphr. 41,10; foaas'm rdv Xaov Luke 23, 5 j&^ o^-jj C. S., 
^ys, rng^g P. Still, it is usual to have some mark when the object 
designates a named Person; and cases like «a »^ u oqjul>( "shall I reckon 
Habib?" Anc. Doc. 87, 3 are comparatively rare. On the other hand, 
the object-mark is mostly omitted in the case of Common Nouns with 
reflex suffixes, e. g. ^©Wm^I t^W**° V °$ vitttovtoci rag %slpoig Matt. 
15, 2; ^6oiL|ipo ofi^a cuf>&VTsg toL Vktvcc Mark 1, 18; y£p+^ ^dojt 
apov tov KpdfiaTov aov Mark 2, 9 sq. ; ^oo****? a^klo ^potiflt^ o^o^a 
"they spread out their wings and raised their heads" Sim. 272, 1 ; ^jA 
^©♦oj^l "he stretched out his hands" Aphr. 18, 17 (and then JL&jo 
ua^kAVSi, "and conquered Amalek", with X, as being a proper name) &c, 
and thus, frequently o*-*aj "se ipsum" (compare iot^JJ ouufo o*a&ji Ju»o 
"and hated himself and loved God" Ov. 168, 10), although cases like 
frt^fr*^ i»*^®$ "f° r ^ e judged himself' Ov. 171, 24 do occur. 

C. Demonstratives and Interrogatives in the Objective case axe 
sometimes furnished with X, and sometimes not: ^tSfsft ^»£* <6KJLl» 
fikkirere ravra ttocvtoc Matt. 24, 2; ^V%p Jifood ^i "these command- 
ments we have received" Aphr. 484, 14; ?^[ lf©» . • • o)L» "saw (3 rd pi.) this 
sign" Sim. 273 inf.; * o$ "eurn, qui" Ov. 175, 26, but * o©X Aphr. 48, 2; 
^caji {$©♦ t-a "when he heard this" Jos. St. 55, 14; ^oJLl&j (jqj JS 4jS 
"these fishes they collect" Sim. 274, 1 ; } ^^JJ "eos, qui" Ov. 211, 2 and 
elsewhere; j ^*it ibid. 214, 7 and elsewhere. So too j flT^ "that which" 
Aphr. 126, 20, and even ^pi^fjf aLl j&fotV, uap?QjD s-o».ioY).m "set 
before me, brethren, whatever ye have vowed" Ov. 141, 8, but j )*£& 
(Object) Aphr. 145, 13, and thus usually. With ^ (<oo&*£, * ^i &c.) 
X preponderates, it is true, but on the other hand it may be wanting. 
It is peculiar that oul, ^-iiJ "r/V, rivig" and +Jj "one" are conceived of 
as determined. The first two forms when standing as Object, have .X 
throughout: o)u> JJ ouj) oilba, sllov Matt. 17, 8; teo^f! *2jj Jj*{ "he 
did not even know any one" Sim. 292, 1 ; and many like cases: ^*jjj Ov. 
189 ult; and with still stronger determination: oujj o^ ^ » vv> "they 



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§ 289. — 231 — 

awaken some one" Moes. I, 103, 28 ;(*) cf. ibid. 102, 12.— r fi^ ^aaj 
OKCcvbakfafl ha Matt. 18, 6; Luke 17, 2; opoJ^. v*i£ ^ r I^ (jL> ^ "when 
he saw one of his fellow-countrymen" Mart. I, 12, 21 ; comp. Spic. 13, 26 
and other passages (but Spic. 14, 25 ^»o* ^ +L> ^§^? ^» "whoever 
kills one of these"); (|juC^ yu&| "revived the one (f.)" Mart. II, 237 inf. 
(Jac. Sar.); +L Jp;paX • . • *£* "he sent a Marzban (Satrap)" Jos. St. 
17,10; 65,2 0^64,1^ Jl£;«io . . . ffr) ; JfuC^ (J^p f^4^ v o^ JJ? 
fyfio| "that many men take not one wife" Spic. 17, 23 (but 16, 12 J'^^ 
{^Jbo{ (|ju ^m 9 i (jbs^xap); %6o^uo +L , & \ )a^oj "raised every single one 
of them" Aphr. 165, 16; ©»?ojf <6ot±& +L +L ^<La^ "he endowed every 
single one of them" Ov. 166, 18. For p£oli 1%*!^ o)L> "they saw a 
black man" Sim. 333, 6 ab inf. (the Lond. Cod. has *ju ij^^N ojuu 
too* j^aoli). Thus <«^*\ "every one" John 2, 25 ; Ov. 179, 2 and 
frequently, ^jju! too is treated like auf : uJLo ^ ^^ "^ e nom i na ted no 
other" Ephr. "n, 554 F; cf. 555 B. So Jr^J "alios" overagainst ^jlijj 
Ov. 190, 1. 

(J^^xap (pi TroXkol), as an Object, also frequently takes ^,, e. g. 
(Ji^rci^, *K*jo "and let us enrich many" Aphr. 105, 10, cf. 124, 17; 
134, 12 &c; also with substantive: o^$x> h*n+& JJU^ff^o "and they 
slew many Persians" Jos. St. 60, 13; still we find also ^potitt o^V^ 
(J^^£D "they destroyed many of them" Aphr. 242, 14. 

§ 289. The X of the Object may occur by the side of another X v, of the 
[a true prep.]: Jl ihsys , o^^ (o£8s *£jl dTriareiXsv 6 &eog tov viov ccutou JJSjJride 
slg rdv kogjum John^, 17; J&^\ ^olx Jjoj <*$S£ "the fish brought £ another 
Jonah safe to dry land" Aphr. 66, 18; JLAUf tfLJI JLaX|l 6<^ t^igao? 
"and bring the ship to the place of quietness" Aphr. 458, 6; ^oj^ *^*>{ 
^frfri i| uiriN, \s>^^\ "led away the children of Israel captive to 
Babylon" Aphr. 36, 2; tk*jovi\y\ J^d-uQDjo^X ^>a **» vpooiJ JJ "they 
shall not admit heretics to baptism" Ov. 220, 19 ; (j^k^JLjf Ifo^ &**$ 
JfiuVjJ &\ Itpa+^o "that he bring even the Arians into subjection to the 



O Gf. *£l ? «i^P "one's knowledge" Ephr. (Lamy) I, 91, 9; *lj) o^ o*SJb ; 
"what is dear to one" Jul. 221, 6 (and thus frequently «ij) *£») where the determi- 
nation by means of the personal suffix is clear. 



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— 232 — § 290. 

truth of the exalted Trinity" Ov. 193, 13 &c. We have even as many 
as three Xs, and these, besides, depending upon an Inf. with X, in 
t£o* {iMJ fyoiyvgS ^ rurnpNi f^?^ V " we slul11 not be asliame( i 
to take this woman under our instruction" Ov. 102, 15; cf. t^ ojLOt-9 
?{^SS Jl^i;^\o ^oJLi^ "(fyop/accTs ly jjjoi rdv Bccpvdficcv koI rdv 2aS- 
\ov elg to gp/ov" Acts 13, 2 ; and >d^* ^ yiVSV^ vpo^ o^^{ \A 
^qj{ ^TvyiS, "but they hired them Balaam, the son of Beor, to curse 
them" Aphr. 213, 7. In oo©» ^& o^ ^ojlofoo gviS, JL{o "and were 
wont to call on him for help in their loneliness" Mart. I, 122, 9, o£^» is 
indispensable on account of the participle; while in o^qi v 6o*^.? 
JLxoJbo? ojka^nak\ "that he may bring them to the service of Christ" 
Ov. 175, 19, in spite of the second X, vpofrX occurs in an unusual 
fashion in room of ^ojI. But of course, alongside of another ^,, the X. 
of the Object is often wanting, e. g. Jft^g. o£ J%a-^ o£* o^ «da**o 
"and that man gave him that staff" Sim. 272 inf. &c. 
Double § 290. Examples of double transitive construction: wO»o.>Xjl}j? 

construe- J^ *^S> oi^a 8v cclTyaei 6 vldg avToO dprov Matt. 7, 9; Jimao wo^qJJLqd(o 
tion * Koi $6re) ccvtu imotrifAaTa Luke 15, 22; ot^jjp JULwJ "he overlaid it 

with brass" ZDMG XXIX, 109 v. 27 (but v. 26 with prep, pfco JboJLax^ 
oto^fcv "overlaid his god with silver") ; Jjl*> o^J^at "I asked him of the 
words" Aphr. 395, 2 ; f^fA** o^>o| "he showed him the future" Sim. 
371 inf.] J&jud IjjXof ojS^mi| "laid severe afflictions upon him" Sim. 
337, 9; j pp2> ^oj{ woL "he showed them, what" Aphr. 160, 18; J£m*> 
1\6j$\ ^w "makes physicians hateful to us" Ephr. Ill, 658 F; orpfri\» 
s+iLL "show me his Lord" Ov. 296, 2 ; $*£ <*JX v*jo.6,Wo "and they 
stripped me of the splendid apparel" Apost. Apocr. 274, 16 (Gnostic 
Hymn); ^po*X 6»Uo(o ^i?id~ ^oj} Hf^i "caused them to cross the Jordan, 
and gave it (the land) to them for a heritage" Aphr. 357, 8; ^Ajt-X J^*po 
tuA*i "and it (faith) gave water to drink to those who were athirst" 
Aphr. 22, 6; ^»{vi ^^ ^{ ty°l " ne caused the children of Israel to 
inherit the land" Aphr. 20, 4 &c. In several of these examples it is 
only from the context that one can judge which is the first, and which 
the second Object; ft&flpl ^ £°^? might, for instance, mean also 
"makes us hateful to the physicians"; and v*j&-x/orQn\ might even 



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§§ 291. 292. — 233 — 

more readily suggest the conception "show me to his Lord". Moreover, 
keeping certain verbs out of view, we do not often, upon the whole, meet 
with such double transitive constructions, especially with two substantives. 
The theoretically possible employment of the Aphel as Causative of a 
transitive verb, which already has an object, is applied only within a 
limited range. It is doubtful whether both the Objects in a double 
transitive construction can receive ^,. 

§ 291. Apart from the participles treated of in § 280 ( t JL^X o^Jf v***i™ 
"they wear his armour" Aphr/ 100, 17; fcsj| «a*^* JLu^aJL "thou art j ec t. 
clothed with glory" Aphr. 494, 12 &c.) the transitive construction of the 
Passive of a Double Transitive is very rare, and indeed wholly confined 
to certain verbs. Examples: JUxcp ^o&aAsj "they shall cover themselves 
with sackcloth" Aphr. 49 ult] yN a,».^ K^di{ "thou didst receive retri- 
bution for thy wickedness" 2 Sam. 16, 8, and, differently, JBJLo JLf oj^sU 
"they received righteous judgment as a retribution" Aphr. 49, 3 (*) (but 
line 6 JiJLo )bu*»); v-^ot( J&i U,^* "he was filled with great wrath" 
Mart. I, 18, 5; &©> (bo JLu "he was full of cunning" Aphr. 61, 11 (and 
so, frequently, with v^ot( and jjbo, but they are also often construed 
with o). Cases like Ou^Ltob UU^f f^^ JA*t^ J**?* "^ e incurs 
[is condemned in] the severe punishment of retaliation" Spic. 14, 26 we 
have already noticed in § 243. (*) 

§ 292. It must be kept in view here generally, that apart from the character 
personal pronoun, Syriac has no clear mark or form for the Objective, d e8lgI1 ation 
nor even a clear notion of it, so that these Object-relations are at bottom ta 8yriac - 
treated always as mere adverbial adjuncts to the verb, whether with or 
without the preposition X. This prep, as an objective sign, is of course 
distinguished from its other applications, by this circumstance amongst 
others, that it is bound to disappear, with transformation into the Passive. 
That the syntactical relation in joo^ajl <a*a&fu ^$ud is a different one 



( x ) *.£» "to pay", "to requite" is doubly transitive, cf. Gen. 50, 15; 2 Sam. 
16, 8, 12 &c. 

(*) The subtle distinctions, which Arabic Grammar makes between these case? 
and the pfoner Object-relation, have no significance for Syriac. 



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— 234 — § 293. 

from that in )K>HpJV ^Q^a&f, pp[ might not indeed be demonstrated by 
means of translation into other tongues, but would be so by means of 
transposition into the Passive of "Simeon killed Abraham", "Simeon 
said to Abraham" : the former would then read '»{ ^> 'a, > ^jdU, the 
latter '»{ ^o 'a\, PftU* But * n the case °f m ^ny verbs undoubtedly 
transitive, the passive construction is quite unusual; and with several 
verbs there is a measure of uncertainty in distinguishing X, as an ob- 
jective sign, from X, as a dative preposition. 

INFINITIVE WITH OBJECT. 

verb-con- § 293. The Infinitive, just like the finite verb, may have an object 

subordinated to it. Thus e. g. ufS,flnfr\ "to kill me" Acts 26, 21, 
and frequently; otlo6oh*i\ "to put him to death" Anc. Doc. 89, 14; 
ujLoa&juclX "to serve me" Ezek. 44, 13 &c. (cf. the forms with wo»o^, 
6t* § 191); besides cases like ^ojI oflN^N "to teach them" Ex. 24, 12; 
^ojI \\y^i\ "to hear them" Ps. 34, 15 &c. 

With other nouns, nearly all the cases noted in § 288 may be 
illustrated also by the Infinitive. It is rather a favourite practice to 
place the Object before the Inf. with X. 

(a) Without being determined: JUUS nviftviS "iyeipcu rkwa." 
Matt. 3, 9; $rmvi\ l^£^» " to set m order many things" Jos. St. 
81, 11 &c. 

(b) Determined: (1) M^a\ o»fc^ o(±& > W^aX "to take the 
entire treasure of the king" Aphr. 199, 10; o f fop \ 'Jhp\"» oo* &>|aa 
"thou canst make good the dreams" Joseph 31, 11 [Ov. 284, 16]; 

i«"*^ V $** ~^ ^^ ffr^M "^ ^ ave ^ een or( kred *° have this done" 
Jos. St. 3, 21 ; 6^L&^nn^\o .9fS JviS 1+Sul Jbp? J^6o< "to learn and 
understand the investigation of words is an admirable thing" Aphr. 
446, 15.— (2) <>«9iiN ^gdaap^. "to kill myself' Ps. 40, 14; Kv^v 
~t^^ "to tend his people [as a flock]" Aphr. 193, 6; ot&ynV h^[ ua^lo 
VV *?*T V vfc*** "thou canst understand the saying of our Lord" Aphr. 
71, 6; (= ^juJbaX) ^fivi\ M^^m)j oo©» ^a| "they wanted to keep fast 
hold of the Astabedh" ["general"] Jo's. St. 89, 8.— (3) Jb^JI o^*^ 



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§§ 294. 295. — 235 — 

"to curse the earth" Gen. 8, 21 ; JLii^jA. ot^oj^ftvN "to despoil the 
man" Aphr. 130, 3; uuAJub* p& hJb* JA*|fO J&* o£» ^^ JllaJ^ 

^U^T^ "nam voluntatem Ulam magnam et sanctam non est quod 
possit retinere" Spic. 20, 24. — (4) If A l&^& 6»yfi«vi\ "to understand 
this word" Aphr. 70, 4. 

§ 294. Together with these, there are cases in which the object Noun-con- 

struction. 

clearly comes into genitive relation with the Inf. This can happen with 
personal pronouns only. Very rarely does it occur with the 1 st sing.: 
wiofftfoV "to make me clean" Matt. 8, 2 P.; Luke 5, 12 P.; in the 
former of which places C, and in the latter S., read wjlo»r^vi\. It is 
found rather more frequently with the 3 rd pi. : ^ootlojjSfi^X "to burn 
them up" Ov. 126, 2 (instead of v cu? o££euiX); ^potlnviSii^X "to de- 
liver them up" Mart. I, 153, 15; ^in^foviS "to render them (f.) in- 
effectual" John van Telia (Kleyn)46, 12; ^i^\>p\ "to make them (f.)" 
Aphr. 319, 5; ^<V$vA "to preserve them (f.)" ibid, line 6. 

INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE. 

§ 295. The [indeterminate] general object, — the Inf. Abs. — is not Placed 
of uncommon occurrence with Transitive and Intransitive, Active and verb. 
Passive verbs. A definite object may also stand alongside of it. This 
Inf. serves to give more emphasis to the verb, by contrasting the action 
with some other one, or by giving expression to its intensity. Of course 
this emphasis has frequently become very trifling. Examples: J& Ji^-&? 
"that he builds up" Aphr. 201, 5 (in antithesis to 'throwing down'); 
^Ji, o^jLuo i&o* JJ ^{ Jt^A* oo) Q^tA* W^ Jtekip "for teachers 
are asked questions; they do not ask them" Spic. 1, 17; oiA^cipo joju^a 
^*A jjjovov niarsvs Luke 8, 50 C. (= Aphr. 21, 1; P. S. without Inf.); 
vO-djLj JL&>& ^ i»( "even when they are victorious" Jos. St. 15, 18; lyxb 
J ?^ iS Av**$ o©» "the prophet was very sorry" Aphr. 453, 11; $l^m& JJ{ 
ooo* ^itap "but they destroyed (what he had built)" Aphr. 10, 20; 
wQ),9»bum «9i fi my "overthrow it" Aphr. 201, 6; ^fj ($pb ^?o "and 
while they are continually bestirring themselves" Aphr. 497, 7; Jj| (jLu»o 
oujj t&5) \U> "but saw no man" Sim. 304 mid.; &*%» JiAX J^juA 



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— 236 — § 296^—298. 

"why hast thou then [so greatly] sinned ?" Aphr. 270, 5; *J»Jbo JL&Xf 
ojX lyif "was she then troublesome to him?" Joseph 293, 2. With the 
Part, pass.: 'VgtO^&a? "killed is he" Gen. 44, 28; «ama* u&l *•*&*> 
"torn in pieces is Joseph" Gen. 37, 33; (io* */fl<X **$ <*$^£ "was it 
(m.) then sharpened?" Mart. 1, 126 mid.; pbkoo *oj o£*» lioi Jijuk {jLu& JU 
ovx iopd/cei Trori rrjv Tvpov Sachau, Ined. 2, 14 (§ 279) &c. Thus also 
with verbal Adjectives (§ 118) like *n»{\ «o^ab{ "that he would have 
fled" Anc. Doc. 91, 3; v ok*o©» ^a.k; *otkA&? "that you would alto- 
gether keep silence !" Job 13, 5. Similarly ^lZ ^^ *¥°? "that we keep 
good watch" Ephr. II, 401 B ; ot~£-a JJ otjfA&o "and is not sick" Synodes 
(Chabot) 28, 17, 22. 
PlaC ed § 296. Less frequently the Inf. Abs. stands after the verb, in which 

verb. the case the emphasis is even stronger: tjL^p Jis? J&p g>AV ^aj{ tt*> Jjfo 
"and he did not see this water at all" Sim. 313, 12; ixffaf V*?l\l *^~? 
"it is for thee to speak" Sim. 315 ad inf.; jxAio ^ j&qjd "arise!" 
Sim. 271, 6 (and such construction is frequently found in Sim.) ; vju^b 
wfeft* "flew [swiftly]" Dan. 9, 21 (= Aphr. 370, 19); (cot ^d ? Kj ^ 
ofLoA^tJd o;-&?&op jojuC^a "then, as often as he merely thought on his 
sanctity" Ov.189, 14; al&*£po ^ ^£ "only believe" Spic. 2, 13; 
f£&ap jdjuCSa Jlfrvy ;dAd "only give command, O king!" Joseph 
117, 11. 
without § 297. In very rare cases with the Inf. abs. the finite verb is left 

Finite verb. Qut a i toge ther : )a^p& ^9>ao i-»J& ^»>a ^flDo^afl^o "and sometimes 
they put Paul in bonds, and at other times they stoned him" Aphr. 
300, 20. 
Abstract, § 298. The Inf. Abs. cannot take either attribute, or numeral, or 

foraTtaWng attributive relative-clause nor can it stand in the plural or- genitive, 
Gelwai ° f or g° vern a genitive. If the general object requires a measure of deter- 
object. mination of that kind, ( l ) then an Abstract, of another form, answering to 
the verb, must be chosen. This however is sometimes done even where 



( 1 ) Syriac is commonly satisfied with a simple adverb of quality, e. g. \H JJ 
K*j!flu^j v**3 "he did not find fault with them severely" Aphr. 261, 19, where also 
I&aa^j IIJL& vO*a (JLi Jj might have been used. 



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§298. — 237 — 

the Inf. Abs. might stand. Examples: J&i JLLoodoi *f0^jl Ka^oilf 
"Antioch experienced a violent earthquake" Land HE, 244, 18; k*ab 
JLa;J&»o )Ju2> (Lo*> "he died an evil and painful death" Sim. 333, 3 
(a construction like this is common with &*ao); U^l 6*»*oi> ^wi ^f»oi 
"then was it destroyed for the last time" Aphr. 399, 6; j^ii> l&*£& 
{oo* o^Jl{ "he had been well brought up" Ephr. I, 110 E; (k£Vo£ (o» 
wl^tr? "1°> I ^ ave blessed thee with a manifold blessing Joseph 297, 9; 
jif ^^gj9 ^^p ^[mv i»*^ ta "for lo, I have twenty times been slain" 
Mart. I, 253 ad inf.] (^m*. o{ )J^xL of Jjoi ^jdKs ?aju£k» Jl£* ^ <£** 
"for not once only shall he be put to death, or five times, or ten times" 
Mart. I, 246, 9; ft <$>& fy f^oJL^IdJLpj JL£^ v o*j^J ? "that they cir- 
cumcise the heart of stone with the circumcision which is not [made] 
with hands" Ov. 125, 26; Jl£$ ^n^\ "to put to death" Spic. 17, 20 
(where the Abstract is employed to keep two infinitives from coming 
together). An Abstract occurs alongside of the Inf. Abs. in LJbo K&ao 
JULa llo^o ftoj "thou art suffering a sad death" Simeon of Beth Arsham 
(Guidi) 9, 10 = Knos, Chrest. 39. An abstract noun of allied meaning, 
but from a different root, appears in an exceptional way in ^nftj Jbo 
(&jLfu (fo» JUu{ v*jl& "when men lie down in this sleep" Aphr. 170, 12; 
and (fcdLfu oa&i "they fell asleep" Joseph 105, 11. 

Such an Abstract noun may also be represented, where the 
connection is clear, by the relative j referring thereto, or by a personal 
suffix: tjL£f (Kfc*Jftj }^JL£ "the feeble reprimand which he employed" Aphr. 
262, 5 ; ^ooK^r* |ii! ^*£*£? ty°^fl JM*9 "*he wicked murders in which 
men destroy their brethren" Ov. 132, 14; uJ&to{£? (l^oVo^ "the blessings 
with which thou hast blessed me" Joseph 201 ult— 202, 1 [= Ov. 299, 
9—10]; o*|; J&oJ "the fast which they kept" Aphr. 49, 12, and fre- 
quently; and so ^otoaoj "they kept it (the fast)" Aphr. 44, 5. Cf. 
farther — where the words are from different roots — *Jz o2§ju? (io^ajop 
"the offence, which they committed against thee" Sim. 295, 2. 



(*) A later recension for liturgical purposes substitutes a more convenient 
construction, with the preposition: <-6toA^ju JUL^a jJua oX Of fie. Sanctor. Maron, 
Hyemal. (Romae 1656) p. 3666 (cf. Atstiv. 746 ult). 



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and En- 
clitic 
Forms, 



— 238 — § 299. 

In ^»*{ ^&*i{ °j^M "they received [were beaten with] forty 
each" Mart. I, 197 mid., the word "stripes" is left out, being under- 
stood. The instrument appears directly for the blow in (Jbo wo^JdjuaoJo 
^iflSji "and they give him a hundred strokes" [lit strike him (with) a 
hundred rods] Bedjan, Mart. II, 579, 8; Ja&fip ;rp\ Kinot wo^utoo "he gave 
him eighteen strokes with the sword" Bedjan, Mart. IV, 179, 18; w5^uu» 
JLaucp +£ "gave him one stroke with the sword" Guria et Shamona 24, 8, 11. 

D. toot. 

separate § 299. The encUtic form (&©t (toot with the West-Syrians, {oon with 

the East-Syrians) — contrasted with (iot having ot sounded (loot with the 
West-Syrians, foot with the East-Syrians) (*) — has the signification of 
"was" after a predicative Part., Adj., or Subst.: (4©» u£kflp "ascended" 
Gen. 2, 6; Awoot JLjji "I rejoiced (f.)" Prov. 8, 30; {&o» p*£*» "was 
cunning" Gen. 3, 1; Jba^o (oCfcvj liot l^oo£ oot "he was a priest of the 
most high God" Gen. 14, 18 &c. So too ^LL (oot {jbb is* "he was an 
hundred years old" Gen. 21, 5 &c. It occurs farther after &*(, and, by 
way of adding emphasis, after the finite verb (§§ 263; 268) : (&©t w5»ols*J; 
&o* ft^; wO)o^ ooot €L+y>\ "had afflicted him" Job 42, 11; lio» (oot 
"fuerat" frequently, &c. Thus also (£©* fj with the meaning "not", having 
nothing of the force of a verb. 

(4o», when the ot is pronounced, remains always before its own pre- 
dicate: *a*|j (&ot oojj > ^*> "for he was righteous" Job 32, 1; lAo* J^*to 
otdao otoL "and the earth was waste and empty" Gen. 1, 2; lio* ^JL£o 
Jb^ijb* <*<Ny "and Cain was a tiller of the ground" Gen. 4, 2 ; t&jopo^o 
^fjap^ (4ot "and Joseph was in Egypt" Ex. 1, 5; <.vj^ t&oi u£>{$ totSSo 
"and the God of my father was with me" Gen. 31, 5 &c. So with l&o* JjJ 
"is not" (verbal); JL?po pfo j-|t &ot Jjf ^=^? ^$& ij yap Kapha cov ovk 
lanv evQsia ivcimiov tov QeoQ Acts 8, 21 ; *£&$? °^i? x> | k*9°* Jj °^ ^ 0&off 
roS Kaiaapog John 19, 12. — The ot is also pronounced when some other 
word comes in between the proper predicate and ?Aot: (£©• ;*^ 



(*) For the determination of this distinction, which is not set forth in the old 
MSS. we are entirely dependent upon Biblical tradition. 



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§ 300. — 239 — 

J^ooJl {jjluv yap hoTiv rj ktayyskla Acts 2, 39 ; (io* J££> o^> & avr$ tyoij 
7]V John 1, 4. 

l&o* seems also to stand after adverbs and adverbial qualifications, 
when these constitute the real predicate, e. g. k*ooi ^givis.? "8ri jJtsff 
Cjuujqv JjiJ.yp" John 16, 4; foot jfr\y» "& ra> /cdff/jw ?yv" John 1, 10; oSs 
^ok*goi jfrv> ^ "d & ro£ kocjjlov tits" John 15, 19 (followed by Jj| Jj|{ 
JNhiN^ ^> ^pJ&^ooi with h, because it precedes the predicate) &c: — but, 
throughout, (o©» with h has the meaning "became, happened" (iy&vsro) : 
{oot 6tf»J& JflS.fr "6 Koajuog h* aCrov iy&vero" John 1, 10 ((ooi ©»;*J& 
would mean "was in his hand") ; ^009 JJ (LqIj) ^> ^ju> "ij/isig sk Tropm'ag 
ov yeyswyifxeda" John 8, 41 ; ~oS» JULi^, Ki^^ ^»°f ravra kv Byjdavia iy£- 
vsro John 1, 28; (otSS? (A^& 14©» ^ootL&X? npog odg 6 Xoyog roO QsoO £y£- 
vsto John 10, 35; (001 Jl^a^o "and there was darkness" Gen. 15, 17 &c. 

After adverbs and adverbial expressions, a diverse understanding of 
the loot is often possible, and accordingly variations occasionally occur 
in such cases, either among analogous forms in the same tradition, or 
among different traditions. 

§ 300. The Impf. (oop is commonly placed before the Participle, »orms of 

* fo*i used 

to convey the sense of the Impf., — either independently or dependently for Em- 
(after j). This collocation is employed particularly to express continued, pha81s and 
or repeated actions, or actions determined by ordinance: ov§^jl(o 
JLj &l tAJk, loop? Kai i^ovaiav tibo/cev avrcp Kpiaiv noieiv John 5, 27; 
foop V^L o^ M pf* Jbfc^w ^ *aai ? IH^oo JUL* oJ JL^of <*** 
jooJL "a Visitor or Presbyter or Deacon, who quits the world, shall 
leave whatever he has to the church" Ov. 219, 24; JLjooV:^^ ^^jjgjd 
^|jUL ^ooop Jjjj "for he commanded the Jews that they should not cir- 
cumcise themselves" Aphr. 95, 14; ^poott ^okJt &l$ v nn\ Jio Jbka 
^^iv> "how much the rather it befits you that you wash" John 13, 14 S., 
and essentially the same in Aphr. 227, 9 dtydXere vitttsiv (where P. has 

v?^* 1 *?); *?<*t^f^ ^^ rr 6 °^ V i^O 1 W« " that on no account 
should women enter into their convents" Ov. 210, 4 -= 212, 4; and many 
instances to the like effect in these Canons, though alternating with the 
simple Impf. More rarely without y. ;jaj» (oo»l JI "think not" Mart. 
I, 218, 1; (KA,o ^o( looqo . . . ^pjb ^ J sdv li sl'vy . . . kGiy li nod 



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— 240 — §§ 301. 302. 

Trivfl Matt. 24, 48 — 49; and quite independently ^i **% ^0644 t^'i ' 
literally following the text tcovrai dXy&ovaai Matt. 24, 41. With the 
subject-pronoun attached to the participle, thus ^i»Xfr i?o»j? ^&{ 
yl& ^L^^atopo "if only we may enter and be blessed by thee" Sim. 
308, 1; Ik&oap t?o^ (©oil "thou shalt remember the oath" ibid. 323, 2. 
So too with Part. Pass. : ;Vs. ^afitop \pooti ^ %^^{ {>/*&$ Si [#/>e<7#s] 
&/cf2aXkojui6voog g|« Luke 13, 28; Jboojp ^4^, \Cootj? "that they are con- 
tinually taken up with fasting" Ov. 177, 2; y±+m (ootj "stand" Spic. 
17, 17; JbjwJl ^s^ ^i»o ^$A*po ^ (00*4 "it shall be made and pre- 
pared and placed at the door" Sim. 377, 8. 

Bern. On (ooi with other verbal forms v. §§ 261; 263; 268; 277; 
278 B.; 279 B.; cf. farther §§ 260; 324 E.; 338 C. On (001 with the Inf. 
v. § 286, and with adverbs § 308. 

E. hU. 

preliminary § 301. &J and its negative KJ JJ or k^ (§ 199) are, in their syn- 

tions™ tax, essentially alike. In the matter of Tense, &+{ (as Noun) resembles 
the Part. ; when it is strengthened by an enclitic (ooj, the resulting com- 
bination then answers to that of the Part, with (oot; thus (oot b*J is 
nearly equal to "erat". This (ooi does not necessarily require to be in- 
flected according to gender and number, seeing that &J is properly a 
masculine substantive in the sg. 
with 8 ep- § 302. Sometimes &J^, and more rarely &J, is found with the in- 

sonai Pro- dependent personal pronoun following : JB£ fcs^o "and I am no longer 
noun8 - in being" Job 7, 21 ; ^oj} *^ "they are not there", "they are not in 
being" Jer. 10, 20; Ephr. II, 554 C; HI, 419 A.; Ephr. Ms. p. 62 v. 88; 
Jul. 177, 15; varied by ^j{ KX Jjl ov/c slai Matt. 2, 18 C. (P. S. ^©^Vi JJ)5 
^l(J v qj{ h<J^* "non sunt qui veniant" Ephr. Ill, 418 E; ^ojI k-^? ^*? 
"those who are not in being" (set overagainst ^oot*t^*lf <^^) Aphr. 
274, 6; ,qj{ fcJ^ ?|o^mS ^Jo "and if for the moon they do not exist" 
Ov. 70, 3 (for which Lloj^ ,6©*J^); ^cu{ ^ Utf? J}*** "in the 
trouble of man they are not [involved]" Ps. 73, 5. b*J is a mere copula 
in the original passage JLL^qdj-d sohJl Jbw|j "who are you Christians" 
Land III, 258, 17 (so in s-©i<L^£l> ^qjI &»( "they are his agents" Land 



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§ 303. — 241 — 

III, 53, 26; and v oj{ KJ, ^ JU Land III, 91, 17; 140, 17; 141, 12; 
142, 1 ; but all these passages are translations from the Greek ; and in the 
very same way we have y*i*p Ji{ &*£w "I am nothing" Land III, 281, 13; 
JS[ isjf J£J "where I am" ibid. 285, 7). 

§ 303. Far more common is the combination of K>[ with possessive with suf 
suffixes for the l 8t and 2 nd persons ; while for the 3 rd person K>{ is used alo e n 8 e ' an 
either alone, or with the possessive suffix. The usage here, in some mean- 
ings, is made to follow strict rules; in others it varies. 

&J in the sense of "exists", "is extant or at hand" appears most 
frequently by far without any suffix: &*}f (^^ \o^a "in every church 
that there is" Ov. 217, 4; J&p (var. loot) ooot fc^o "and there was no 
water there" Ex. 17, 1; JijJLp k-CS* v [ "if there are no righteous persons" 
Aphr. 458, 9, j &J "est, qui 11 , "sunt, qui" frequently ; JLaJ b*J "est, ubi" 
frequently; ^ JbJ ?U^» M "it is long, till" Aphr. 33, 2 &c. But it 
occurs with the suffix also : ~o»o^J cnmoov "its sting still exists" Aphr. 
135, 2; {o©» s-o»oI^*f p£& ltf> "he created what was not in being" Ephr. 
Nis. p. 55 v. 144; v-otoJ^J Jjj o+yoio JLSl^uu of "or fate has no existence 
at all" Spic. 9, 9 ; ;<ih^v toot 6t*Vi ¥ *•$ ~^ " slie > who did not even 
exist at all before" Ov. 203, 16; pf? w©*oI^* +% "when Adam did not 
yet exist" Aphr. 158, 11; ;^^~oioJ^*(f ^ ^dd "for every one who 
exists" Spic. 4, 15 &c. 

The bare form predominates also with X in the signification" be- 
longs to", "is the property of: y^ kJ ^o "when thou hast something" 
Prov. 3, 28; ©^ bJi} ^so > ^AX iravri t$ s%ovti ("unto every one which 
hath") Luke 19, 26; )lrrft\ o^k* <rf^ k^jo +*!> ©^ K*(§ "who- 
ever has anything denies it, and whoever has nothing, struggles to get 
possession of something" Spic. 47, 2. In none of these three examples 
is there any definite subject. Compare ©^ &*{ JLj )a^ "he has to do 
with the judge" Isaac II, 42, 104. Farther, ouui*& ^0*0 ©^ hJlj Jjf 
o»N wjt^p ^^|° ®C^ ^^? Jj° °^ "he, who has it (JLLlo the possession) 
and loses it, does not find it again, and he, who has it not and runs after 
it, does not overtake it" Aphr. 356, 2 ; ^o^ 0061 %*>{ J&ot;} J^f£ "they 
had golden ear-rings" Judges 8, 24; )ivi »opo ©^ oooi h<A ^f !ot£i "but 
he had believing parents" Sim. 268; lo&i hJ£±, ot^aoJL^, JLocpo "and his 

16 



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— 242 — § 303 

beauty was unbounded" Sim. 272, 13; ?^a oiX loot %U$ "who had a 
daughter" Sim. 273, 12; J&*£p K.] JbJ-a ^1X "for all distresses 
there are remedies" Aphr. 135, 3 &c. 

Very rarely occur cases like ^y o i fta (lo$jL> ^ 6^J^*l \l{ "but we 
have hberty in ourselves" Spic. 13, 4. 

With other prepositions or adverbs likewise, the bare form K>[ 
appears freely, although k+l with suffixes often occurs too, especially 
when it comes after the prepositional phrase. In such combinations the 
signification is indeed gradually passing into that of the pure copula : 
{1^9 (oo* w©>oJ^J KJt^a h dpxfj rp 6 Xoyog John 1,1; W^ ill ^&» 
JLamio fcjj-J^ h<*l )a^ ^iao "for in every land and among every 
people there are rich and poor" Spic. 18, 4; J^f*i ©^ JM? "in whom 
is knowledge" Spic. 3, 11 ; J&£ ^*o£ yiAviV JULaa JL£ b*{ \} "there 
is no strength in the wicked man to stand against the good" Aphr. 
182, 4; lio&a v 6opa^ k-^* "Judas is not with them" Aphr. 65, 2; \\*\ 
woi ^>\ JU| J& "all that is upon me" Spic. 3, 21 ; k-^, l\%*% ^po 
oiL&X "and with whom is no truth" Aphr. 182, 13; £1 kJ "are there" 
Spic. 14, 1 &c— ~ojo&J JLo^aa? l6*p$ JU» "the filth of sin which is 
in the villages" Ov. 116, 7 (parallel to (l^Ltiof JLpdia hUf {l^guu 
"the sin which is in the streets of the towns" line 6); ... ^aol^ 1 ) ^i 
t*£ ^oom^J "all faults . . . are in me" Ov. 141, 4; wo»oJk*i <oq+a (o^Ss 
{009 "God was in them" Aphr. 70, 6; (L-^4* v 6o*J&Jf ^J JLu{ "the 
brethren who are in the convents" Ov. 213, 11 (alongside of k*(f JL*^; 
^ootiojjijb* "the monks who are in their districts" Ov. 216 ulL); wc* 
Jba* o4^ 6*JM? "she, who is in the midst of the sea" Apost. Apocr. 
274 paen. (Gnostic Hymn) ; {kaaAju 6*->KJ **^ C^jf **** ^^ "for 
upon the top of high places is Wisdom" Prov. 8, 2; ©*^^? t*^~i ^ 
0009 ^pow^j "from those who were with him" Ov. 162, 14; ^j(S^ o28S 
Loot 6fJ^J 09L&X "if it had been always with him" Aphr. 128, 3 ; o^^jtj 
^£»? woto^C^ "the solution of which is not with us" Ephr. HI, 687 C. &c. 

bs+l occurs constantly with the suffix, when it is merely the copula ; 
thus in cases like ^d^j^j o*a>;-u v ( Jjf£ Ifr o^kJ W " tnis is nothing else 



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§§ 304. 305. — 243 — 

save the sword of Gideon" Judges 7, 14; ^SjL ^ao ^ faa *» ^a t&fipo* 
(&ot woto^J "Joseph was fifty-six years old" Aphr. 465, 11 (in the 
parallel passages merely (009) ; o^cif\% ^ lj|^| JS^ J&a-£ ^? {£©• wojokj 
JLbliju "but this blessed Rabbula was from his childhood a heathen [had 
been brought up as a heathen]" Ov. 160, 11; ?nuV% JBi* ^ibt ^f ot^^ 
(6ot woto^l "his work there, however, was only this" Ov. 168, 15 ; 6fi^^ 
^a,$o( 6*->&J <^W "and her inward part, which is wasted, is Jerusalem" 
Aphr. 98, 9; jLu^Jbof wotojui ^oom^I J^^a uiao "and the sons of 
peace are the brethren of Christ" Aphr. 305, 5 &c. 

With suff. of the l 8t and 2 nd person: ^oa**J (|^?( J&]| ^> sohjl 
ijULsig §k toD TraTpdg rov faaf36kov lark John 8, 44 > ^h^l fc^a| v { "if thou 
art willing, so are we" Aphr. 493, 18; jftSy* ^+{ ^ "as long as we 
are still in the world" Ov. 195, 19; ~JsJ JLL^td^ %{ "I am a Christian" 
Moes. H, 73, 18; k*o©» wJ^Jf yj "as I was" ZDMG XXIX, 116 paen.-, 
<J^J JLffnftS "we are robbers" Sim. 365 mid. ; J^I> ^JsJ )i ^juuj} "we 
are no magicians" Mart. I, 182, 3; JJLf JUL£t *di **&->{? *+*{ "as thou art 
now also the head" Jul. 18, 3; ^ok-ooi ^oa*&J M^a>?o l^othgj IfJsj? 
"in what anxiety and fear you were" Jul. 21, 15. 

§ 304. Examples of the uninflected state of (£©1 with bJl : {&o» Aw| '••» **»' 
llpo{ 6£j* "she had an handmaid" Gen. 16, 1 (Ceriani L009 &*(); JLuj nine and 
^aoi ^jv>>? {Aof b*l jj ^f "but there were no brethren, who dwelt there" ™ 
Sim. 286 mid.; ot^. loot hjfi It^Ur^J {^AS} "other things which he had" 
Sim. 276, 7; {ooi 1U *+&{ <**Ho £+!> ^»Jlj (Loio ? {ooi kj (foj o^o . 
if*£k. "and in the midst of the fire was the form of four beasts, and 
every one had four faces" Moes. II, 98 v. 358; J&p (o©» k^ "there 
was no water" Aphr. 452, 13 (van ooot tsA) ; JLim^o )La'm&o J^dibo 
^2>i (oo* &*{? "the gleaners, the poor and the strangers, who were there" 
Sim. 276 inf. Often too in translations from the Greek (oo> ^oowJ^I, 
foot ^©^JM alongside of ooo* ^oo^K-f, ~o©» ^»tut. 

§ 305. That bJl answers, as regards syntax, to the Part, (of (o©»), KJ em- 
is shown also in constructions like <*jNs,^ ^ w ^~l V t 2 ^ "before I wa8 a p^rti- 
in existence, thou didst fashion me" Ephr. HI, 342 E; ftUf Pt 3 ^ *?* ^toi 
oC^ "he sold all that he had" Ov*165, 24; ~©)©kJ[ ^{o JLajf . . . <xa^ of loo,, 
"they learned where and how he was" Ov. 169, 23 ; ... jU^£ ^^[ t% 

16* 



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— 244 — §§ 306—308. 

k*oo» k*ju> "when I was a boy, ... I saw" Ov. 154, 10 (cf. § 275). Ac- 
cordingly the word has been combined, like a participle, even with the 
Impf. of (o©» (§ 300) : J&& ©£^ &J vpocnJ* o©^ l&ccKsv £>ccijv l% m John 
5, 26 C; JLJLJ . . . ^ w©»o&J tootj? ^ "in order that he may be an 
en sample for us" Ov. 159, 7 ; ~5»©ftyJ (ootj JJj "that he may not be" Ov. 
62, 22; lhs±*o ©*JbJ loo»l . . . J&J U$*fo£> ^? "that the discourse 
may be about a great change" Jos. St. 92, 4; ^n>V^o( (lp^ ^o^XA^f 
i^oJbs&o K*i (oop JLf/*fteo? "that in all the churches there may be a 
Gospel in separate parts [i. e. a book of the Gospel arranged in the 
original order], and that it be read" Ov. 220, 4; (ootj? ^* °®hj 
o*4&? w( . • . ^k->{ "gave to us that we should be, as it were, of 
him" Regulae Monasticae ed. Chabot (Accad. dei Lincei, Rend. 1898, 
41, 15), and thus, frequently, — particularly in translations from the 
Greek. Jacob of Edessa has the word with a purely future signification 
(Epist. 13 ed. Wright p. 11, 7): (oofjo ~©*o!^(o ft* ~5»oJ^(§ foSS 
jrfvyv woio^J "God, who was, and is, and shall be for ever" So even 
J&J JjoSto J£& ^d»\o (o©» h*J (ootj? "so that they even had life and 
great reasoning power" Moes. II, 104 v. 444. With the Part.: o©v p^» 
k*L fe^J V*T "cursed is the opinion which exists" Ephr. Ill, LIII 
ad inf. One translator ventures even upon y^*>{ ^oo» laQi Lagarde, 
Reliq. 21, 23, 24. 
JU with § 306. On &J with the Inf. v. § 286. So too o£*» h*[ JLAaj t >\y 

and'toLt *^fl? "which could feel without the soul" Moes. II, 92 v. 242 ; JLa^ JJJI& 
piete o^ji looty o£± &J ... "a chosen vessel shall he become [lit. is it to 

Clauses. . * * 

him that there be of him]" Sim. 278 ad inf., where Cod. Lond. has merely 

oM-a* loor, and thus frequently. 

V K*l § 307. When translators put X kJ for tyeiv (also oiX KJ for %%et 

"he is" [of circumstance or condition]), they sometimes furnish the object 

of g^e/v in the Syriac with X also : thus even ^nnN &J ^aj ^Aa JJ ^f v^ 

Ijjls oi ov itcwtots 1%sts Matt. 26, 11 (S. is different); John 12, 8. 

%Ji and § 308. Sometimes &*{, — and even (oot, — is combined with adverbs 

Adv rb^of °^ ( l ua ^ t y instead of adjectives: JbSv^td woiokJ kJ^Ju <J "if the 

Quality. word is true" Deut. 13, 14; and frequently in translations such as k-jtiL^ 

^oo^kJ "they are in an evil case" Euseb. Theoph. 2, 84 (towards the 



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§§ 308 b — 310. — 245 — 

end), &c. — of^. foot &+I& "it would be better for him" Ephr. in Zingerle's 
Chrest. 257, 8; oik-LJbo Loot k^JTft^m Jooj Jio "and his coming was not 
in vain" Aphr. 150, 15 ; \l\ &\ k»JKJLa ooot v qjok> "and it went badly 
with them in the end" Aphr. 293, 5; wO©» ^or^o ft^JTm^m "our 
chastenings were manifold" Jos. St. 4, 14. 

§ 308 b . A very rare construction and one pronounced by BA *- *~>l 
no. 650 to be old and rude, is 'X JM = simple K>1 : {toi&tsn*p\ 6t*As*(o hSl. 
JLa*& "and the writing is thus" Land III, 327, 24;'jflyyj M ^> vi 
IUq^j (fAX ©^ &J "whether this observance comes from the time 
of the Apostles" Jac. Ed. in Lagarde, Bel. Jur. Syr. 144, 4. Cf. BB 
p. 151, 4. 



II. THE SENTENCE. 

1. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. 
A. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE IN GENERAL. 

§ 309. The Nominal sentence, — that is, the sentence which has a Nominal 
Substantive, an Adjective, or an Adverbial expression as a predicate, — verbal 
is not very sharply distinguished in Syriac from the Verbal sentence. Sentence - 
The Participle, — becoming a pure Verbal form, but yet betraying its 
Nominal origin — , which is widely employed as a predicate, and UJ 
which in like manner comes near to the Verb, mark stages of transition 
from the Nominal sentence to the Verbal sentence; while on the other 
hand sentences with the Substantive verb loo* can scarcely be regarded 
as truly Verbal sentences. Farther the inner constructions severally of 
Nominal and Verbal sentences in Syriac do not greatly differ. 

§ 310. A Nominal predicate, when set beside a Subject — without copula 
a copula — -may form a sentence, just like a verb : (|otaojL ^> ucu,&$ J&oi» 
"love (is) far removed from vainglory" Aphr. 256, 14 (v. farther ex- 
amples, with Predicative Adjective § 204 A, and with Participle 
§ 269 sqq.); Ifoioj J&aL "love is light" Aphr. 257, 22; JLio£» *oa* Jj& 



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— 246 — § 311. 

JL$6o^ ^j noV } "this is the Apology against the Jews" Aphr. 331, 14; 
y&M, J&% "the Good Being is thy name" Aphr. 493, 10; J&ai> c*=> "in it 
is love" Aphr. 297, 7; VpJL?} JJ*{ l<*&*> Jjf t*V^? " and in this there is 
neither sin nor righteousness" Aphr. 308, 3; ^ yuio* ^> "there is in us 
of thy spirit" Aphr. 488, 11 &c. It is but rarely that a copula is wanting, 
in longer sentences, as in lk~\ol )Ji\t 6»£? ^£°i-? ^P^ ^^^ >dol Jf&© 
JUJLo J&^o I^aa J^j*->o "and farther this utterance, — of the which our 
Redeemer declared that upon it hang the Law and the Prophets, — is 
beautiful, good and excellent" Aphr. 30, 1 &c. But the omission, not 
merely of every copula, but even of the tense-marking (£09, is very 
common in short subordinate sentences, like oto^> Uf^l j-3 "while there 
are just persons within it" Aphr. 457, 16; ^potub JJ*£jlo JL£L&jl ^-? 
?N«%o ^ "while the vine was torn out and taken from them" Aphr. 463, 5 ; 
y**pf£ ^Sn^l o* t-3 "while our wickedness before thee was great" Aphr. 
488 ult. ; i^AAO c^ JLau^J (Jk»J \y» {ISN^mft wkjo "and brought 
one great hewn stone, which was well polished and beautiful" Sim. 271, 7 ; 
|&s^^ JL&jn& ^Xot t^- "while these poor people were still in the 
Mandra" Sim. 312 mid. &c. (cf. §§ 275; 305). Wherever the past is 
involved, t&o* (l£©», oooj) might also stand here. Thus in ^f ©^ t&o* &*>{ 
uJaaa* ot&*? JBjpu^ JLuj "but he had another brother, whose name was 
Shemshai" Sim. 268 ult, the Cod. Lond. has 'a. wpo toot opajtf. 
pronoun of § 311. Apart from sentences of the last kind [§ 310], the employ- 

£ers/as ment of a copula is far more usual. First of all, the 3 rd pers. pron. serves 
copula. as such, being really a reference indicating or recalling the subject. For 
jx+Vj \ofc**\ "God is righteous", there is often said oot ^Mji i£)Ss or 
&Ss oo* jLjJf. Thus ©A^ju oo» Ai "great is his sin" Aphr. 45, 10 (1. 8 
©to^uu v-s^» JJ, without oo»); ^*f ^ 009 ^&l* otfj "his weapon is 
weaker than ours" Aphr. 137, 21; cnV> o£±& ooi woioj}] "his whole 
heart is with him" Ov. 278, 26 ; li*i\o& oot u&t£ "older is the promise", 
and (&^& woi U&r$ "older is the word" Aphr. 27, more than once; 
j y^. oot JLuji^ ^J "if it is a disgrace to thee, that" Ov. 162, 8 ; ^k*f ^oa| 
oot p£t%»| 6 Tra-nyp ^Atew *Appccdjui ecu John 8, 39 ; ^oij <^ 'j^Tt 
wojofdiL^ "that his creators are many" Aphr. 51, 7; ^ojj ?*^n ^ «*t 
ImSo "these are the men and women" Sim. 271 ad inf. ; t-*<^\Q-i£ *S A Ny 



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§ 312. — 247 — 

JUijLoo Up*)) J^WJ "for the just and the upright are the salt of the earth" 
Aphr. 457, 5; ^>o» v <u( £ "who are these?" Sim. 271 mid.; ^ )& 
(fo» c*3 "what then is this?" Aphr. 13, 12; and frequently oi*p "who is?"; 
oi& "what is ?" ; oj£> "this is" &c. It occurs, though rarely, with the 
Part., as in J^jj "^^ JLjJLoo JL^fji <oj{ ^JxjJLm, ^>\ti~» "the just and 
the upright are always found on the earth" Aphr. 455, 11; 457, 2; 
}£4f*ip ^A ^i{ ^ftftrp "these chastenings are sufficient" Jos. 5, 16. 

§ 312. A. When the subject is a personal pronoun, it is sufficient Personal 

Pronoun 

to set it down once; and in fact it stands oftenest as an enclitic after the as subject, 
most important word in the predicate : J8 ^ji "I am innocent" Job 33, 9 ; 
t JU> yvi^ "we are thy people" Aphr. 488, 9; v-uulf ^^Pl otid^J "am 
I then my brother's keeper?" Gen. 4, 9; bJl ja.*aw <J "if thou art wise" 
Prov. 9, 12; (<i^f klf o*ia o{ . . . to? &&s o$ "that thou art either God, 
or the son of God" Addai 3 tilt. ; ^jL£? %^^[ ~©iaia "ye are the sons 
of Cain" Aphr. 331, 9; oo» Jj»\ "he is my brother" Gen. 20, 5; oot {fcaj 
(©iSsJ "that he is the Son of God" Ov. 163, 12; ~©» (%-uLj "she is precious" 
Prov. 3, 15; j££j ~o» JfcjJ "she is a tree of life" Prov. 3, 18; IpS^l* 
JLl*i»J v 6j{ "that they are the disciples of Christ" Ov. 177, 4 &c. For 
l 8t and 2 nd Pers. cf. the Participial forms, § 64. 

In the case of two Participles, the Subject pronoun does not need 
to be repeated, e. g. ^jLuo %oh^l ^vvij? ^J & ockovsts kolI fldarere 
Matt. 11, 4 P. (C. ^pJM ^vvia? ^^o ^pfcul ^juuf )&t»); M=V^J M *^! 
;^&L&ooo "thou art exceeding angry and wrathful" Jesussabran (Chabot) 
554, 11 ; ^£jfo ^p&sit ^Nn& ^ p£& wo& "from me you receive nothing, 
and depart" John. Eph. 399, 15. 

B. It is far less common for the pronoun of the 1 st and 2 nd person 
to stand alone at the commencement. A certain emphasis is usually 
conveyed in that arrangement: ?o^» *aa J5J t-5 "when I was still but a 
little boy" Apost. Apocr. 274, 9 (Gnostic Hymn); (JL^o y>\ fio( *$ 
iJt^juAcSbo "whilst thou art uplifted, vainglorious and proud" Aphr. 270, 8; 
similarly 11. 10, 11; ;^mw Jhmv> i-^^kjit "for thou art waiting and 
hoping" Aphr. 341, 6; ^ynft ^pkjfjf pf& & dfcovsre Luke 10, 24 P. S. 
(C. <oKi{ aj) immediately after <pfco( ^W>? pf» & vjusig /3X&rsrs; {£©» JJ 
^Wgv» %£&*{ *-^ °$ Yfy $M*rs fori oi XaXoOvrsg Matt, 10, 20 P. S. ; 



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— 248 — § 312. 

^po( %ob3l J) oi>x vjustg \6yers (a question) John 4, 35 P. S. (0. ,oKj{ 
^otol <*»{); ^^ ^pki? i-^JI vjusig ydp ovk efofyxsode Matt. 23, 14 C. 
S. (P. ^p^jj ^L^); 6£j* ^^ V %ob<ili ?ri fy vjueig ovk otbars John 4, 
32 C. (P. S. ^oki} ^ r |l sotuk ( r (); U±& J5? ll^ilo O^Uo "and I 
acquire knowledge and understanding" Prov. 8, 12 &c. So in S. farther, 
Matt. 13, 17; Luke 22, 29 and 70; Luke 10, 24. With the 3 rd pers. this 
is more frequent: (fo-A* ~oto "and she leaped" Sim. 273 inf. (Cod. Lond. 
adds loot) &c. 

C. The personal pronoun as Subject is very commonly placed at 
the beginning, and then repeated enclitically before or after the leading 
word in the predicate, so that this second form constitutes the copula: 
JLpo JBf J5{ "I am the Lord", occurring often; Jbo^oo JBf {^^ JKo 
"and I am dust and ashes" Gen. 18, 27; fH ^ouo{ $1 "I am as thou" 
Job 33, 6 ; JLUbo JBf %[ eyd sijui 6 Xpiarog Matt. 24, 5 ; <*i£ ^uu ^jul> 
jaonpl "we are the sons of Abraham" Aphr. 331, 5 (1. 15 v*jl& ^l ^jlo 
po^af) 5 HP^» ^ ^1 * WP° ***** Hr J* M *^ «^4^Lfip )a^ kj{ 
"surely thou, Sennacherib, art an axe in the hands of him who hews, 
and a saw in the hands of him who saws therewith" Aphr. 82, 2 (1. 4 
(idjuaoj fk*l ^Vo -^ " an( * a1 ^ a r0( ^ ^ or striking with") ; kji ^» hJl "av 
rig e?" John 1, 19; <o£( ^> fcjf o* fcjf jbo^. "^ <h) julsi^ocv si rou Trctrpdg 
7]/A&v" John 8, 53 &c. In particular this use is often found with the 
Part, as in ft t ^ J5f &c, So 0f Ji[ syci sijut "it is I" Matt. 14, 27, and 
elsewhere. So too when the pronoun of the 3 rd person stands for the 
subject, the same word is frequently subjoined as the copula, and in fact 
the two are often directly combined:* ItJ-^ ^<S»\6 ou) oioot "he is the 
chief of all created things" Job 40, 19; (ifco? (or wot) w6> wot "she is the 
woman" Gen. 24,44; JbkJbo oioojj on avrog sotiv 6 Xpiarog Matt. 16, 20 ; 
cf. John 4, 29. 

D. But the pronoun of the 3 rd person often appears too in the 
enclitic form as a copula with the 1 st and 2 nd persons as Subject: oo* Jj{ 
^p "I am thy son" Gen. 27, 18; w^a.x» oot t£jl "thou art my hope" 
Job 31, 24; «.>fSooi ~6> ~&J? "thou (f.) art my confidence" ibid. ; 
JLL^ao oot 8uj[ ov si 6 Xpiarog Matt. 16, 16 (cf. 26, 63) ; otv^v ^ojJ ^ 
(c*Sxf "we are the people of God" Aphr. 331, 4 and 15 (cf. supra C) ; 



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wanting. 



§§ 313. 314. — 249 — 

Jb*J{j I uNfr ^oj{ \?^i vjuelg sere to aXag ttj; yrjg Matt. 5, 13 ; <p&J{ 
(ipjj JLsJLp ^ojJ "ye are the stones of the field" Ov. 115, 12, and thus 
frequently ^oj{ ^pkjf Aphr. 286 sq. 

§ 313. The Copula may farther be expressed by b<J with suffix JL»l as 
(§ 303), while {&©» does not represent a proper copula, seeing that it is wkuj* 
always an actual Tense form. But in all these cases the language has ch01 r eg g ^ 
a wide choice among various modes of expression. Instead of the two the copula, 
forms cited in § 312 C for "we are the sons of Abraham", viz: — ^ju» 
toot^a{ v*iS ^ijl» and 'a{ 'a v qj( ^u>, the sentence might also have run 
thus: 'a{ 'a ^*>{ ^Lu or t -u> 'al 'a ^jju or merely 'a{ 'a t JU> or, — 
slightly emphasing the subject, — ^JUu 'al 'ia. 

§ 314. The omission of the subject, when it may be understood subject 
from the connection, takes place not only with Participles, which pass 
over to the category of verbs (§ 253), but in certain cases also 
with Adjectives Thus in particular, in short accessory clauses, e. g. : 
^oo^. ; > oq &? "who are in need" ("to whom it is insufficient") Ov. 
217, 14; aIL} J& "what he was due" Matt. 18, 30; a^ju ^ ~ajp Ztijuws 
fccccf)6g Luke 1, 22 ; Ji^a *jj ovtrfl &y/cuu Luke 2, 5 ; oj^» ^Q^J? <^*£$ !"5° 
JjL> "and when he was on the point of entering, he saw" Sim. 271 mid. 
(and frequently thus with +s>) &c. Farther in short sentences, rhetorically 
pointed with o : )ua*otk^o ^ k^*f t**~^$ Vt^ W ^?^P ^v/^of 
"of those who were killed I have written to thee, and (it is) true [on the 
Fern. v. § 254 C] ; those who were stoned I have signified to thee, and 
(it is) to be relied upon" Mart. I, 120, 9; wofo^^j ^ujdo <-»oto£jLu» 
ouLoo wojao;m ;J^jl>o "they struck him, and (he was) cheerful, lashed 
him, and (he was) proud, lacerated him and (he was) pleased" Moes. II, 
56 v. 124; oj^» ^fd^jo o£jua ft-^J woxi^'^ J^V 30 "lacerating combs 
(were) in his sides, lashes on his back, and (they were) trifling to him" 
ibid. 57 v. 175; ffcufrjj ^» >n.imo "and (he is) in need of alms" Aphr. 
8 ult ; ^nfvftk *d**jg "and for avarice (that is) but little" Aphr. 268, 5 
(where there are additional examples). Farther ^S»*o£o t^^-^^t*!^"^' 
they are circumcised and uncircumcised" Aphr. 204, 4 (where the Part, 
influences the Adj.) ;— ^fl^? V p^oao ^^ > > ? Pt 3 ^ $1 " but oyer some 
things they have power, and over others none" Spic. 9, 23 ; cf. 10, 22. 



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— 250 — § 315—317. 

Time-range § 315. The Nominal sentence in itself denotes a state of being, and 

Nominal accordingly, first of all, it represents the continuous present (§ 269). 
sentence, gy ^ con t e xt, however, it may often become plain that the state 
or condition concerns the past, i. e., is contemporaneous with the 
time of the principal clause. Thus e. g. yfoiVrt^f ^po^ (oo* ^auCoo 
JLuuJbof ,oj[ foSB\ lp • • • v 6ojuj "he urged them to show in every thing 
that they were {are) disciples of Christ" Ov. 177, 3; ©C^ hJ>\ J& ^.i 
TravTct 8aa elxsv Matt. 13, 46 ; o^ k-^. J^p? • • • J&** • • • IU> "he saw 
the people, that had no limit" Sim. 271; o^api{ ^qj{ ^ot ^ b r$ 
e/va/ ai3ro^ 5/cef, e7r\ya6ijaav . . . Luke 2, 6. Cf. on this use in the case 
of the Part. § 275, in which case, however, it occurs far oftener. In par- 
ticular, the indication of past time is often wanting in short Relative 
clauses, of which the predicate is an Adverbial qualification (§ 355). — 
Sometimes, though but rarely, a Nominal clause is employed to delineate 
in a lively manner a past condition, just as in the example given in the 
foregoing section 'jio woto^j^p J^V 30 < ^ c * 
separation § 316. The separation of the Subject from the Predicate by means 

from the of o, in short successive clauses, is a purely rhetorical device, exemplified 

ao ^*V£ Jlo J^Jom &^o "Joy, it was fled; cheerfulness, it was re- 
moved; peace, it was chased away; quietness, it was driven off; help, 
there was none ; assistance, it was not near &c." (eight more clauses of 
the same kind follow) Mart. I, 12 ult, and in JLoVoa ^ftvmfto Jl^V 
^ftvmfto {Jtai^fc* ^ju ^ft ooo JL^Vj ^'^jV); "the feet, they are struck 
off; knees, they are cut away; arms, they are torn out; haunches, they 
are struck off" Mart. I, 255 mid. 

NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

Nominative § 317. It is not uncommon by way of emphasis to place a noun 

first, and leave its proper grammatical reference to be cleared up by 
a personal pronoun which comes after, and which answers to it. Of this 
class are constructions like ~oUi» lk*9 "the house, he built it" (§ 288); 
on this also rests the employment of ooj as copula together with other 
devices described in § 311 sq. In particular, we have in this class cases 



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§ 318. — 251 — 

like JAJbo dio<* {^04 A^Jfe* "the clear light,— that is Christ" Aphr. 
14, 10; JUia o^£* JLfai, ~©> ~©» ^f {kfi&tk* "the foundation,— taa£ is 
the beginning of the whole building" Aphr. 7, 2 &c. But a like course 
is followed also in the most diverse grammatical relations^): ^>ȣt 
{^*&^jboo£ ^6o*X t&©> ^podLaJLof ^pof^da "to all these their purity was 
a complete fast" Aphr. 45, 17; Jotlf Jfrvy w6jdflp{)^ju yxeo J&i JLa^j JJA 
"of this great city the king of Assyria laid the foundations" Moes. II, 
63 inf.] ^i{ ^p^ao^) ojKS-^o l%*$ ^*^P "now the ram's horns are 
broken" Aphr. 83, 20; * l)\l 6*£ wal>t? pfa odja^j v^o^j " f °r 
in Jacob's prayer the mystery was prefigured, of..." Aphr. 63, 17; 
o^ioi '^•pM ©•toi^A ^^b $*^ ^«a£t "for Abel's offering was 
accepted for the sake of his faith" Aphr. 18, 4; JW^ 16& JJ? ^po 
ot|»»o a "and whoever is not ashamed, — his wound is healed (= 'ko&o 
l<*i Vj & JUaJL) Aphr. 136, 3; &£j o»L4^ ^{j&o ^.ja^i ^{o 
|L ? mo % po/&jij)& opfr*>% "and those who press on and approach him, 
into their secret ears his savour distills" Aphr. 449, 15; ^**j Jikp oS» 
JL^^uuJ JLaixy . • . ofv^ ~l»L{ • • • &ot y*^» °^^? " on a ^ ^ iat garment, 
which was wrapped about his body . . . appeared . . . only one single 
colour" Ov. 165, 7, and frequently thus with longer or shorter relative 
sentences: yyJyiV ^ &J {$& %{ "I have this to say" Aphr. 486, 5; 
o£^£ Jbla^ t»$fto&o *JLl> o©» ^a ^u> ^.vi^ . . . ^^? > ^^ tA** "since 
we stand high, the whole people look to us, and let themselves be guided 
by us" Ov. 173, 11 &c. With Demonstrative pronoun: ^> ^a{f J&t-^- 
Jlv fc\ o^ ^»Qa oot oS> *%** ^fi^ °<^ "^ e sheep which has been 
lost out of all the flock, — about it the shepherd has anxiety" Aphr. 
142, 10. 



CONCORDANCE OF THE PARTS OP THE SENTENCE. 
§ 318. The words JUVojd "villages", IjpZ "asses", and )li} when collectives 
it signifies "men", are regarded as true plurals and are always construed ™d p?ur. 
with plural forms. The collective nouns denoting animals vary. Thus 



(*) In short sentences, however, it is comparatively rare. 
( 2 ) Read thus. 



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— 252 — § 318. 

J&w "small cattle" is sometimes sing., sometimes plur., cf. vJl^ 1*+aI{ 
"niy sheep were scattered" Mart. I, 47, 9 (followed by a number of other 
verbs in the sing.), along with ^ nj? c*l^ ^ doi^ip "put his sheep in 
heat, that they might multiply" ibid. 46, 5 &c. It is exactly the same 
with {^a "larger cattle": sing, in Ov. 93, 19; pi. in Ov. 79, 18 sq. 
Others, like t^^? " a herd", JULuJ "vermin" are wholly or preponderatingly 
singular. 

The collective nouns which denote persons, are at first construed 
as singular ; yet they may also be treated as plural, and so may other 
words which, only in a transferred meaning denote a collection of persons, 
like l\ll "a land", {AtL>+* "a city": their attributive adjuncts remain, 
however, in the sing. Examples: — Jba^, oju> "the people saw" Ex. 32, 1; 
JL^rt 6£^q-d ^o£Ao&j? ccTroypdtpsad-ai ttcLgzv r/jv olKov/jhrp Luke 2, 1 S. 
(P. jbk^ oC^i £»&*&#) ; JL$6<M Jba^ o** ^o^fcauoo <*? ^W&uu "the 
pe6ple of the Jews are proud of it, and glory in it" Aphr. 231, 12 [pi.], 
along with ^^fio^{f JbSa^, 6t£ iot^Asjuo JLo*(f "in which in vain the people 
of Israel glory" [sg.] id. 242, 4; ^oj? ^o t-a** . . . oV^n JJj Ij^fp J&^» 
"the foohsh [sg.] people, who had not received [pi.] ... he uprooted and 
dispersed" Aphr. 184, 3 (and construed frequently thus, as sing, and as 
pi. [in the same sentence]) ; i(TkS;Ad ot^, ^|t^»o "and the clergy sur- 
rounded him" Ephr. HI, XLIU inf. [pi.] (usually sing.) ; ©Cj*£ **^ °^{ 
o&i l\l[ "for all that land came" Sim. 322, 12; AJ? oA Jtf£^ oj\*> o^jo 
^*>L {ooi "all the people ('tout le monde'), who were there, cried out" 
Sim. 383, 13 (Cod. Lond. jba^ o^d Jb*a); ^^ • • • lki->*» 6tN>o*> +& 
oo©» "when the whole city . . . was sitting there" Land II, 55, 18; JL&tja, 
oNVftl? v y5NS l^U IKofcaJ* Ifa-^J "what were left [reliquiae] of the 
blessed band of the three thousand were crowned (suffered martyrdom)" 
Moes. II, 71, 30; and many other instances. Even JlAi*> ^t ^» lf*> 
6t*Voa&^> "a third part (f. sg.) of her inhabitants" Jul. 38, 25 — is treated 
as a pi. masc. In the greater number of such cases, a plural, following 
in the Genitive, or a o^o, o^o, placed in apposition, tends to effect a 
plural construction, but yet the influence is not quite obligatory, cf. 
6t>+£ Jill* JJj JJLuu ot^*& JBo» "all this host without number sur- 
rounded it [Edessa]" Jos. St. 60, 6 (contrasted with JL&6o»Vj 



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§ 319. — 253 — 

^^V ooot oj&\fctf ^poua^t? "the army of the Romans, which was with 
them, had dispersed themselves" Jos. St. 47, 20). 

j {JLLo-do with a plural genitive is perhaps always construed as 
plural, e. g. ^£i oo©» ^»pn> JLidoiVj fJL^oi» "a large number of Romans 
(i. e. soldiers) lived there" Sim. 273 mid. (contrasted with jbas*? IJL^.» 
odtiAo&o loo) >*J) "the great mass of the people [Sing. Gen.] was alarmed 
and terrified" Sim. 357 mid., and J^i-^»f otJL^om h<L) "the great body 
of the town marched along" Land II, 388, 6, where the Genitive determines 
the number and gender). Similarly ^&SK ^ji ^ ^K» . . . oo©» o£s*& 
JUiLaaf "more than two thousand men perished" Chron. Edess. (Hallier) 
146, 5 (Document of 201); ©♦t&w 6^ ftuj* lkL>+*} ^cjUj {JL^a» "the 
most of the people of the town remained with him" Addai 31, 8. — ^d 
with plural is construed as pi. only. With these are joined cases like 
^po{o o^p(f ^ip > \£ Assemani I, 357 (Simeon of Beth Arsham); ^p > \£ 
oilj "all who have come" ibid., and frequently thus ; but the sing, is more 
usual here, and it occurs even in that passage. 

§ 319. Even when the plural subject is resolved into its parts by piur. in 
means of *ju *jl> (§ 242, cf. § 351), it may be construed as pi., and that ^^1. 
even when it is itself omitted : *I» ^ kaKpj ^jpf&? ^VAjod ?- t ^^ t^^* 
^m't tju ^ "these ten little books which I have written thee take from 
one another" [i. e. "are written in continuation" — "form a series"] Aphr. 
200, 15; ^j& t £X ^ "they plunder each other" Ov. 119, 16; <****? 
+ju ^ +L "which are different from one another" Spic. 17, 19; l^u oSsf 
^ooi ^Stv-jtob l^kj ocriva sdv ypd(f>yrou Ka& §v John 21, 25 : ^f °-*^? 
OTV..IQ ^pofrub tju fji "but they adhered to their several ways" Ov. 160, 21 ; 
oooi ^»n^y k&r? <°*^l $ T" T" " a ^ our ances tors were humble" 
Aphr. 188, 17; )^^i' ^A $ ^L ^ 1\<Ll* ^ ^>N\ ^^Ngo 
"and these seven [planets] have each of them power [severally] over the 
divisions" Spic. 18, 9 &c, (But also in the sg.:.Jbo u»t ^omjo J|jl> lU-> 
{^xp o^laj K*JL^jd 6t^» +*££? "each of them, as has been ordered it 
(f.), quickly carries out his wish" Aphr. 281, 14, cf. Aphr. 438, 13; Ov. 
176, 27). Similarly t &*& {fu ^udq£ {fu a£j ^io "and all things 
stand opposed to each other" Aphr. 303. ult. — -And thus even a simple 
^ +Z, i& {|ju with a plural following, is frequently construed in negative 



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— 254 — § 320. 

sentences as a plural: <J6& Jjj ^^A ^ If** ^^! s?°HH?° " an( * among 
these there is no single one of them" Spic. 14, 5 ; w$Sl jj ^6*i& if^o 
ot^J^J "and no one of them resists his will" Aphr. 284, 4 ; ^L ^pJUuJ JJj 
J^J{ • • . ^^o* J'^-^ ^ "that no one of these men . . . shall see the 
land" Deut. 1, 35 &c. Farther examples: Philipp. 4, 15; Philox. 543, 26; 
Apoc. Baruch 83 (fol. 551c ult.)\ John van Telia (Kleyn) 50, 18; Euseb. 
Ch. Hist. 260, 4 ab inf. (But sing. e. g. in ^ji{t Jjf . . . ^oo* {fu'"and let 
none (f.) of them go out" Ov. 177, 11). Similarly in a conditional clause: 
y^&Ss ^f J^y ot&j^jtL ^ (|jl» ^ vVrf- vi "^ an y one of ^ e stories 
about one of thy gods is true for thee" Anc. Doc. 55, 2 ; woj/io^aj ^J 
Jiot l&^? wotdjuJU ^ +Z> "if one of the joys of this world takes him 
captive" John van Telia 31, 1 (var. ~o*o-^ju). Except in Negative, 
and Conditional clauses, I know of the occurrence of this construction only 
in {fc^oika ^ (|ju ^Appfco "one of the maidens may come" Land HI, 
36, 18, and in ^s^jf t^** fl^fcYVv ^i ^> Jf° ^^ " wh y should 
one of these maids wash thy feet?" ibid. line 19, which sentences are 
translated from the Greek. 

In the same fashion as with *jl> *jl», we have also ^S,v>o ^TN^onnp 
o£* j&a^ JB©» Jju* "they are opposed, but peaceful, the one toward the 
other" Moes. II, 84 v. 127; JB££** JBo* ooo* ^S«o.io "and they were at- 
tached to one another" Moes. II, 100 v. 371. 

prep, with § 320. In the rather uncommon case, in which a substantive, de- 

as suiyect. 6 pendent upon a preposition, has the position of subject, it is construed 
according to its gender and number. Thus in o£**»f ooL ou&o$ ^bo 
papA ^i ^v, ^°t lt***l J^*jbof "and farther there is poured out to- 
day of the spirit of Christ upon all flesh" Aphr. 122, 18; ^ ^d*-L» ^&\ 
Js^jJi (|d^o(^. ^n\A, jj \k& "even should some of the words not 
agree with those of another speaker" Aphr. 441, 12. So also ^3>o 
Ij^Np j£+£* io&»a oooi ^0911 ^po »au v. "and from their eyes there 
darted as it were quick flashes of lightning" Sim. 271 paen.; W^ ~*^^ 
l^&sji| to^t^ Jliy;y> l&©» JLaao* "for with him there was sleeping in bed 
the likeness of a woman" Sim. 292 mid. ; JLSia La&*a k*u "something 
Hke a flash of lightning shot down" Mart. I, 73, 6. 



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§§ 321. 321 b . — 255 — 

§ 321. In other cases the verb agrees throughout with the subject, verb in 

T . - _ . the Sing. 

In particular a plural subject requires a plural verb. ( x ) It is no real with subj. 
exception to this rule that loot k+l may stand even with a fern, or pi. 
(§ 304), for the properly-nominal character of the sg. m. h>J "existence" 
still operates here. On the other hand there is an exception in the con- 
struction, occurring occasionally, of the uninflected passive Participle 
with X indicating the agent, in conjunction with a feminine or plural 
subject. In this case the language has begun to conceive the form h^n. 
u^» (§ 279) as quite equivalent to an active verb "I have made". Thus : 
o^ n^v (tij-ob/o {KjU^jmo "and hymns and psalms he made" Jos. St. 
52, 1 (immediately after oj^» ^<ft*m ij£^p li£&J»? "by whom many 
poems had been composed"); ^»o* ^ ^**ojl "I have heard this" 
Kalilag and Damnag 10, 16 ; 15, 23 ; jiAioo ^d** )a^ JLo*!»JL»? $*> j "^ v 
l\o*y yv± Jboio ^ iTTorfaa/xsv hocQyfcyp jmsrd ToQ*Aibov teal julstcc tov 
Qccvdrov avvdy/cag [Is. 28, 15] Jac. Ed. in Wright's Catalogue 28 ab inf., 
and often thus in Jac. Ed. But here too agreement is far more usual. 
Of like construction is (&£So* UkA^^o 6*£ «a*Kao "and on it were Greek 
characters" Jos. St. 66, 10 ; Jfcft. o & ?io» y±*o>o foot i^i^oj JL&J "where 
the things had been consigned to writings and deposited" (Ps.-Eusebius) 
de Stella 1, 18; (M-^ooi {&Ai&j> ^oj .\v looi o^^o "and upon them 
were written hieratic characters" Ephr. II, 145 A (Jac. Ed.?). 

Bern. The Singular-construction {&©» J&& ota h aCrcp %cci] rp John 
1, 4 (but different in C. after another division of the sentence) must rest 
upon a dogmatic caprice, like the masculine use of {Av^ao, when it signifies 
"Logos". ( 2 ) 

Rem. On the Gender of Compounds cf. § 142. 

§ 321 b . ot&^JL ta, literally "son of his moment" has wholly stif- ©,\^a fa 
fened into an adverb and stands unchanged with the fern., with the pi., 



Q) Of course orthographical inadvertencies of author, copyist or even editor, — 
when, for instance, V£jb stands for the similarly-pronounced o\ y*>, — can form no 
ground for questioning this rule. 

( 2 ) Thus JLsJ& lo£i "is life" Joseph 304, 8 is perhaps correct. Philoxenus 
(Budge II, CV, 11) ventures upon JLuw +* "one life". 



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— 256 — § 322. 

and even with the 1 st and 2 nd Persons : As^aoJU ot&^JL ^ fLsulo /cat &g 

A 4* * ^A ^ A A J 

lady Trapaxpy/^ 0? ywq) Luke 8, 47 C. S. (P. ?^u»), cf. v. 55 ; ^ojAo 
oJljl oju> *jj ot^** *$ ^f "but they withdrew, as soon as they saw it" 
2 Mace. 14, 44; ^oyvt.v ^uLpo uuLflb o*k*Jt ^a -'they (the women) forth- 
with washed themselves and painted their eyes" Ezek. 23, 40 ; ©AaA ^o 
wtoA. tft-jf- iffrurijs ovv %7r6ju.\pcc npog as Acts 10, 33 ; ~f J otK^Jt ^a "set 
forth immediately" Clem. 9, 18 &c. It is the same with opoo* ^a : v^ 
l^^t ©^ oA ot*o~ "the same day give him the hire" Deut. 24, 15; 
^U . . . ot&o~» +$ "we came the same day" Clem. 146, 32 ; ot&Qu* ;jao 
oio^&ajl . . . "they took her away the same day" John Eph. 222, 15. — 
So also k*ftkm» *a o£l^o» "they went backward" Gen. 9, 23. 
Gender and § 322. When two or more nouns, connected by means of o or a 

Numbor of .. . . „ it* .., 

a Group of like conjunction, combine to torm one member of a proposition, then, as 
ooup'ied regards concord, various cases become possible. If the members of the 
with o or a combination are all plural and of the same gender, naturally the 
junction, connection is construed in accordance therewith. But when there are 
differences in gender and number, it is sometimes the position, sometimes 
the assumed importance of one or more of the members, that determines 
the case. Besides, when several singulars are combined, they are some- 
times treated as a singular, sometimes as a plural. 

Singular-. <KL»^aoo yill «jt» "our land and our city remained" Jos. 
St. 31, 3; (fcs^QJo l^af ^oi **v* JJ© "male and female are not dis- 
criminated there" Aphr. 429, 1 ; Jlli&o i&^JLo ^H° " an( * measure and 
number are full" Spic. 12, 18; w©iojl»o wqj «afiu ^f*o* "then went 
forth Noah and his sons" Aphr. 477, 9; ^l{ o^ijio oot "he and his 
seed were blessed" Aphr. 328, 16: l\ol^ tetajpo 6»oa| k*ao w©* Loot 
"she and her father's house received an inheritance" Aphr. 329, 3 (and 
often thus, when there is a printed person concerned); (oo* JLLo ^ 
J&ao l$X> "procreation and children are from nature" Spic. 11, 20; 
i$t?*ojf fyo^iftja "in wliich troop or order?" Ephr. Ill, 245 D ; wkapfc 
JL^^oo JBto^o )laj90 JL^LoJ {oo» "and when there was earthquake, 
famine, pestilence and war" Jos. St. 1, 4; ^o oqN ^^ \ ^\^ JJ 
(toJju»\o { V^ o "there did not rise in their heart wrath or impurity" 
Aphr. 428, 6; ^62^ JLovap JLiaj toto l\*i*+* ^^a? "that quickly grief 



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§ 322. — 257 — 

and regret of soul overtake them" Siin. 388, 14; ^ u»(o Jfr\% oS> yj$ 
^tipU; fJLojuo fj Jfrvy» fyoi\r» "that such a savour and such a sweet- 
ness cannot be set forth in the world" Sim. 272 ad inf. ; kJ^Jk- J&d 

^sL£ ^A^ <oot*^{ J^^i* oH ?l > ° • • • «£W? "^-t? (l^£j 
^oj? (oo» ^A u i "how much more must near association with his look, 
and his charming converse with them, have incited them to all that is 
good" Ov. 199, 14. 

Plural: ^oidto oot ooot ^X>ky>v>o "and he and they spoke" Sim. 
340 mid. ; ^do^o .ja^^a ^>&^, ,60^ o^dot (*) "Patricius and Hypatius 
returned thither" Jos. St. 54, 3; ^A Jliip ft^J o{ ^f JLam^ *ooju£ 
^o^bj^ju Points afr JJLsf ^^fiDJJ ^poj? "but avarice and covetousness 
[lit 'love of money or longing after possessions'], the which are alien to 
our course of life, shall not even be named" Ov. 174, 11; j££jo {&t»|6{ 
^j{ x*io^) "the Law and the Prophets are too Httle" Aphr. 24, 3 ; o? {^4pi>$ 
Jl,j^i\v 1?S\{ "of maid-servants or. men-servants out of the laity" Ov. 
174, 1 ; P ^ a ft o ooo* JD^io (|oa; "Deborah and Barak were leaders" Aphr. 
481, 12; }$juld{ t ^^ Ja $*k° *$£ "wheat (f.) and straw are mixed to- 
gether" Aphr. 152, 10; woot ^iibJ^Juo JLl»o?; Itsu^mlo (jd^oj^po "and 
psalms and spiritual songs were brought into service" Sim. 392 mid. (Cod. 
Lond. ooof ^ju9&ju»). — ^oi\ ^&f£ ^V^) l*?** 2 * P- C. (^of/iovsni S.) 
0/ rskSwou kou ou Tropvai Trpodyovaw vjuotg Matt. 21, 31, cf. 32; «&*»** 
^po^Vi o»l; »ov> ) a ^ 2 ?° "J 086 ?! 1 an( i Mary his betrothed, both — " Aphr. 
472, 20 ; v <u{ o*;* ll^fX v 6o^? £ ^aij ^J[ jbiU* MS o{ jbkl* ^ 
"those under vows, of either sex [lit 'sons of the covenant or daughters 
of the covenant'], who have fallen from their grade, send ye into convents" 
Ov. 218, 19; ooot ^£ioap «nl\^\ . • . wori&t&o ^^ wojqj^v o m "for 
his works and words (f.) were profitable to every one" Ov. 178, 22; l^^vo 
^t»a*o ?|oj ^pofA JLQ^JL Ikau&o JUjuoo "and the fire gains the mastery 
over the grass, reeds and brushwood, and they are consumed" Aphr. 
16, 12; v 6<x^ «A>£p JLUaj lh^f% jLdJLao JboJLmo j£ot<f "gold and silver 
and precious stones, with which the building rises" Aphr. 16, 13 (where 
the two masculine singulars preponderate over the plural feminine) &c. 



(*) Write the verb thus in accordance with v o*\,. 



17 



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est Persons 
(lBt, 2nd, 
3rd) when 
bound 



— 258 — §§ 323. 324. 

Cf. farther ^vi lo ^ v qjJ %^l} ^V*?° ^*i h'+* fV " sou * caUs to tliee 
and body, that thou shouldst take pity upon them, so long as they endure" 
Quotation in Barh. gr. 2, 15 ult. (where at first the member standing at the 
beginning exercises its influence, but afterwards, in the pi., the m. predo- 
minates). The case is the same as with o, in ^t*» ^£ )&■** ^^^f ^^-» 
6t£ ^Sp&fcofc lk*^x>? "all the lusts, together with all the briars of sin, 
are burned up therein" Ov. 164, 13. 

The differ- § 323. In ranking together nouns of different persons, the 1 st pre- 

ponderates over the 2 nd and 3 rd , and the 2 nd over the 3 rd : hJlo y%£> p( 
>^J }k*»J "I, thy lord, and thou, the steward, know [l 8t pi.]" Ov. 

together. 303, 13; oojo JB{ ^n£o "and we rose up, I and he" Jos. St. 29, 13, cf. 
line 10 ; J$ i.rnU wia^\yo JB{ "I, with my kingdom, am free from guilt" 
Jul. 70, 12; fcjJ .,mf>v) ^o *\yo to J ibid. 132, 10; f^l k*a© &3l 
^gJu&jiL "thou and thy father's house shall serve [2 nd pi.] Aphr. 272, 10. 
The exception ^f^J Jlsio yi^oi J^o hJl JJo <*j$js>o£ )|o ^i^p JJ 
^ ^i>ft ^juAAao "neither thy king nor his command, neither thou nor 
thy power, nor even our chastisements, are able to separate us" Mart. I, 
155, 8, — has nothing remarkable in it, seeing that the 2 nd person in this 
case is put between two 3 rd persons. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

Position of § 324. A. The relative arrangement of the principal parts of the sen- 

and pUd. tence is very free. The Subject in the Verbal sentence,— just as in the 
Nominal sentence, stands sometimes before, sometimes after the Pre- 
dicate; and sometimes its parts are even broken up or inverted by 
parts of the predicate. ( 2 ) It is of course granted that in purely Verbal 
sentences, particularly in simple narration, the Predicate stands more 



( 2 ) How freely words may be arranged in Syriac, is well demonstrated by 
comparing passages of Syriac with Arabic translations of them. The Arab in that 
case is continually obliged to alter the arrangement of the words, while the Syrian 
in almost every instance might have chosen that arrangement which is absolutely 
binding upon the Arab. 



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§ 324. — 259 — 

frequently before the subject; but this is by no means a fast rule, — 
apart even from the fact that, if a new subject of importance appears, 
or if the subject has to be brought emphatically into notice, it is more 
usual to place the subject first. Also in sentences with the participle, 
the predicate perhaps stands oftener before, than after, the subject. But 
in purely Nominal sentences the reverse is the case. Still even the pre- 
dicative adjective very often goes first, particularly in short secondary 
sentences with +%. It is farther to be noticed that, in the most diverse 
kinds of sentences, demonstrative pronouns are commonly placed at the 
beginning. In none of these cases do absolutely unbending rules prevail; 
and a Syriac sentence can scarcely be imagined, in which the position 
of the subject, relative to the predicate, might not be altered, without 
offending against grammar. Even the rhetorical effect might in most 
cases be preserved though the order were changed, perhaps by adding 
or omitting an expletive word like o©». The diversity of arrangement in 
sentences standing close together has often indeed a rhetorical purpose ; 
but not seldom the same thing has been brought about quite uncon- 
sciously. Instances of all forms of arrangement might be adduced in 
abundance. It will suffice, however, to illustrate merely the leading cases 
by supporting-passages, confronting them with one another. 

B. Verbal Sentences, Perf.: s*±*^> ~pb li^Q^ ooi ©^ V${ "the 
blessed St. Simeon said to him" Sim. 271, 13, immediately following o©i 
o^ V#{ v a^a&f* wpb )****% ^ ibid. 1, 3 (where, however, Cod. Lond. 
reads '.£ oot o^ poto) ; {fr^$\ JUkaj Ng^ m oSs "if the soul abandoned 
the body" Moes. II, 90 v. 221, beside l^pV iAaa o»>.^ oSS "if his 
power abandoned creation" ibid. v. 222; ~JLuU toCiS; oj^u>o "and the 
power of God appeared" Aphr. 25, 1, beside t^tSS; o^,f» w]L»i{ line 4, 
cf. line 6 ; o£^» )&-*•&!{ ty JLflpdaaJj oS>o "and he, on whom the law had 
not been imposed" Aphr. 25, 9, close to JbodttJ ^-j»LU JJ v 6o»IqjJL^o 
"and on their righteousness the law was not imposed" 1. 22 ; k*a o^> 
If j V.4?^P ^?° ^gi ft y "destroyed is our sanctuary, and our house of 
prayer is laid waste" Aphr. 491, 1. — Imperfect: ^*£*J&; J&j t*^ J^pb 
oua^ftj op£Jt "for it pleased the Lord that by thee his name should be 
glorified" [lit. "the Lord willed that by thy hands &c."] Sim. 270 mid., 

17* 



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— 260 — §324. 

close beside Jk*«*fp ^t^* PfS**o j&dioj ^aaLuaki 4f4£? "that by thy 
hand the laws and ordinances of the holy Church be maintained" ; o^^?o 
otloi£*juuJ£ ot^&k^ wOto^jotLo ot^SS; JL&ota ^L^ "and let his mind 
glow in the spirit of his God, and let his praying comfort him in his 
loneliness" Ov. 185, 12. — Participle: ©o» JLsJLs JLlia? wo^ojopJ^Aaj . . .*.$ 
jUia ©£**£ ^^00 J&J^ ^^ ^f*Ao ^vvY.rrlfeofr "know . . . that upon the 
foundations of the building the stones are laid, and then upon the stones 
the whole building rises" Aphr. 6, 14 (and quite similar in 7, 1) ; ^& 
^ai&»& Jj/JLi, llte>S tf <S^dx> "all these things faith demands" Aphr. 
9, 10, alongside of JUoJc* JJ^V^N o^ ^>aNA feLk, <^&o "and these 
works are required for the king Christ" 1. 12 (where the logical paral- 
lelism is set above the grammatical, as often happens) ; ^Je*& ^«[u 
t*fluutt ^f*° "destroyed are our priests, and our head is veiled" Aphr. 
491, 1. — That the verb may also stand a long way after the subject, is 
shown by cases like JSujjS. JLaoootV ^j* ot$&£ y^^F °^ iflDojuiSd* 
^9-j y>ffiSft ^ ;Jb-» "Jovian, who was Eoman Emperor after him, pre- 
ferred peace to everything else" Jos. St. 8, 17. 

C. Nominal Sentences: ul* |I\yo JL*d^ U>*a> "heaven is small 
and filled with thee" Moes. II, 80 v. 75, beside )Jo JflS^ ^ Jd^; 
lloill y±* ^nftm "small for thee is the world, and the parts of the earth 
are not sufficient for thee" v. 77; ^ IfoMap °!° ^f°^P <? ^^° J^ * 
o*&^? Jbbflog "the sun is more excellent than the moon, and greater is 
the moon than the stars which attend it" Aphr. 434, 19 &c. In oj 
ooj J^poJ JfA^uu jLJj "a powerful commander is fasting" Ov. 99, 19, the 
subject is postponed in an unusual way, to obtain rhetorical effect. 

D. The position of foot results, to a certain extent, from § 299. 
Apart from certain cases like those noted in §§ 260, 261, 300, it generally 
follows the most important word of the predicate (cf. even too^. l+£± 
"to become servants" Ov. 311, 24); thus it often appears, along with such 
word, before the subject. It is not common to have it placed at the very 
beginning, as it is in ^jU P? wotbf^j l$£±* ooot "Canaan's children be- 
came slaves" Joseph 43, 4 [Ov. 290, 12] ; IgJLu uiS l$sL±, ^oootj? "that 
free persons become servants" ibid. 42 paen. [Ov. 290, 8]. 

E. We have already had cases, in which the subject appears in the 



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§§ 325. 326. — 261 — 

middle of the predicate, v. § 312. Thus : l&Ss? ^u liiiviavv "that we 
are God's servants" Ov. 173, 18; JULa ^jooiS oo* JLji "it is a weapon 
against the wicked one'* Aphr. 44, 2; Jo* hJ\ J1A\^ "since thou art a . 
greedy dog" Mart. I, 183 mid. &c. The reverse happens in h^l ^ &s»j 
JKwoiv» o^ oooj "he had, however, believing parents" Mart. II, 268. 

§ 325. The Object stands most frequently after the governing word, position of 
but often too before it, v. § 287 sqq. Even in the case of the Inf. with ^, 
it is not uncommon to put the object first, v. § 293. In these cases, at 
bottom, there is a true Involution, 

§ 326. In simple, plain speech adverbial qualifications most fre- Position of 

Adverbial 

quently follow that leading member of the sentence, to which they spe- Quaimca- 
cially belong, e. g. Jbk*»y 14^. Q -*&*p r* "when they came to the altar" 
Sim. 272, 8, but often too they precede it, e. g. J*o£f^ l)\l offrft^o 
uS.vA«( "and he had been initiated [had been made perfect] in the 
whole Divine mystery" Ov. 165, .16; ^n.^y v? oc 4 Jfi* 1$** ^ "from 
intercourse with women ye shall keep yourselves separate" Ov. 173, 24; 

^on\ Joop "while not even about simple fare for the due supply of 
nourishment to the body, shall ye take any trouble" Ov. 174, 8; ^o 
^^- JLaau* \&li\j "whoever expects to enter into rest" Aphr. 107, 
18 &c. The position of adverbial qualifications may often be of extreme 
variety, particularly when several occur in one sentence. The simple 
sentence t^aa£ ^P^? J?©V^ "the Creator prepares the wine", Ephr. Ill, 
663 A, permits of five other arrangements of the words, which arrange- 
ments are all good Syriac ; only, in this case, just because of the antithesis 
to JU&jju "the host", — which opens the next sentence, it is most con- 
venient to put the subject first, and the placing of the object last comes 
readiest to hand. With the adverbial complement, (^aju ^g fe op U6+& 
J^iioA^ oi^p "the Creator prepares the wine in the vines", the number 
of possible arrangements is very considerably increased; but, provided 
that the genitive association of Jido^o,^ is kept together, all other 
conceivable interchanges of position are permissible, although the placing 
of the words JJLdo^o,^p in the very beginning of the sentence, for 



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— 262 — §§ 327. 328. 

instance, would give them a special emphasis (which does not suit the 
context in Ephr.). 
portion of § 327, There are several Particles which can never stand in the 

Particles, beginning of the sentence (v. § 155 C). Their proper place is immedia- 
tely after the first word, yet they may also take a place farther on; cf. 
{taJL^oviN, JLL»£a J£jap t-*^ 6^. too* {am "for the blessed old man 
longed for the position of confessor" Jul. 55, 21 ; (C. S. ooi) ^f ^oo£^ v*[ 
JJfcs*> *at tXeysv (W irapafioXijv avroig Luke 18, 1; dPoi«\o.i J^**>o 
(fJUL^ ofAAJ ^j. ouaf jBAj oi^f <-»o»o£*J& "and the impious Julian 
through him sacrificed himself in fact to the demons" Ov. 160, 14. In 
Moes. II, 122 v. 703 sq., ya^*. stands twice at the end of a short sentence, 
and at the end of the verse. Still, these are exceptions. We have seen 
in §§ 208 A, 240, that these particles may break up the chain of both 
genitive and prepositional connection. Thus they may be interposed even 
between the preposition and the relative clause governed by it: ]*+& 
JLguJj w^ "for before he sinned" Ov. 81, 8; ja^Aj ^ $ "but after it 
was finished" Sim. 283, 11; J ^f ^$» "but because" Jos. St. 7, 21; 
80, 20; Ov. 169, 24 &c; even <£ {jL*j ^> "but after he saw" Ov. 168, 8; 
^ ttx»1 $ "but after he was" Sim. 269, 6 (otherwise, in Cod. Lond.) &c 
Thus too with ^i: c^yu ^JLi* ^^)^ ^* "f° r every one, it is said, 
who asks, receives" Ov. 102, 14. Cf. also the usage in other relative 
clauses: ot^^d ^jff **^ tSP "^ or whoever has eaten of his body" 
Aphr. 222, 3 ; <**^&* ^**4i ^? ^i "thus every one, who hears it" Jos. 
St. 66, 21 &c, as set overagainst o^oU ^^«ju^ Jbo "for if any one 
draws near" Aphr. 7, 2; Jb£ ^f l6£$s$ ~hcg{ "but when God wills" Spic. 
20, 23 &c. 

B. SPECIAL KINDS OF SENTENCES. 

NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 

Jl and its § 328. A. The simple negative JjJ is mainly employed in giving a 

8t f e ° gthen * negative meaning to the verb, and then usually stands immediately be- 
fore it: j w6kLjj? Qju ^ a ( Jjf "bis people were not able to ... " Aphr. 
210, 17; ) hifb ^^ l&o) t-uis fj "it was not ordered the Egyptians to" 



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§ 328. — 263 — 

ibid. 1. 13; ^IgjD JJ J£U^ ^> t 1 ^ f? " while he ^^ none of the 
Goths" Jos. St. 85, 16 ; 6 tfto-^ !**•£• &* f^^ fy ^&¥ "because 
the city did not suffice for the Goths" ibid. 86, 21; JJ {?££ ^ JLa^f 
^o^jb "that they should not stir up war against one another" ibid. 
90, 6 &c. No essential difference is occasioned by the interposition of 
particles, as in ok*» ^f J! "but they did not die" Ov. 170, 17 ; v*^ J! 
j ^dJ&oa*) %^bil[ "for he never submitted to this, that" Ov. 179, 8; J! 
JLLia u^» Jia u*p<i* ^ v*^"for I have not in all my days erected any 
building" Sim. 271, 4; <£oJL& ^> yL*£*% Uo?j^> p6J6oa& w^JJ "for 
never is thy goodness vanquished by our wickedness ' Aphr. 493, 7; JJ 
f ^^^ l&tL»f* °-^p Ik *? ^* k*i ^^"f° r there was no flesh (meat) 
at all within the city" Jos. St. 69, 4. Less common are cases like JJj 
o*tok*X w©»6^ U« JL^^a o^f o^ ^ ?<5fNJSf o^oijb "on 
whom God's righteousness, in his jealousy, would not have been revealed 
for his punishment" Ov. 187, 16 &c. 

JJ stands also where the predicate is an adjective: looq) ; »5g> JJ 
"it is not well that [he] be . . .." Gen. 2, 18; j ©^ i+±m. JJ "it is not true 
for him, that" Aphr. 498, 6, 13; ^^jf JJ J&j^^ "over some things they 
have no power" Spic. 9, 23 ; o& ^*{ JBo* ; Jul, JJ "this is not beautiful, 
like that" Anc. Doc. 87, 9; ooo» ^Ja JJ lio|<*ap ^ ^f <©<**}£ "but 
their sufferings were not less than [i. e. nothing short of] a martjrdom" 
Ov. 170, 5 (where however ^Wja oo©» JJ would also be correct). 

B. Otherwise, to express negation in the Nominal sentence, — and 
in the very same way in a Verbal sentence, when a different word from 
the verb (inclusive of Part, and predicative adj. as well as h^X) has to 
be rendered negative, — JJ is strengthened by means of an enclitic loo* 
(thus loo» J[J) or by means of ooj (in that case always written 6^). The 
first method is the more frequent of the two in ancient writings: some 
avoid o^k, altogether, while others employ the two promiscuously. There 
is no difference in their signification. Of course an author has often to 
consider whether he has to negative the whole sentence by means of 
negativing the verb, or merely to negative a single word or phrase ; thus 
the mere separation of the JJ from the verb may, amongst other effects, 
account for the appearance of the corroborating Form, while an additional 



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— 264 — § 328. 

emphasis then falls upon the word immediately following the negative. 
Examples : {Lo?otfiD f>l &JspJ JULita <-*> lioj Jl ^f fy tyu Zi ov napd dvQpcc- 
ttov rrjv juuxprvpiav XanfZam John 5, 34; y*p*j t 2^i o^ Trdvrsg juiv ov 
KOifAyi&riGOjjjeQa 1 Cor. 15, 51 ; oo» (ioap a£k, JS^t {to* "this death is no death" 
Mart. I, 245, 8; loCSSj ©oi 6&*± JK ©* {&2S d^ "he is not God, but 
(rod's servant" Sim. 327 inf.; o6) Jt^ o&t,; "who is no shadow" Moes. 
II, 166 v. 1392; Jf^Jtf ~©i otk*£^?att (o©» Jl • . • j {fit "this circumstance, 
that . . . , is not that which sets forth the truth" Ov. 163, 8 ; loot JJf ^&^ 
JL&oott-^ Jto-i) JL»odi ^oojS.fl.Q^ "because not in their murder lies 
victory for the Romans" Jos. St. 70, 2; L&o* Jbpdaai L^i {oot JJ t-o 
"while she was no observer of the law" Aphr. 48, 18; &^|Lojl (oot Jl; 
JLaj{ tejp ^aj Jbcb "that men are not equally guided" Spic. 12 ult. ; JJ 
{&» $d^,/ cH} a «N«v> J)( t&oi WJa Jba^ka **^ (ooi "for the word was not 
trifling, but he who applied it was but small" Aphr. 165, 9 ; ^f foot Jl 
Jil ^!§£ta» J^co'lad? ,6o»Lo*JL^ "the freedom [freewill] of the Persians I 
do not however deny" Jos. St. 6, 18; jtf daai JJ lts\u$ ^ to* Jl "it is 
not from fear that I do not go forth" Jos. St. 89, 22; o*L&* ^ jaS. ^^ 
o£t JLai ^^KodJ "that this treachery was by no means brought about at 
his instigation" Jos. St. 12, 17; ^AJ^t^ JM2££ *^? "that are not 
well cared for" Moes. II, 68, 12; JJ{ Jj^«£a ?6 u V% <£w "not only with 
murder, but also" Moes. II, 65, 23, and thus frequently . . • jomV^ q^ 
or even ?o u V* • . • oiS., cf. JJ( J^|jood JtfA {&o* III foju^a s*£t*6)l (oot JJ 
"not merely to Edessa [Orhai] came this edict, but" Jos. St. 26, 9; 
^hN\ o\^[ J£,fi \ ^dj JS^oofita ^^a\ "for not in confidence that 
they would return to life did they proceed thither" Ov. 170, 2; {009 JJ 
o£*» &J tN«iify$v> M^f*i "he has no foreknowledge" Aphr. 130, 1; 
wool <^AJ lki*x> o\ "not dumb were they (f.)" Moes. II, 102 v. 393 
(in both of which cases, with re-arrangement, 'fcsj JJ, 'AotX might also 
have been used, &c). Even when complete clauses take the place of 
parts of a sentence, {oot Jl, or o\ is found : . . . JjjbJ o^il $ ?Q^J? o^, 
?oju.Vy *a$U "not merely did he manifest his diligence in uprooting the 
tares out of his land" Ov. 192, 19; Ji^a *©*aW? ol^ "I do not seek to 
boast" Ov. 138, 6; <dj{ It*** uJiii d^. «^J t?*-^!* ^^ *^© "and 
it is not because they are distant as regards the body, that they are no 



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§ 328. — 265 — 

sons of the Church" Ov. 121, 8 (where the two o\ are regular); «d{| 
^ ^*bdi ^6*£> t^?]? ^^°? f°* V ^^ Q'>ffi t^^ "that even those 
things, with which we are satisfied, fall to our lot, not because we have 
pleasure in them" Spic. 10, 18 &c. So vtf{ ^\ ft uu&*d Jjf? 6^ "he 
said not *I do not open to you"' Frothingham, Stephen Bar Sudaili 18, 1. 
Even before the Inf. Abs. they come in: ^[\ov> ?oju^a of^oy loo» JJ 
"not merely do they bring forth 11 Spic. 11, 7; o©» q^JJ^juo V*^ J^^P 
^^JUv> q^JLa^o (oo» jj ^»{iuup "for teachers are asked questions ; they 
do not put them" Spic. 1, 18; J^i^a^i *4& too* Jl* "that the thief does 
not know" Aphr. 129, 13 ; ^poj^ fil ***** **$*& ^>? "that I do not 
calumniate them" Euseb. Ch. Hist. 315, 6. So ibid. 180, 9. 

C. The simple JJ, however, is retained in several cases. It seems 
always to stand thus in prohibitive sentences, e. g. Jjdpa£; J^oj^Sa JJ 
^ootLig*; t??»y l${ \?°°^ "the brethren shall not, on the pretext of illness, 
forsake their cloisters" Ov. 213, 17; p£j» Jtfjtf> o{ I&j JL^da^ JJo 
yd^lo?!^^ 6t^o$^iL <o^ju "and tidy clothing, or sleek raiment, may not 
belittle the worth of your abstinence" Ov. 174, 14. And so, generally, in 
all modal relations, — thus JJj "that . . not", "lest" &c. 

D. Farther, in repetitions like yi»m^ oiyVfc Jlo Ij^Ja oiLjL> JJf 

°^ ^*i ^W*W ^* ^° "^ e a PP earance °f which is not good, nor the 
taste agreeable, and which has no pleasant smell" Aphr. 307, 19; Jl 
ybp ojj (oofJ V^J? V° Jfofyn"fc "neither among those who have gone 
before, nor among those who may come after, will one be found who is 
greater than thou" Sim. 270 inf.\ Jlo Jk^f 1AX $ ou§Ka& 1\1<lL JJo 
JULkia v 6o^3 Icl^ |^a ? JLfc^oi, (lo JJfu^ 1AX $ J^a^i* " and 
riches are not found except with a few, nor power except with one or 
two individual men ; neither is bodily health found with all men" Spic. 
10, 2; y£p ooo* ^jLA& ^friNv JJo ^o*a JJ JL'itvS ol llj Jtfjkbo "and soiled 
or shabby clothes were not to be seen at all, either among or upon them" 
Ov. 203, 10; j^ttd JJo JLa*& JJ ~o»ofj& &o» otJLd JJ "on his hands there 
remained neither skin nor flesh" Sim. 281 mid., and many such instances. 

E. Again, in elliptical speech, such as simply JJ "No", and in cases 
like Jjf ^Sfriaoao ^Lx» ^JJboo ^iAao "and with some of them we are 
satisfied, and with others not" Spic. 10, 19 ; Jjf ^o "but if not, then . • " 



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— 266 — §§ 329. 330. 

Aphr. 441, 7, and in other passages; Jl ^f ^Q-^$ "qUod utinam non 
(fuisset)" Assem. II, 446 (Philoxenus) ; JJo Ao&£ JbpJLft ui^V, JB{ 
)8r»>^\nTs > "I have written for those who are amenable to persuasion 
[sons of persuasion], not for scoffers" Aphr. 441, 8; ^po^^AflD y+l JJo 
Kai ovx &$ ol ypajmjULCCTsig avr&v Matt. 7, 29 ; and, in a similar use, the 
word often occurs. 

F. Again, it constantly presents itself in certain combinations, like 
JH' HI Hi "without" (and "that not", "lest", ne). So in Nominal com- 
pounds like fyoJb JJ "immortal"; ^ofs^JVKft JJ oupQxpa/x 1 Cor. 
15, 53 &c. ; also in cases like jbo^oL Jlo Jjj^fip Jbta^, o{ "O foolish and 
unintelligent people!" Mart. I, 113 inf. So too *if JJ "no one", )©£» JJ 
"nothing". 

G. Here and there occurs also JJ for {ooi JJ or o^. Thus JJ 
^i{ Vfrl l^L^"did we not cast three men?" Dan. 3, 24; J^jjA JJ 
^oajSS . . . o JL^(dtto "did not the Egyptians and the Moabites and 
• . . oppress you?" Judges 10, 11 (and that the fact of interrogation 
in such cases does not necessarily call for JJ, [instead of {oo* Jl] is 
shown by Jtapddai ^AriS oot* J^o& {oe* JJ ov McwoTjg l&oc/cev ijuuv rov 
v6fJLOV\ John 7, 19); lioj «i^pft^p p& JijjuI {Ka^pya JJo "and there 
was nothing else reverenced in the vehicle" Moes. II, 166 v. 1397 ; JJ 
^'opp ?*^^J J&tviV* "not merely men do they injure" Spic. 12, 7 ; 
Jjj^dD&& ^V*^? ^f*i ?^ JU ^ > ? J" " no * mere ty sne wn0 commits adultery is 
put to death" Spic. 15, 20; *»W Jl t*oi ~d*fcj wojojoju^aj ^$& JJo 
"and he did not, because he was alone, remain unheard" Aphr. 70, 8 &c. 
These sentences are not all free from a suspicion that the text has been 
tampered with; and this suspicion applies with special force to the words 
Jbu&Aj JJ{ tfi-U ^ "she was not born, but came forth" Ov. 403, 22, 
where in a way quite unusual oi^ stands immediately before the verb. 

position § 329. JJ and its strengthened forms loo» JJ, o\ can never come 

Negatwe. a ^ er the word to which they most directly refer. In the simple Verbal 

sentence, for instance, JJ must stand always before the verb. 
Double § 330. That a double negative may even in Syriac have the force 

of an affirmative, we have seen in several examples which embody 
restrictions ; cf. farther JJ ?oju^a Qt U^ '%? ^?J? ^o^ojl ^ v*^ o^ 



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§ 331. — 267 — 

^oj( jfcjs^ "for not only did he not deprive them of a share in the alms 
of his beneficence" Ov. 195, 1 &c. But, in particular circumstances, there 
may be attached to a negative sentence another Jl *sl, with a noun to 
be specially negatived; or the negation of several things may be ex- 
pressly specified, alongside of the leading negation: JL*^f? Jb^ <&o 
tju JjLdj t*£jl»{ JJ "and of the race of the monks not even one was injured" 
Jul, 26, 13; JJ *( 6^ ?of» »lo J>f* » *( 6^. Vt*» JJ i^Ucfi^fc. 
Jjoj JJ «dt JLauuop "for nothing whatever proves a hindrance to prayer, and 
neither sword nor fire brings it to perplexity" Anc. Doc. 104, 25 ; JSo^^b 
^^mJ t*i£$ JJL£^, Jbk^ ^> Jis( **&©♦{ JJ "therefore he did not even take 
his eyes off the stiff-necked people of the children of Israel" Ov. 194, 26 ; 

^juj ^9>yy JJ v!t aj ? 2 > ^° ^*&» JJ v?^? tyv* "the trut ^ °f our ^ 0< *> 
neither in our life nor in our death, do we give up" Mart. I, 186 mid.; 
Jjif ^ JJo Jln\y ^ JJ owtt JJo \wji JJ "be not thou afraid nor alarmed, 
either before kings or judges" Sim. 300 mid.; "in such-and-such lands 
JJo ••• JJo ... JJo {-^ JJo J^Jd\^ Jl tjLu uul JJ no man sees sculptors, nor 
painters, nor . . . nor ..." Spic. 17, 4 &c. In all these cases other modes 
of expression might also be used, d.e.g. If A °4*fV )*?* ?° ^i U ^ ut ^ s 
brought him no help at all" Ephr. II, 212 B. 

INTEKROGATIVE SENTENCES. 

§ 331. A. In Syriac there is no special syntactical or formal method interro- 
gative Sen- 
of indicating direct questions, as to "whether" the Predicate applies to tences. 

the Subject. Such interrogative sentences can only be distinguished from 

sentences of affirmation by the emphasis. JoCSS oo» oj may mean "God 

is great", quite as well as "Is God great?". 

B. The special interrogative words (which enquire about the subject 

or its attributes or other relations, or again after individual parts of the 

predicate), stand mostly at the beginning of the sentence: ^Stf^ ^" 

l$Q*p fy )»f» ih£ "how long art thou to keep running after what never 

stops?" Ov. 119, 10; ^odo J^f bJjj* pofioaA oLp "whom hast thou 

ever seen, that had grown rich and was satisfied?" Oy. 119, 11; Ji-a-J? 

{K/^ju o£a^» "and how did he make him to be sin?" Aphr. 134, 6; 

I^a ll^uuf lf*< "which religion is true?" Mart. I, 182, 6 &c. There is 



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— 268 — § 332. 

no essential divergence in cases like t*p{ J4*?£ (?fo^& H? <^i ^^ 
1 ^JgdOjbtj "of what commands and judgments then did Ezekiel say 
that . . .?" Aphr. 318, 11 ; v <LdUlX {oo»{ w^pjl J&f*. fog ttots toojuai puP 
bjj&v\ Matt. 17, 17; Luke 9, 41, and similar cases. But the interrogative 
is frequently shifted farther on in the sentence; only it is never permitted 
to stand after the verb or the copula: ©^ ^**£ Juo JU&JLd wj^, 6£*» 
"what supports this stone?" Moes. II, 88 v. 182; IAXJ j^A\ wOfoV&o; 
JjfcooX uuAJ& olao lip^^? f^f^i JbkJLo "his constant exhortations to 
the clergy under vows of chastity, who can recount?" Ov. 176, 14; {Mao^t, 
foot jxJjJfhJ J^J ^> q1» o>1ci o; rnv>$ It^y ^ "but to the mighty pro- 
portions of his renunciation, which of the monks could compare himself?" 
Ov. 184, 22; AuciAj Jjf J&X wo* . . . j {Kaia£ "the blessing, which . . . 
(long relative sentence), why has it not passed from me?" Aphr. 469, 1; 
hsj Juo U^Jt ^> ^^X "above the heavens what is there ?" Aphr. 496, 2 ; 
yiS«)p\ ^fiay JLiJ ^oJLi,"^, ^»£t "how can this apply to Saul?" 
Aphr. 342, 17; JL<[ ©MSfU^ "what is her race?" Moes. II, 110 v. 538; 
Jtapio* JLJJo Juo ^$** JLJlJ J^tf "wherefore and to what end is the face 
of the Hon?" Moes. II, 104 v. 431; vpo^^J *±*p? J?V> ^* "whose 
are these books?" Sim. 269 inf. &c. 

For sentences with JUa^, v. § 373. 

2. COMBINATION OF SEVERAL SENTENCES 
OR CLAUSES. 

A. COPULATIVE SENTENCES. 

Ellipses in § 332. Two nouns are strung together by means of © or ©J. (*) If 

sentences there are more members than two, the conjunction need only appear 
before the last of them, as in f^o^p ^c^ ^>n«inr» Itfrjo Jbo;-g J^l "land, 
the vine, and the olive stand in need of careful attention" Ephr. Nis. 
p. 8 v. 91 &c. Two or more nouns are combined to form one member of 
a sentence, while the association of several verbs properly constitutes, on 



(*) On ml in comparisons v. footnote to § 249 E. 



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§ 332. — 269 — 

all occasions, just so many sentences. But the grammatical sense makes 
no nice distinction between these cases, as is proved by the circumstance 
that the same conjunctions are employed for both. The connection of 
sentences, even with two* verbs, is often very intimate, when, for instance, 
both verbs have the same subject and object, and perhaps even the 
same adverbial qualifications, as in a sentence of this sort: Jio» ^^» 
JjLao tflD&Jt {As*a jQWif "on this account Simeon founded and built the 
house". Gentle transitions gradually lead to a perfectly clear separation 
of the two clauses, as when I say : ^£*a»o cCdKa {K*a ^o^^ajt Jio» ^^» 
tfes«^\ wo»JLa 09* ]m "on this account Simeon founded the house, and 
on this account he built the house". But only special reasons could 
justify such a tedious mode of expression. In most cases, in which there 
is a combination of clauses thus closely related in contents, some form 
or other of Ellipsis will appear, even though the conjunction fall entirely 
away. Thus also the proper verb for two closely connected clauses is 
often omitted in the second position, even though number and gender 
are different. The possible varieties of expression in such cases are very 
numerous. Compare the following examples : ^*aoJ J*-^j» <? °^ o^JL{o 
^vifi^o «&£po* [o*-X Ot^JLt] ^-uu| ^>o . . . o ,o*a&4L6 "and there were 
born to him of Leah, Reuben, Simeon &c, and of Rachel, Joseph and 
Benjamin" Aphr. 480, 8; [w6o» ^a»j] ,oo*xsto ftai yj loo» jbo; v 6©*cju£o 
{K«^o»N,ji9 Jnv\j y*l "and their aspect was like fire, and their faces 
like gleams of flame" Sim. 271 inf.\ Aoao JbaJjp **i£ {Vdaojbp ^>9>\* 0001 
[^ft\'H C) J^Jt^P ^ ** Jlv>»o "the men who are under vows [sons of the 
rule, canonici] shall learn psalms, but the women [daughters of the rule] 
hymns also" Ov. 217, 18;. flJL] JLdto JhvrhN JUL V lio^J^o lloaof 
Jjl&£&*; JU,*a JL^^ "haughtiness and pride do not beseem the lowly, 
nor does a crown [beseem] the head of the poor" Aphr. 180, 15; J00M 
^onj [looM] J^M^ yk*a P©9»4 Jh-^ ^2* J^a "thy contemplation 
may cleave to the dust, thy search to the mire, thy course to the earth" 
Moes. II, 96 v. 328; p+x> oo» Jl{ Ji^fa ^o©p (I Jj^ojjo JkaJ? fc'f^ii 



(*) The same tense as that at the beginning of the clause could not stand 
here (§ 260). 



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— 270 — § 333. 

[{i***» JootJ] {Loi^ JJf }Qju^ka ^oo»iAinfn\ jaaxbj "wares for purchase 
and sale must not be found in the convents, except that only which 
suffices for their needs, without greediness" Ov. 213, 9 ; ^AxJEop ^qjo* 
otkiua ^p [J^Lij Loot JL^Ajuftoo] ^ h&i Jm>Q-s ^m» v o)^x*Kj^ oooi 
"those made every endeavour to free themselves from disease, but this 
woman [strove to free herself] from her evil doings" Ov. 103, 5; and 
with ellipsis in the first position: ^aoti&fltto ^qjbJU?] v oo^'Sjn\ ^ ^o-sot 
Loot J^i&mao JLcoitj 6i&s^^|JJ ^? l?o» [oooi "now to cure their diseases 
those hastened, but this woman to cure her desires" Ov. 103, 3 &c. 
Thus also in parallel clauses, entirely unfurnished with any external 
mark of union : Le^, ootf&j»Lj 6^ Vt-^JJ? y+l Jbojto^ JLaJLo *-s^ o^ 
'jto o^ 6*aaj? {AooLo* Jl{ dpajto^j Jb^o^ 6*ttlij Ik*] W vpo "for 
not bodily pain constrained her, as it did the others, to hasten to our 
Lord, but the sting of her conscience, not the leprosy of her body but 
the blemishes of her soul, not . . . &c." Ov. 102, 23 &c. 

Negation in § 333. When the first clause is affirmative, and the attached clause 

sentences, negative, ellipses occur of the kind mentioned in § 328 E. But when 
the negation has reference to both clauses, it is either repeated, — in 
which case the emphasised form described in § 330 may appear, — or 
it merely stands once for all. In the latter case o{ is more usual as 
a connecting particle than o, unless the second clause is at bottom 
rather an expansion or inference than a purely parallel clause. Sen- 
tences with . . . o . . . JJ instead of ... Wo ... JJ : \tl bifhw \t{ JJLola. JJ 
j Jtt ^>niS> "I (f.) am not to bear and endure everything which" Spic. 
3, 20; ,oKj{ ^v^b 6tA^4»o v on^a iU-^j[ +$C) ^V^n*» ^pA^qo* JJ 
{IqjjLd ^o ;^\ p*» "do not ye accept for any one a forged letter 
((frakaov falsam), and do nothing on that account beyond justice" Ov. 
220, 10; ^*j(o v oKj{ ^»\ni JJ "you are not to take and go" [i. e. "you 
are not to carry off"] John Eph. 399, 15; k4**a uJp»(to JL£uuL JJ "do 
not sin and speak evil of me" Mart. I, 75 inf.] ^s^jto JboJt y£* JJo 
"and by no means swear falsely [lit. "swear and be false"]" Ephr. II, 



(!) V. § 260. 



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§ 334. — 271 — 

337 E ; oiioij (*) jbo^{ ui^o^dLo w>]qa oviv ^juai JJ "search not in 
me for my faults, so as to requite me as I have deserved" Ephr. HE, 
522 E; Jn^mX l^a^ loofilo wia*oj ^ w*v& Jboofi JJ "turn not away 
(thine eyes), Lord, from my wretchedness, and let me not become a 
servant of Satan" Ephr. m, 523 A &c. 

With o{: ^bs**Ji >fc^jbU 6{ ^X 1\j>1 JJo "and grieve not or be 
desponding in thy thought" Sim. 301, 4 (Cod. Lond. otherwise); and 
many similar instances. Cf. J^o^af JbaJjp <*jl£o Jja*iiv»o JLaUlo ^ooop Jl 

Jbfj J^»*ks» ^i^2fiooc Jbuj <oojs, t^^^i \P°9^ W "Priests, Deacons, and 
men under vows shall not be curators or agents for laics, or take charge 
of the lawsuits of their own relatives, or undertake for hire the conduct 
of the suits of any one whomsoever, or be in constant attendance at the 
door of the judge" Ov. 218, 8. In this example several prohibitions are 
comprised, in part by means of o, in part by ©{, while only a single ne- 
gative is expressed. Of course thfc negative might have been repeated 
once or oftener. 

§ 334. A. In several of the sentences quoted above, the connection copulative 

Sentence 

effected by © has figured as a somewhat inexact mode of signifying a for a con- 
relation, which is not quite identical with the one given in the first n e "uTcir- 
clause. Such an "and" is also found sometimes when a consequence, or ciun8tance 

* 7 or for a 

a contemporaneous accessory circumstance, is dealt with: K*o6t qvI ^b conse- 

• * * quence. 

jayiaN JLofo "what should I have done, to hinder the sun?" ZDMG 
XXX, 117 v. 235; JM Aoojdo ^xjajI ^jax>*{ ^ JLaJ) "whither had we 
all withdrawn ourselves, that thou didst arise?" Joseph 227, 4 [Ov. - 
312, 12]; J£h^ JL»o? ^^mUsad JJo Jb^ojL ^^ o>xlka pxpf±.o "and to 
him who has set his building upon a rock, whereon it is not swayed 
by winds and waves" Sim. 395, mid.; lk*V?? t&v\ai> U© ^{ p»N J^oo~9 
"the mouth which said "God", at which the reins of beings created 
trembled" Ov. 138, 24; Jio*£ ^Jbio ^p»? K»l u£f "the curtain which 
the priest raises and (through which he then) enters" Apost. Ap. 176, 18 
(Gnost. Hymn); \\>yfoa»t wKjlJo <-^otX J&l} yJ "as he produced 



0) V. § 64 



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— 272 — § 335. 

(water) to Hagar, whereof Ishmael drank" Aphr. 314, 6; ^o^-d ^Xo* 
v*^ fiujbo JJo «,,*» >^ u wi?£pfc» kaKbf . . • "all this that I have written I 
have reminded thee of, beloved, without being wearied" Aphr. 184, 5; 
wotod^o wO)Q^a(; pj* "something which they imposed upon him, 
and with which they vexed him" Sim. 280 mid.; {ooi ;jkib? Ifisjtfa ^£*a» 
tjy^ri\ *A**a»o "by reason of the evil which he did, and (through which) 
he oppressed many" Sim. 317 mid.; y^\ y^Vgo ^Jka ^o «jlol&)L? "that 
thou leave us with thy heart in doubt" Ov. 308 nit. ; Au&aj w©* iLKrf {on 
opa^ Jvuu\o "then went out that woman, having bread with her" 
Acta S. Maris 45, 2. Instances of the latter kind, where the © in- 
troduces a pure conditional clause, are rare in original writings in 
Syriac, as the more distinct j-o is used for this purpose. 

B. To the verb ^0, jjpi* "to command" the execution of the design 
is sometimes annexed, without the substance of the order having been 
announced beforehand; so too with Jaj "to wish", and occasionally with 
other verbs besides: ,ojI aAdio ^os "he gave command (to bring them 
out) and they brought them out" Mart. I, 94, 8; J** olio *a*o "and 
at his command water came" Sim. 353, 11; ^** 6t6^d&*o froin\ <-o9 
^ootk&ioj "at his command the priests took it (f.) upon their shoulders" 
Aphr. 265, 6 &c. (and thus frequently in the Document of 201 in the 
Chron. Ed.); ojuoiUo ^p» Jb*j "by the will of the Lord they were deli- 
vered" Sim. 295, 11; I*o»QJ oju#o ^p» ^oo*X oou "the Lord granted 
them that they should see the light" Sim. 346, inf. ; Jfcao w^o "and he 
began (to build) and built (completing the work)" Land II, 167, 6. 
dose com- § 335. Some verbs, which express a quality, very often join the 

two^erbf specific verb to themselves in this way, by means of o. In particular we 
of <w» 8 have ,a S A *i» *****! " to te audacious "> **^p^ " to multiply": ooot ^djju*? 
^p»lo "who had the boldness to say" Mart. I, 19 inf.; Lppto Kjl>^o{ 
"thou didst venture to say" Aphr. 82, 11 ; vpoA- l^po w^^»( "he called 
often to them" Aphr. 503,4; w*^»{o )»JL^"he threatened severely" 
Jul. 64, 3 &c. Not seldom the impersonal «*f^ "it befell", "it came to 
pass", is dealt with in the same way, e. g. : fca-^. • • «iiy»lo *tN^ "it 
chanced that a man asked me" Aphr. 394, 6. Farther ^mio ^%nr»nv) 
"they take in addition" Spic. 14, 18; ^JLitto Axaooi JJ "but ask no more" 



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§ 336. — 273 — 

Simeon of Beth Arsham (Guidi) 11, 4 = Knos, Chrest. 44 inf.; p^o 
wQjuo "showed before" Aphr. 451, 9; ok*aoo o^o^o "died before" Euseb. 
Ch. Hist. 128 paen. ; ^elc too* )*$*po "was said beforehand" ibid. 14, 14, 
18; 275, 6 ab inf. (more frequently jo^b occurs in this application without 
the o, § 337 A). In these cases, however, subordination of the second 
clause is permitted, and in certain of them it is much more usual. Thus 
along with the afore-mentioned Lppto £wVttt? there occurs also oiao 
pajjj; uu^a^b "who ventures to say?" Aphr. 430, 12, and iAtijvTv oupof 
"he ventured to say" Ov. 196, 15. 

§ 336. In the case of two closely combined verbs, the substantive Govern- 

. . ment of 

Object, which is governed by both, needs to appear once only, § 332 (e. g. such com- 
ogUbhi ^qjo JL^? "that he reveal and make known his mind" Jul. 
83, 9; |jl>{ ui^S. vjuaJfc>o J*~A\o <j&* "he ennobled, elevated and glorified 
the sons of men" Aphr. 336, 3, where no fewer than three verbs have 
only one expressed object). Not only so, but an Object-suffix which be- 
longs to both verbs is occasionally attached to one only: yiso o^t-J^o wjjl* 
"g£eXe ccvtov /cod fiate amo gov" Matt. 5, 29 C. (P. yiao w^o 6mja>; S. 
yiso ©*->♦-* 6t-jju) ; wO)o1^ao °K^ "and they dragged and threw him 
down" Aphr. 471, 12; ^qjJ JJLdo *^* "lamed and hindered them" Aphr. 
330, 16 &c. And then, two verbs are often so intimately associated that 
the government of the one, which may not be at all that of the other, 
operates for the entire combination, and the object stands next to the 
verb to which it by no means belong: jboJo }**-&* JLaojt u^fto^ *j> 
"while he rises up and numbers the stars of heaven" Aphr. 199, 13; 
<*ia» <oAo4^p ^p^jupoi . . . JLoab "the cup ye have had the daring to 
steal from me" Joseph 238, 9 [Ov. 318, 14]; wo»ci\v wOjuo ja^b ljo» 
"he referred this to him beforehand" Aphr. 12, .3; n\v l*-*J? ^^» 
^potA^b; Jivi\j ja** )ln>oo JLaoooT* aa&xpo "because the Romans entered 
and set up the eagle in the temple, together with the image of their em- 
peror" Ephr. II, 222 E; *aa**o v^otf JJo^o "and he hastens to practise 
iniquity" Isaac I, 266 v. 362; o;j2Ll»o o^r^t j£a^ Jaa^ "they had 
craftily dug mere pits" Land HI, 257, 3; jLAouA^, JLt^d {&*&uu&a JU,aa» 
^ve Kjuj ^fj^a "Moses, here below, brought himself down to the 
lower people in Egypt and prepared the Passover" ZDMGr XXVII, 571 

18 



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bination of 
two Verbs 
without 
"and". 



— 274 — § 337. 

v. 103 (cf. ibid. v. 109) ; otLt^ju JLtlo \s±£ " s ^ e come s carrying her com- 
panions" (f.) ibid. 598 v. 274; and wotajyvom ^(o o©» ^£ "he goes 
bearing his deeds" ibid. v. 276 &c. Similarly too with the passive : vJijbo 
o&a;j{o 1+m& tAd . . . ? U*^b ^j JL^oJLxaD "but many vessels of silver, 
which ( — long relative clause . . . ), were on a sudden sold at his com- 
mand" Ov. 172, 20. Cf. with Prep.: o»k*»*l© *s*a; tj^n^o "and I have 
conquered him and have cast him into the grave" [lit "and into the grave 
I have conquered and cast him"] Ephr. Nis. p. 106, 39. 
close com- § 337. A. Syriac, however, very frequently indeed combines a pair 

of verbs, set together without any connecting particle at all, (a) when 
they denote actions which immediately follow each other or attend upon 
each other, or (b) when the verbs are such that the one merely gives ex- 
pression to a modification of the other. Examples : (a) ^v ^cw ^o^ 1 -^ 
"Gideon went in and made ready" Judges 6, 19; ^JLi, ou{ li?j ooM?o 
ua\ "and if any man doth come and enquire of thee" Judges 4, 20; III 
pj* iXOuv iard&7] Matt. 2, 9 P. S. (C. ;»jdo '{) ; ©£w r^° o^aj neaovreg 
irpoosKWTjaav airy Matt. 2, 11 P. C. (S. 'aoo); ty Jb>i> Jj! III %p%ojuai Zprpm 
Luke 13, 7; o^j )a-b "he arose and led him away" Ov. 162, 20; *oslj 
JLa*V «nm9> "he went out and beheaded them" Mart. I, 122, 23; joqjd 
XI y^ot "up! go and come" Sim. 293 inf.; JJjJ ^/Vj "that he go and 
pray" Ov. 163, 25; JbJ{ IjUuJ t^J? "that he go there and see the land" 
Aphr. 455, 3, and frequently thus with verbs of motion; ^^x> i+M, 
dTToareiXag dvsfksv Matt. 2, 16; ^»ji\ o»l;^\ w&J i^m, "he sent 
and fetched his daughter, to Nisibis" Jos. St. 89, 18, and thus fre- 
quently wkJ y+M, "to send for", "to fetch"; ^ yaajnab ^^b ;-s^JI 
^X ^j .na\ )&jLoo "for he does not cause us to enter and be seated, 
just for the purpose of rising and iniquitously judging (*) us" Joseph 
205, 1; J*ifS,v «n»^a **ju2 "the world is laid hold of and abandoned" 
Aphr. 458, 1. (b) U*>( Jboo^o irpoeipyj/ca Matt. 24, 25; wo*o2;ja oa»+jb 
"they named him before" Aphr. 7, 8; Jiij ^oofArv, otol U.\m{ i-s^Pt-b 
"for Isaiah placed judges over them before" Aphr. 97, 6 ; 0009 .-^ -.r 
^2ll "they had come beforehand" Land HE, 350, 7; y*N*a {oot ttLus 



i 1 ) The last couple yj? ***. ranks rather under (b). 



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§ 337. — 275 — 

(oo» "had been promised before" Aphr. 26, 4, and many other verbs with 
joJjd and jafca, and particularly in translating Greek verbs compounded 
with <irpo-\ in passive forms like **qSA\ ]*+q "had been pointed out before" 
Aphr. 63, 18, or (more rarely) like t-*jL&^» p+6b*o "is prefigured" Isaac 

II, 136 v. 600 &c. So too in another sense ^onmi ^ovyni? "that they 
ascended in the morning (the next morning)" Sim. 293 mid. — w*^sf 
opepo) avrdv {nrepvipccaev Phil. 2, 4; o^m^d( ^s^ot "strongly convinced 
him" Sim. 279 mid.; )xZi us^o? "loved much" Ephr. in Wright's Cat. 
689 a, 14; \SS4a*» Kil JL^m^h "thou speakest a great deal" Job 15, 4 &c. 
This verb too (us^ot) is often put second: Jk^ot <a£D?i "thou heapest 
up much treasure" Isaac II, 92 v. 67; JL^d{ p§^ "abuse greatly" Joseph 
213, 12 [Ov. 305, 8] (var. j*±»)1 JL^»{ "exclaim loudly") &c. (cf. supra 
§ 335). — ^ju^dK* ^9>moV> "they are farther cultivated" Aphr. 458, 
1 &c— J^4 *-t^> " he b y chance forgets" Aphr. 296, 8.— Jka tfu "he 
built anew" Land III, 246, 14; ja^flottj i*ju "was laid down anew" Land 

III, 177, 27— I+Jl* Jtjusb "he begins again" Aphr. 439, 3 &c— oaoii^D 
^o^oihseo "they buried him in haste" Ov. 207, 26 — frvfrvoo ftNna. ljao* 
"she speedily gained health" Ephr. Ill, 554 E; o^oa ©m-» 1++ «^AjuL{ 
k+oa+ "he eagerly flung off every burden" Ov. 166, 7 — ot^J ^j* "he 
placed him in the midst" Ephr. Ill, 569 A — o+m, o*qjl{ "they shot, in 
corresponding fashion" Mart. I, 79, 12; and so too with other verbs, 
particularly in translations from the Greek, like *9ot, \ub, t*i£, «ftfl> 
"again" ; ;ju62 "late" ; yiol "long" &c. Very probably in all these cases 
other constructions might have been employed, for instance with o, or 
with subordination effected by means of ^ or j. 

B. The construction of »**ja[ has a special ranking of its own in 
this section: e;r>v ojulbuil? "they could draw out" ("they were able, they 
drew out") Sim. 365 mid.; ^*g£ unij "has (he) been able to save thee?" 
Dan. 6, 20; and even negatively, ^qj( *jl>{ >*nii Jjj JlaJ iocrs /M7jk^ti 
Xoopeiv Mark 2, 2 ; p)nm9i u*nij JJ "could not cut it (m.)" Mart. I, 
129 ult ; oM»fc£ ouaa{ JJ "could not save him" Jul. 96, 17 ; *y^ KjuaaJ JJ 
"she could not cross over" Ov. 12, 19. Additional instances are found 
in Ephr. (Lamy)I, 607 str. 19; 617 str. 1; 684 str. 18; Joseph 124, 8 sq. &c. 
Cf. 6M&4*i <*«ftij Jbo* "how could he drive her away?" Joseph 100, 5. 

18* 



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— 276 — § 338. 

At the same time, such construction of this very common word is relatively 
rare. So wo^o^o oaaa jj "they were not able to put him to death" 
Ephr. II, 435 B — Lamy I, 23 str. 26. 
Govern- § 338. A. Just as in the case of vefbs connected by © (8 336), so when 

mont of ... 

such com- two verbs are placed together without a conjunction, an object which is 
common to both usually appears only once : ©Pi-ooj yJAia ;vivt ^aLL ^o 
"when thou dost introduce the memory of him into thy soul, and cause 
it to dwell there" Ov. 163, 20; JLat? Jijtf ki«>\ K\ni "she took gar- 
ments of mourning and put them on" Jac. Sar., Thamar v. 280. With 
suffixes': og^ooj t£»;o dvayaydov avrov Luke 4, 5 S.; o^ool o^q^loo 
6to^aj» tcai ovarslXavrsg i^yvsy/cccv Kai S&ccipav {avrrp) Acts 5, 10; JJi 
^qjJ jaaxcl "he lifted them up and poured them out" Sim. 273 inf.; 
opok W "he took and gave her" Ov. 168, 7 ; o^J *Ajo "he 
brought him and led him in" Sim. 271 mid. ; and thus pretty often. 

B. When the object belongs only to one of the verbs thus set together, 
it may yet be separated from it by the other verb, just as in the case 
of verbs connected by means of o: s*o»©t?Ja ^ju{ js+& {o^oL lj|{ "a 
wonderful mystery he held by anticipation in his hands" Aphr. 64, 5; 
yO^J ott^t p+b JjjJLa fjo» «d{o "this too our father did beforehand by 
mystic sign" Aphr. 63, 13; o^ul aao+JDi . . . l&±++ "the knowledge . . . 
that they had before" Aphr. 448, 16; ^po JbJJb v***j III {*qjo "and 
the Lord came and cast fire upon the earth" Ov. 124, 14; ^b Jftmp 
^ sJbwj ^^, "who has come in and brought us money?" Joseph 229, 7 
[Ov. 313, 17]; <^bo ^Jt w*^»f . . . ? ^41 "those, who . . ., he sub- 
jected to much contempt and humiliation" Ov. 175, 11; oj^ml };o* wouo 
y^teJLa o^jof "and this they made known in Edessa, by means of mes- 
sengers" Jos. St. 90, 15; wkJ i+m,} "whom he sent for" John Eph. 328, 
6 &c. So too o^Dio nn.vj qjuu9l&{ ^ i-s^W? y+l "for as they could 
not afflict or injure me" Sim. 300 inf. (cf. § 337 B). So also with 
prepositions: n\|Vt? o&doi }i*+a "in their turn they found fault with 
the judge" O Isaac I, 220 v. 313; ujc^ ^»opl ©jo/i ^ftob JLuj** ^ 
"from the East, our native land, my parents equipped and sent me forth" 



( l ) guJLa ^^sJU "he found fault with some one". 



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§§ 339. 340. — 277 — 

Apost. Apoc. 274, 11 (Gnostic hymn); (var. ^*ox>{o) y*o.ju{ ooKa{ 
JLitV ^*Xo* ^k, jb&*ju$ u^,o^*;» "I am writing and submitting demon- 
strations to you, my beloved friend, about these leading, points" Aphr. 
446, 1 &c. 

C. There is a Hebraism, which is occasionally imitated in original 
writings, — the placing of a {ooio (\T1) devoid of any special meaning, at 
the beginning of the clause, — and which is followed by a Perf. with or 
without an o-connection, e. g. <mfii»i^q* ^Ok, ikaoo* ^^b *ka ^* Joo»o 
"and, a few days after, Jovianus entered" Jul. 86, 1 ; j^ao*} oiito\ Joo»o 
iLajui 6»,\.p Kjlloo \\&$ og^ft "and the next day, in the morning season, 
the whole of the people assembled together" Jul. 95, 9 &c. 

§ 339. The conjunction o does not serve the purpose of introducing Note upon 
the apodosis (like the German "so" &c). Where it seems to stand for 
this in the O. T., it is a literal translation of the Hebrew 1; in other 
passages its appearance is due to corruption of the text. ( x ) © has, however, 
taken possession of nearly the whole compass of the signification of the 
Greek /cat, and often means "also", "even" ["auch"], and then it is inter- 
changeable with *d{ or «fit& Such an © ("auch") may have a place in the 
most diverse positions of the sentence, and even at the very beginning 
of the apodosis. Farther o is everywhere allowable in the sense of ex- 
clusion before negations, in cases like *x» W° "not even one"; y^^o J)o 
"nothing at all" &c. In the same sense we find *x» P &l &c. 

§ 340. In rare cases, when several members of a sentence, or and %l 
several sentences, are put together, © is placed even before the first of doubled * 
these ("both . . . and"), e. g. in frofiiiiX© Jb;oot*^.o Kd;. "she conquered 
both the Jews and the infidels" Ephr. IH, 161 B ; ^inriM «j*qj^o . . . j 
^u* ^\ppb y*aa uo^So ^jju ^ju> yj^U^^o ^jju "that . . . we over- 
come thy fire, trample thy menaces underfoot, mock at thy threatenings" 
Jul. 48, 1. Cf. ibid. 21, 7, 14. So Jlo— Jlo "neither— nor" ibid. 106, 1. 
More frequent is oi — o{ "either — or": wO)nr,,\ 62 o^^ jLu©^, J^o£** o{ 
)iN^m\nfS oifA, Jao^*} "either chastise to the length of frightening, or 



( x ) Copyists often dealt rather carelessly with these very common particles 
and i — of little significance to their minds. 



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Relative 
Pronoun 
and Eofer- 



— 278 — §§ 341. 342. 

send the erring ones to the civil magistrates" Ov. 219, 10; ok-( ol 
{io&a Ot^ol ol ^X "either hring to us (the writings of the heretics), or 
hum them in, the fire" Ov. 220, 19; v o^-uOto of ^oaJLs ol . . . ^QJot &b 
"that they also . . . either conquer or are overcome" Spic. 12, 13; cf. ibid, 
19, 23; Jul. 146, 6; 152, 27 &c. Prohably this use of o— o, ©t — o{ was 
first brought about through kou — kcci\ rj — ^; cf. e. g. Luke 16, 13. 

B. RELATIVE CLAUSES. 
ATTRIBUTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES. 
§ 341. What was originally the demonstrative pronoun * has had 
its signification so much weakened, that in very many cases it serves 

ring Form, merely to indicate the connection of the relative clause with the word, 
of which that clause forms the attribute, while a personal pronoun (or a 
pronominal suffix), pointing back to that word, stands in its regular gram- 
matical connection within the relative clause. 

Referring § 342. This referring pronoun may even stand as the Subject, e. g. 

case of «*&•?*? °9»? ^t? "-*$** ^*° " tne k* n S °f Media and Persia, who is 

the subject. Darius „ Aphr g 3j 5 * (but Jjj^a^j ^o»okJ? "H*? **<** " the Over- 
shadowing cherub, who is Nebuchadnezzar" Aphr. 87, 2); a*ooi; ut^a 
{oiSS? o^a^A "thy house, which is the temple of God" Aphr. 46, 1 ; 
^*ot ^** ^X u^fritt oot? o6t JLaj "that prophet, who has informed us 
of this" Ov. 75, 10; "W^ouJJ {k\SJb& *,*£ oa*i jL*oja\, "to Moses, who 
separated the kinds of food for Israel" Aphr. 310, 8; v**e*i It^jal JLob^j 
Jfcs-dbt-o "the last testament, which is the first" Aphr. 28, 9 ; Jl ^(o 
l^uuj ^o^a ^ vpo^X JLo^a» wot? <ootA b*J o*k^u>f "nor even is 
there in them the fear of Him (God), which delivers them from every 
(other) fear" Spic. 2, 25; ftd^ijp *+±s* ^oJctf JLJL+& "the Midianites, 
who are the children of Keturah" Aphr. 211, 4 &c. The separation 
of the referring pronoun from the relative-word gives stronger emphasis 
in oot ^IcL^o ^ JLs^b JJo Jb^ JJ oot JLuJo JbojuV ^oo^j Jbo? Jboju'* qj^ 
"that is the (true) friend, who, when friends and brethren forget thee, 
for his part forgets thee not, and forsakes thee not, but remains with 
thee" Ephr. Ill, 305 F. Additional force we find given by a demonstra- 
tive, e.g. in k*t^ h* *•©)? "id quod accidit" Ephr. (Lamy) I, 217 5- 



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§ 343. — 279 — 

(oot ^sud&fiD? Ji\vr> )a^ Jio* oot? "which man found himself directly 
with the king" Jul. 235, 25. 

In all these cases, however, the Referring form is necessary only 
when the relative clause consists merely of > and a substantive, without 
a copula. Far more frequently it is wanting as the Subject. 

§ 343. In the majority of cases too the Objective relation is indi- Referring 

Form in 

cated without having recourse to a referring pronoun. Thus e. g. (fiobaao the case of 
Jb&*? Spfcov bv ob/toaev Luke 1, 73; ^ajd? totSS? i&^*o "the word of God, the 0bject ' 
which he had received" Ov. 166, 9; ?ia*d> {^a*j lo^J^o JJa^ "the 
wickedness and the sins, which looseness engenders" Ov. 179, 18; and thus 
very frequently. On the other hand recourse is had to the Referring 
form in woiJijo^j oo» "whom we have mentioned" Ov. 164, 17; otitis* 
otttt^ 6m*o? ~6i {otSS? "in the Church of God, which he gained with his 
blood" Ov. 172, 17; {<*SS ©M>t^? W*>)?*1 " for to Adam, whom God 
blessed" Aphr. 346, 12; o^oju ^qj} tm*d( JJj ^s^^oiot "for those whom 
his love did not persuade" Ov. 175, 5 &c. The Referring form is usual 
with the participle: v?°*^^J \P©*X V+±* JLi©*X J*£^? ^*? JUivi"» 
"the sons of men, whom their cupidity still beguiles" Spic. 8, 14; 
{ioaJg <oo£** jL;jb? JLaj{ "people, whom grace calls" Jul. 27, 27 &c. 
With a dependent Infinitive: hs*oo* Jbjj Jl o^k?\n\? p+so o6t "that thing, 
which I did not wish to write" Ov. 21, 7; ]i &l) ^J {K-uuojo f^<^ 
^j? JJL^yftw antv) J^V 9 "^ ne curses an( i revilings, which not even 
Scripture can reveal" Aphr. 343, 18. Since a verb does not readily take 
two personal pronouns as its object, the Referring form is left out with 
double transitives, in cases like ^o&l ^pital? ?laX^?? {v^%3 "the false 
gods [idols of falsity], which our fathers made us heirs to" Jer. 16, 19 
(Aphr. 321 idt.)\ v^t^J ^*J "that which thou hast commanded us" 
Sim. 397, 12; ^jKXjLil JIj &\o uiAs^ai? <p+& "what thou hast sought from 
me, and also what thou hast not asked of me" Aphr. 506 ult &c. On 
the other hand, the Referring form is desirable in cases like <mfu^rr>o{ 
JftnnnW JJoa* bu+b looi o^a**? oot Jiaa^ "the blessed Eusebius, whom 
the holy Rabbula made a bishop" Ov. 167, 20. We have a Passive from the 
double transitive verb, in hJl » »na? **& "something that was ordered thee" 
Moes. II, 70, 11; but such an expression perhaps can only occur in brief 



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— 280 — §§ 344. 345. 

unequivocal sentences. To this perhaps we may add, that vjuLo "(is) 
satisfied, contented" is sometimes employed like a transitive verb, in a 
short relative clause : uuLoj j^o \SSjaj? "that he should say what he 
wanted" ("wherewith he was satisfied") Joseph 11 paen. [Ov. 275, 5] 
(var. ^ajj "what we wished"); uuiao? {t-»jb Ephr.IH, 674 F; uud*o* Jaaao 
ibid. 675 A; uuiao? ^k, ^po^, +j&& Joop "let him order them whatever 
he wishes" Sim. 369, 8. Similarly toot J^*JL* jLa*;^ K*)i "the blessed 
seed, after which she was longing" Jac. Sar., Thamar v. 279. 

Peculiar is the lack of the Referring form with dependent parti- 
ciples (§ 272) in y^\?i\t> toot +%*>) w6i tio^ «% "the bounty, which he 
was wont to dispense" Ov. 205, 19. 
Referring § 344. The Referring form, however, is necessary with the Genitive 

Form with . . 

Genitive relation and with Prepositions : ot^» ^a\fr jbki^otk*^? ^b "one, whose 
positions, house thieves break into" Aphr. 145, 11; otiojoi K*X? ika£*o*p (jo» 
©ji^o jvi\\^ "this gift, the like of which does not exist in the whole 
world" Aphr. 356, 3; JbJufc*. ri U 6*a? llio^) {ijb "through a little sign, 
by means of which he was caught for life" Ov. 162, 1; 6^ A?U> f 1 .fy^ 
"to the grotto, in which he was born" Ov. 165, 3; o£** Kj( *-^b> to»3s 
wotoiiKo k^Jto JNnm^ o£** &*l pJLxbo "God whom thou dost adore, 
and before whom thou layest sweet odours, and whose scriptures thou 
hast heard" Sim. 271 mid. &c. The Referring form is attached to a 
substantive depending on another substantive, in ^Xot . . . {i$t£Jb 
^ootiVtcLtt? J*i\j[ ^»nmV) {i*juao ?kfiuk£»j "in the fathers, the deline- 
ations of whose virtues are set forth both in the Old Testament and in the 
New" Ov. 160, 9; t^>U oiioU ^ {jjuj ftoAwj JUoaja? oo* . . . j&o»;ai 
JJoai ]b^Q_£ ?oo» "Abraham . . . , by the moderate brightness of one of 
whose signs the blessed Rabbula was attracted" Ov. 167, 12 — 14. 
Referring § 345. The Referring form may, in certain circumstances, occur 

fe°crad in * ex pli°i% or implicitly, only in a farther attributive or dependent clause: 
clause. wotalflpuDj JLo*^, 1^? W I*-* Jl W? o©t o J oCk sl/xi iycb a%ioq ha \im 
avrov t6v ijudvra tov farobyjULccrog John 1, 27 ; ^Xot . . . ^^{ &Jto ^»*! 
JLiiomN JLJo* ^o ^j( «ajusu? k ±l> ^NvW }ici^>^ ti^S* ^ "the forty- 
six letters . . . which, if grace help (or with the help of God's grace), we 
are endeavouring to translate from the Greek into Syriac" Ov. 200, 19; 



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§346. — 281 — 

^ojf ^>i? vjuAjLio . . . JLju( ^a ^p> ^A^J . . . Jyoaa "commandments, 
such as every one can fulfil" Spic. 5, 24; wfotit t^ &j{ jrfj ^»o* 
^jf oo&o? t*X Kju^ji ^otioJLs^na "which, as they filled thee with 
amazement through the greatness of their number, thou didst commission 
me to note down (in letters)" Jos. St. 5, 2; IfSuso <aJLu? ?y»»rn JaaSoji 
^oi{ \SSjoj "the well-ordered glories, which the book-learned man has 
a difficulty in describing" Moes. II, 158 v. 1266; ^;^»? w6i . . . lio\£p 
6(±. iQoi+k+l h^l++h± JLil&j "the moon, to which they think that now they 
very specially belong" Ov. 70, 3; ^nnmi? ?t^xa| ^*l? w6* • • • JLtiot l+u 
oooi ^]* JJ 6^ "one path, by which not even two persons could 
ascend together" Jos. St. 15, 6; hs+l Jl )ifju{ op^o «a$jj Jaqju ojot "Two 
es£ amor, quo qui major sit, non est" Jac. Sar. in Zingerle's Chrest. 
p. 375 — ^Lu9 Jyod&a? Ipol? tidaj "the things, of which I have said, 
that they rest upon ordinance" Spic. 4, 17; ^pftu? ^h n9iv>? p+& )iot 
^0*^^,1? "this thing, which you have been commanded to do" Spic. 1, 7; 
oti&t» <£» ia*tfnj? toot t-*k^j Jbo "what the Lord was about to do with 
him" Sim. 309 mid. &c. Cf. t'fa-^ ^^ f kap» «aJbo? ill "ubi scriptum 
est nasci viros" Spic. 15, 9. Notice farther Jb^ <o°^? ^*^^ • • • fo'voffl* 
yX JL^Kj^j W "these doings, which I will recount to thee" Jos. St. 8, 6; 
ooK&j? ^* Ja&AfiD ^o^lf "quae ut scribamus nobis propositum est" Jos. 
St. 6, 11, — in which instances also the Referring form belongs to the 
verb which stands at the close. The sentence ^ out uqaj Jl *auo? oot 
woto*opaJL) knvojw fcj6km$ ^d {KaXo "quern quis carnificem fidelium 
vocans forte non fallatur" Land II, 175, 9 [lit: "he whom perhaps one 
would not depart from propriety in calling 'the executioner' (questionarius) 
of the faithful"] is no doubt essentially Greek in thought. The clause 
which should have contained the Referring form, is left out as self- 
evident, in lOjvnri) [^o^pftjj] JJoj ^*{o "and do what it befits them 
[to do]" Jos. St. 88, 15. 

§ 346. The expression of the Referring form by means of a proper Befemng 
demonstrative is rare; and is limited to special cases. In tflDuu? wot pr e ™ e a X b " y 
{jo* ^a> ^onN "quod absit a vobis" Addai 44, 16, the tm*> — originally * Dem(m - 
belonging to the beginning of the sentence — is but loosely attached to 
what precedes it. Sentences, again, of a different style, are met with in 



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— 282 — § 347. 

u^, JLjUu jll {Loao? w6» y+\y JLa^ii ^ l^^\sl {^ "I see a glorious man, 
the like of whose form has never yet been seen by me" Sim. 328, 7, and 
JjLaji ^^.ota toot Jl w6i yjy III "a sign, the like of which has not happened 
in these times" Sim. 379, 12. — *^ti? ^ijy ^n& {joi ^£t*»! "on ac- 
count of winch thing we command thee to be chastised" John Eph. 202, 
19, and suchlike expressions, in John Eph. and others, scarcely correspond 
to true Syriac idiom. The Referring form is strengthened by means of 
a demonstrative in \LL ^po*X &J ^*\o)\ <o°^? • • • Jaooio^ vJLa 
"kinsmen . . . , people who possessed an army" Jul. 152, 21 ; )a^, Ji©» oo*j 
{oo* VnNft>| JfiVv> "who had just met with the emperor" Jul. 235, 25 ; 
^o o*X ©*X^?©» wot «d{? "what the Lord Hkewise revealed to him" Sim. 
366 mid. In expressions of locality, the Referring form is more usually 
contrived by means of the adverb of place, ^ot "there": JJblj . . . ftLJJ 
Ifc^ao JL^ab ^b&^* "at a place, which even the word does not reach" 
Moes. II, 156 v. 1247; ^rnoK^o ^l Ic*$jl> ^po£j>? ill "there, where all 
sins are expiated" Aphr. 243, 2; ^bL t^!*^? oM^o ^ }**» "with its own 
like, where (= in which) it had been fettered" Ov. 63, 10 ; wo-b ^bi w ^^f 
\io&i "ubi utinam mansisset mens" Moes. II, 98 v. 334. 
Beiative § 347. Even as several nouns of place, and especially nouns of 

attached to time, may, without any preposition, stand as adverbs (§ 243), so also, in 
Adverbial a re l a tive clause which serves as attribute to a noun of that kind, the 

Expres- 
sions, mere relative-word [j] may suffice, without any preposition or Referring 

form, e. g. wqj ^^j J^oo-A. Jbo^* &%pi yg ^/*£p«£ eiarjk&ev Note Matt 

24, 38 P. (= o*aj; S. merely ^^j J»**-); ? Jb&a*» §v rifJtMpcc jj Matt, 

24, 50 (and thus, frequently); j (As*j^ iv tipcc \ ibid.] JLLaot Jboa*a 

^ijU^*? "on the eighth day, when they are circumcised" Spic. 19, 17; 

j {&^dka 6*a "at the very moment, when" Aphr. 129, 6; ftsjtf Jf£^» ^ 

wotoa^? ^£JL "from the time of the sixth hour, when they crucified 

him" Aphr. 15, 17; )t->\n\ w^ v on,N«> otio^*? >&a*{ Nia\ Jbop^ 

"till the fourth year of the reign of Solomon, when he began to build" 

Aphr. 482, 9; Jb»a*? o»^\^ JLajui foot? wotaa^; Jb»o* och )J{ "but 

that day, when they crucified him, when there was darkness at midday" 

Aphr. 343, 6; JLa,oao ooaaj? Jbia; JL^a> ^d "when the time came, that 

Moses was to die" Aphr. 161, 7; 6^^. oa&~? ^ju** Ik^Jbo "in the 



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§ 347. — 283 — 

three months, during which they besieged it" Jos. St. 50, 11; ^fv*^ 
ttoJo»»i~fc {ocaj wotoxL uXa, f -s^ "for in all the years of his life, that he 
was in the priesthood" Ov. 176, 16; and in the same way with many 
similar expressions of time. Other turns of speech also may take their 
place here, such as I'lfrv oWs.SU? ?JU^d J*»J ika "long, after tongues 
had been confused" Aphr. 463 ult.\ ^/*\ }l?j ^xm, ^>avi*» ik& "fifty 
years, after he had come to Haran" Aphr. 465, 9; o*oaj> ^ijl «a^£ )*+& 
} * <*]^ oa aa m »| "five years, before Isaac had taken Rebecca" Aphr. 
479, 16, and many like examples (but wQjb> ^abo* ^;(nv Ps^ i&& ^ 
J^DO^a "for after twenty days, during which he had continued fasting" 
Sim. 273, 8). Thus also {©£&s o»viv ^^o? ^iVi &JL*a "two years, after 
God had spoken with him" Aphr. 237, 4 &c. — With expressions of place: 
^o©^k*fe JLdoj ^aa "wherever they are" [lit "in every place that they 
are"] Spic. 20, 15; o^*bit? u6) {Kdo*» 6^ "in the place where they 
were crowned [i. e. suffered martyrdom]" Mart. I, 159 inf.] j {too? hs*l 
"est locus, ubi" Aphr. 69, 12 (but 6*a t^>U?j {too* w6*X "in the 
place, where he had been laid hold of Aphr. 222, 3); Hoill, ^JL^b 
^ooflAJ JLju{ ^A^jd? JLot'^s? (ici^Nvi^ "there are many districts in the 
kingdom of the Parthians, where men put their wives to death" Spic. 14, 24; 
ooe*? ^L^-oo ^ji{ \aa "in all lands and climes, where they are" 
Spic. 14, 20 &c. 

This mode of expression comes most readily, when the same pre- 
position is found before the words of time and place, that would have 
had to stand before the Referring form. Under such a condition, even 
in the case of other words, the Referring form is on rare occasions 
omitted. Thus particularly in cases like j tlov»o "in the form, that", 
"just as" Ov. 163, 22; 192, 7; Philox. 531, 19; and j (Uaoj ^6p Sim. 
330 inf.\ Philox. 384, 11, and often in Philox.; j JLmso^a "as" ibid. 
343, 20; j Jm*^ ^s^oo^a "in the order, in which" ibid. 589, 24; j JijLa 
"in the way, in which" ibid. 573, 19. More remarkable are the following: 
^fcs*ab? ^b ^^o ^JjuJ? ^&s^b ^1 ak \\q hjl J^uJ* ^b ^^o hJl JL^jO Au{ 
^u*i{ "thou sinnest, because of that for which (= oik^^oj) thou sinnest; 
and we die, because of that for which we die" Mart. I, 126, 2 ; ^aa 
1++1 t^Jkol; {Kjua "in all the evil, to which thou hast set hand" Isaac I, 



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— 284 — §§ 348. 349. 

132 v. 1117; ^Ai» p+& oo»a "in that matter, over which they have 

power" Spic. 9, 24 (cf. line 25). 

Relative § 348. In the same series with such expressions of place and time, 

taohed'to*" stand the adverbial forms, some of them of frequent occurrence, like 

Adverbs. ^ Jjl&o^ "to-day, when"; j JL4A "now, when"; j {|ju& or j ©tf^ "as 

soon as"; ? ©ilk^ +** "as soon as" (§ 155 B); j '^aap "now that" Aphr. 

484, 14; j wfcoo? "when", "as often as"; j ^ "now that", "but now 

that" Land III, 60, 13; * JULj "where"; * J^L| ^> "from that place, 

where" Gen. 12, 1; Ex. 5, 11; j Jl*^ "so as"; j j& "when", "in case 

that", (§ 258) and others, to which we must to some extent return, 

farther on. In none of these cases does a Referring form occur; ^aoL 

is only found occasionally, as above, § 346 ; jbajto^ ^bL b^l JJj JLa*{ 

"where no body is present" Moes. II, 136 v. 939, and o£^j JaJ bJt JJo 

woi ^b! "and there is no place where it (f.) might not be" Moes. H, 

92 v. 239. 

placing be- § 349. A. The preposition, which of right should have been at- 

Beiative tached to the Referring form, is sometimes found prefixed to the Noun, to 

preposition wn i cn * ne relative clause belongs, particularly in the case of the Adverbial 

proper to N un of place, JJL{ : JLaal? ]i IU*£ JLaoij kao^j jL&*]i "the palace has 

the Refer- ** 

ring Form, not been built in the place, to which I have sent gold" ZDMG XXV, 
340 v. 403; j JMJ "there, whither", "whithersoever" 1 Sam. 14, 47, and 
thus, frequently; j JLaJ ^o "there, whence" Matt. 12, 44 (C. S. j ill ^»); 
Chron. Edess. (HalUer) 145 paen. (Doc. of 201); Jul. 242, 22; Sim. 325, 8. 
So too with the construct state ^d (§ 359) ; j ^\ "whithersoever" Judges 
2, 15; 2 Sam. 8, 14 (where there is a var. j MJJ); Aphr. 438, 18; 439, 8; 
)^d^ "from whatever place" Aphr. 121, 14; Jul. 21 ult. In these cases 
a referring form is inadmissible. But j i^£t, may mean also "to that 
place, whither" ZDMG XXV, 337 v. 297; Jul. 15, 13; and "to that 
place, where" Aphr. 46, 15 ; j ^o ^ "from the place, where" Aphr. 222, 1 ; 
Ephr. I, 36 B; and j JLaJ ^ "from the place, whence" Ephr. II, 117 F. 
It is the very same in the case of several combinations with ^^\: 
^ajbfcoo ^jjbj ill ^a^, JLs^b? J^^i "the image of the king [money] 
is accepted in all parts it goes to" Aphr. 442, 16, and so Aphr. 302, 1 ; 
438, 14 (but also <x\ Q-^;J? HU ^&d "in every place to which they 



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§ 350. — 285 — 

have gone" Spic. 18,21); lojLu 6t*Ado*l? (var. ^^^) o^Jdl ^A^ 
6£** is*? U «fti "which (f.), on every side to which you turn it, presents a 
beautiful appearance" Aphr. 442, 6; ^p Jba * a o o|J&*? JLjij^^ ^n\ 
o^K^^i )a^ otxfi^ "whomsoever the wise man meets with, he learns 
[lit. 'tastes'] his judgment from his tongue" Aphr. 186, 4. 

B. In translations however, Greek relative constructions, with the 
preposition before the relative pronoun, are directly copied. Thus even 
in the N. T.: ooqt ^t <pM ^Vy ]U Qtt^\o Luke 9, 4 C. S.; 
ooot ^oL ©*X v oKil ^XJbL; !La jbujlo ibid. Fesh. = tcai e}g fy ccv oliciav 
ela£kQrjTe, i/cel /jhers\ cf. Mark 6, 10 &c. And completely is this the 
case in later, slavish translations; in these we have j oo» ^o If oJ (instead 
of otiao? . . . oot); j oo\\, Sv &c, e. g. \*±») ftlja toot woioL! uu{ JLaj*^ 
oJ !*&*> o6*X dvQpcMTog Tig r/v ev xupq rfi Avafribi $ dvojuuz IooyS Job 
1, 1 Hex.; ty ouLbk*? v oj6* ja^. J^a{ Qjrifao fMsff &v awsksvaofiou ("I 
shall seek those, with whom") Prov. 23, 35 Hex.; Auai^fiD? ~c* n ^ JLflp ^ 
^bKX ^ /cX/i/^ k(f) rig avifiyg sksi 4 (2) Kings 1, 16 Hex. ; p^o JL*3oi 
1 o6*X ovvQsob Tiva tjv . . . Arist. Hermeneutica (ed. G. Hoffmann) 26, 6 
= 27, 7. Such constructions are also imitated by original writers who 
affect a Greek style, e. g. ?fnuV» ?KX** {^u q^w . . . ? {*-! w6^ ({fc^ao) 
o^k*( j 6^ uuaut* conceived like Xoyo^ &t/j>/ , . . fxrj ju/av juovov evpyasi 
ehou ahiav Jac. Ed. Epist. 13 p. 2, 21. Here the Referring form serves 
at least to clear up the meaning. Compare dt^auL +& {?©^> "quod quum 
audiret" Hoffmann, Martyrer 107, 964, and similarly in John Eph. 

§ 350. A. When the relative clause refers directly to the first or Relative 
second Person, then the Referring form also keeps this Person throughout: referring to 
w*fca v ofcat ? v oKj{ ijueig ol dcKoXovdiaavrig juloi Matt. 19, 28 ; ^u;j&-l»* ^ £° 1 £ r a g n : d 
^pouao "to us, who are higher placed than they" Ov. 184, 17 ; ^ipmfr? ^u> and to the 
^iju "we, who are poor" Aphr. 119, 22; ^v » # ^ ^jjl> "but we, who Apposition 
know" Aphr. 497, 16; k^otfj \»l "I, who have been running" Ov. 306, 11; vocative. 
(Asa^^a AsAaJ* t*£^»?o "and lift me out, who have fallen into evil" Ephr. 
HI, 429 A; u^ o-uu {JL^fb lh&*} ^ \il "but I, by whom many dead 
people lived" Ephr. Nis. p. 68 v. 58; v ofcu{ ^tn.ojw v nn\ "to you, 



( x ) Read thus for K*a\, also in C. 



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— 286 — § 350. 

who believe" Spic. 2, 19 ; <As»t^? wpo ^ "to thee, O Lord, who hast 
created us" Ov. 424, 4 (where there is a whole series of instances) &c. 

Rem. The correctness of ^potiao t?*-»r^? ^^ " we > w ^° ^ ave ^ een 
aided by them" Ov. 184, 20 (instead of ^i»;-,v?) and of k*}$ ooi ^ 
V^\oa "to us, who have power" ibid. 19 (instead of ^X h<Jf) is very 
doubtful. 

B. The second Person may stand with the vocative : ^fl'.ig>) {o£5S 
(tshmv ^oi^d w^ "0 God, to whom all difficult things are easy" Sim. 
330, 1 ; yi*v ^^o jbu*a^? y+J ^^ ujl^ Nn^i? JLocdo lioA JL*J 6{ 
b*ao^ "0 stupid and foolish shepherd, to whose right hand and right eye 
I have committed my sheep" Aphr. 194, 14; JLSi\ (^wKX^oj )°^ Jt ?^ 
v^oi^w qju^Ka^ ^41 Owisia^o '* Ispovacckiiju, ij (XTTOKTs/vovaa Toi/g 
Ttpo^rjTug ml \iQoj3o\oQaa rovg &7rsoTa\juUvovg npdg a&rfjv Luke 13, 34 
C. S.; cf. v o-a\s Jlviviv o^aaji 1 Kings 22, 28, and Jviviv v oa\o o^aa* 
Micah 1, 2 = D^3 XfrteV ^tttf. But the third person appears oftener in 
this case: ^a&as ot&Ofa? fe-a? ^pf "O thou ram, whose horns are broken" 
Aphr. 83, 23; ticnnS o'+tyU yOop^^ ^*( {ia*? ^o^> p\l gia o{ ^*a.& 
"now, ye sons of Adam, all ye whom death reigns over, think upon death" 
Aphr. 422, 20; ^D^m^o JJj JLju( ^ "0 man, who dost not understand" 
Aphr. 497, 15 ; jo^^a ©*X oqt >&>**? U&+1 "0 Being, who alone knowest 
thyself Moes. II, 76 v. 5; ojjbjU? U'jp^» "ye Hebrews, who were ho- 
noured" Ov. 304, 13; ^h^^do o*-*^ Jb&*? o{ "0 thou who swearest 
by thy head [lit 'his head'], and liest" Aphr. 500, 7 &c. 

C. Also when, without any formal relative clause, an indication of 
reference appears in the detailed determination [or complement] of the 
Vocative, the third person is then taken: ^popo+a Jl.flnN uaju*o o{ "ye who 
love, with your [heart's] blood, him who was put to death" Mart. I, 68, 
19, cf. line 21 ; «9inr»o.p o)m^o% *?j o( "0 thou who dost represent an 
image of thyself in Joseph" Joseph 4, 12 [Ov. 271, 22]; ^pot^d o^J 
otaooto^ oJlS "know, all of you his kinsmen" Jul. 158, 26; fe^^ 
wotojOiajL* "0 man of wounds" [lit. "man of his sores"] (§ 224) Moes. 



( x ) To be read as Perfects. 



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§ 351. — 287 — 

IT, 162 v. 1324 &c. So Luke 13, 34 in P. [but otherwise in C. and S., 
see above], in verbal agreement, to be sure, with the original text. 

Compare with these examples JM s^*> ^potf^^aa wK*a» ^X? 
^pot&Jiaia wfc^ao {oou wq-9q*j? "thou who dost advise us, who are dead 
in our body (lit 'people dead in their body'), that we should farther become 
people who are dead in their souls" Mart. 1, 159 mid., where the Referring 
form in the Apposition is the same as in the relative clause, ^^a 
would hardly be wrong here. In the same way ,ootio$jLu ^^ u^Nivio 
^pKii "and you are (such as are), the masters of their own freedom" 
Jul. 73, 13; ^ooM-^] ^c^ uflNivi Jlo ^u> 1+Z&& "we are the subjects, 
and not the masters of our will" Jul. 106, 6. 

D. The first or second Person, however, is generally employed 
directly in the Referring form of an attributive relative clause, attached 
to a predicate whose subject is in the first or second person respectively: 
v*iJoK*^a? o *~% k\ Jil Jil "I am Habib, whom ye have sought" Anc. Doc. 
90 ult.\ K»^.^{ y>»* u^d^juo w^ oo* Kj( gv sif) 6 viog juov 6 ayaTryrog, 
iv cp svooKTjaa Matt. 3, 17 C. S.; oviuiUo \ts^> yo^o?? to{ Jbu* Jvi a*S. 
^iolf ^o y& °kr$^ ^L ^ lf*^*>o y& "the bread of life art thou, 
which the dead have eaten, and through which they have been raised 
to life again ; and the good wine art thou, through which all mourning 
ones are comforted" Jac. Sar. Thamar v. 31 ; ^k^joN och KjJ "thou art 
he, who hast made known to us" Aphr. 492, 18 &c. Cf. ^i*ju»oKjuoo 
^jul* ^^'Aoo? JUivi~» "and we are found to be men who are led" Spic. 
10, 20, and JjL^Soa, ^oAVJU^a i.m^ljo ^t-oj ^oK*jlqd? JLajI y+l ^ofcota 
o£kJ ^Jao? "ye, as men who have hated our honour, and in whose eyes 
the power wielded by us is despised, go forth" Jul. 73, 11. 

And yet the third person is permissible in such cases too: ^jjl>o 
oto^p t^tH? J*^^ "and we are vines, that have been planted therein" 
Aphr. 288, 12, and similar examples. 

§ 351. Corresponding to what is described in §§ 242 and 319, a Relative 
substitute for the Subject may occur even in a relative clause, by means wi th 8es 

• t-w — t-w. 



(*) Like Mark 1, 11; Luke 3, 22 (where S. also has y»i). Our text here has 
ovrog iortv, and P. agrees with it. 



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— 288 — § 352. 

of separating it into its parts through *jl> — jju and suchlike forms: lioaj 
{|ju ^o l+x> %ju'j&} "things which are different from one another" Spic. 
11, 14 &c. And still more freely: ^* ^ju^ foot ©pajtj JUit ^j ^>t 
^+{qzxm, JipujJo JA y~^ f» "two brothers, however, of whom the one was 
called Barhadhbeshabba, and the other Samuel" Mart. I, 157 ult.\ «j^? 
<AJa* hulXo > \*{o&jl (oo» op&jl "of whom the one was called Samuel, 
and the other Jonathan" Land II, 277, 14, and thus, frequently, with 
opoji • . . **£**?. 
Relative § 352. A. It is not common to have the attributive relative clause 

ceding its preceding the word, to which it refers. But the following are examples 
Keen. Q £ ^^ arran g emen t : {losg vOo^k. ^-ii yOOfV-L*^ tv^uubo "and the things, 
which lie before their eyes, are despised by them" Aphr. 426, 18 ; ih^o} 
^X ^Ky\ {o©» jJo Juo ot^a ^p "what should he have given us, that 
was better than his son?" Aphr. 485, 20, [lit. "that was better than his 
son — what ought he to have given us?"] where a strong rhetorical 
relief is produced; ou( ;^m? &t*X "no man existed, who thought.." 
Jul. 194 nit, The words woju otaoju? (lo^fiy ^jdo^s ^^? h<* ~°*° 
are to be translated "and this very thing, which our Redeemer taught to 
us, — the zeal of his love, — he showed . . " Aphr. 40 ult, so that (io^au 
is an Epexegesis, and not "and just this zeal which he &c". 

B. Very frequently there stand, at the commencement of the clause, 
only compounds of *+J§ with demonstratives or interrogatives: y*l? 
JULu ^Xo* "sufferings, which are as these" = "such sufferings" Ov. 
168, 1; Ji^aflD ^ y+lf> "in such a deed" Isaac II, 216 v. 251 and 
v. 280 ; Jk'JLa, t^do* ^-s^ ^»o* yJ+* "for in such borrowed beauties" 
Ephr. II, 171 E ; III ^^>ch {jo* yj t "such a token, then" Jos. St. 41, 7 <fec. ; 
JL^j^a* Jbul ^ ? "what sort of pilot?" Sim. 384 mid.; ^t yJ) *° 
{La* "a qualibus mortihus" Assem. 2, 44 (Philoxenus) &c. It is, however, 
permissible to place the demonstrative forms at the end, e. g. yJl V^°J 
^ca "such afflictions" Jos. St. 4, 17 &c. 

Bern. The j may also be wanting here : J^o^Ks )iot yj "such a 
word" Aphr. 77, 6; {loaj wca ^1 "such a thing" Sim. 292, 10 &c. ... yk 
may also stand as a substantive : ^.ot ^J^ao V-s^ ^\op "per haec 
enim et talia" Isaac I, 248 v. 511 &c. After the Greek pattern several 



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§§ 353—355. — 289 — 

combinations are formed, like ^-aj yj$ oiov, oiov &g "for example" and 

many others. 

§ 353. Interrogatives with j and the pronoun of the third person "Who- 
soever" Ac 
are employed adjectively and substantively in the sense of "whosoever, 

whatsoever", "any (one), any (thing)" &c: woaj {*J ll*&± ^fa** "for 

anything whatsoever" Jos. St. 80, 16 ; ik^>, wo*j It-JLa o{ oot? ]ul )ijLa 

"in any way or for any cause whatever" Philox. Epist. (Guidi) fol. 10 a, 

I, 2; tfca^io wo*j l+J ^aa "in any city you please" Land II, 240, 10; 
©o»j ]ul (jot)a^o VfXo{ \aa "in any distress or illness whatsoever" Moes. 

II, 73, 26 ; ^ oot JLuuJ ioau? och? Jbu{ tiadbo "and any kind of death 
whatsoever, that we may die, is for us a comfort" Ephr. II, 175 C; > \a 
{^=uo ooif Jbu{ "any grave whatever" Jos. St. 39, 10; woij (^jj ^s»cj»;»o 
iTTilovrsg §(f)sp6ju$dcc (lit "we let her go wherever she would") [E. V. "we let 
her drive"] Acts 27, 15; oot? ^ab? "of any one you please" Ov. 218, 11 &c. 
So frequently oot? wfcop{ "whensoever" ; ocaj JL&ui[ "wherever", and many 
others. In accordance with these forms we have even oot; ;-$ ^ "from 
whatever quarter" Euseb. Ch. Hist. 332, 12. 

§ 354. The omission of the j in a complete attributive relative omission 
clause occurs perhaps only as a Hebraism, in the O. T., as in opajs. odj ° e ? " 
"whose name was Job" Job 1, 1. — Formulae of blessing, — as in jULadu 
?Kp?o^\ op^ao? "Josiah, whose memory be blessed!" [lit "Josiah — 
his memory (is) with blessing!"] Aphr. 470, 15 (cf. Sim. 392 mid.); 
otX hs^p vjfi "the Lord — to Him be adoration paid!" Sim. 358, 1; 
363 inf. (Cod. Lond. o»io^«fl\ 'i») — are not to be regarded as relative 
clauses, but as parentheses. They are, besides, comparatively rare in Syriac. 

§ 355. Short adverbial adjuncts to a noun are generally turned short Ad- 
into the form of relative clauses, by means of j ; *£*£p{ jol^j J&jud JL^v-oa Q^aimca- 
"in hard combats with the powers (of hell)" Ov. 159, 9; to£s Aoo*jua JJ^*" 
o*a? "with the Divine wisdom, which (was) in him" Ov. 172, 18; ^^^ clauses. 
JUrj*^ J*jf**? otto-A^ "over his error, which had lasted till then" Ov. 
164, 7 ; ySuYa opsoAD ^^f (LoAaaJL^ "through anxiety solely for him- 
self' Ov. 177, 22 ; op*? ^oo^^uupk. "their reverence for him" Ov. 183, 26 ; 
^*&^*? otft^jjb? "his journey thither" Ov. 168, 20, and countless other 
instances. 

19 



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— 290 — §§ 356. 357. 

Time is not usually specified in such phrases (§ 315). Moreover, 
when no harshness arises, direct collocation is allowable, and often oc- 
curs: ^t^*^, ^oo) tN\y "their immigration into Egypt" Aphr. 27, 13 &c. 
But even to adjectives the adverbs <a^, «s^p "very" are often attached 
by means of the relative particle: «a^j {kai {Lqjum "a very severe blow" 
Judges 11, 33; «*^&? J^i O^TE "our very great toil" Ov. 320, 9, where 
of course the j might be left out. 
Relative § 356. A relative clause may stand as attribute to a whole sen- 

Clause as ** a v 1 » v % 

Attribute tence even : \i'*r\~\ 6t*k*^>? (?ot <t->on\ JLdoaju oqt oi^i <^$*?? +*°l "he 

sentence. * sa ^» that the darkness longed after the light, — a thing which (id quod) 
lies not in nature" Ov. 59, 13 ; uoi JL£^,; w6i JLoojlu uaj&Jtto oCs>>q *ta 
oV^riviN. "and if the darkness is put in pain through what belongs to 
itself, — a notion which is difficult to accept" Ov. 60, 9; too* *&{; wot 
(after a rather long passage) "a thing which, however, actually happened" 
Sim. 284 mid.; 290 mid.; ^*&*g*U« JLnmy lie* o£** Lpou *joJa» f^Vt 
"was perhaps burdensome to him, — a thing which is difficult to believe" 
Joseph 293, 2; oo* Jri\*« l+J {£ol^o oKiijo JLd^j Jjl^jj [ vt Ja^i{] JJo 
6$o>vi\ ^juaa^p «Qju^ao "nor (are we ordered) that we should 
build towns and found cities, — a thing which kings only can do" Spic. 5, 19 
(where there are several other examples of • W). In all these cases, of 
course, a demonstrative or interrogative will be found as a correla- 
tive. Cf. § 346. 

Bern. On the correlatives in use or permitted with the attributive 
relative clause, v. § 236. 

CONJUNCTIONAL RELATIVE CLAUSES. 

preliminary § 357. The relative particle j often serves to indicate that a com- 

mons™" plete clause, — quite beyond its attributive relation, — is taking the place 
of an individual part of speech. Between this conjunctional use and the 
attributive use the contrast is by no means very strongly marked. The 
language sometimes treats relative clauses, which were originally Con- 
junctional, as if they were equivalent to Attributive ones (as e. g. with 
j JtJ, where the relation is properly a genitive one § 359), and transforms 
Conjunctional clauses into epexegeses of an attributive character, by 



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§ 358. — 291 — 

putting substantives, correlative pronouns, or adverbs, in front of them, — 
often without altering the sense in the least. We shall accordingly, for 
convenience' sake, discuss in the present chapter several points, which in 
strictness belong to the foregoing one. 

§ 358. A. A clause may, with the help of j, take the place of Relative 

Clause as 

Subject: f&^a^ J**ott (oom w+**l ^*? li^ "it is of advantage that subject, 
support should be gained for the word from other things" Ov. 162, 19; Pr edickte. 
{to* ^ap udo^tJ? ^Xo Jbu hsA ow^. "to him belongeth life, but to us, 
that we should flee from death" Aphr. 487, 11; &oJi» bwjbuLp obuJ?; oca 
o»X "he, to whom it is not by nature fitting that he should suffer" Ov. 
198, 3: . . . j ^Ck, woo) ^X)'i? Uo ^oScaki )J {taiLjo "and that the 
animals were not excited at coming out, was owing to the circumstance 
that ..." Moes. II, 126 v. 787; ofcotf . . . j «.,~i .-i u ^j W ^, "but 
why, dear friend, was it that . . . was written?" Aphr. 26, 20 &c. in count- 
less available forms. 

Still more frequently a clause with j takes the part of Object To 
this section belong all constructions with j Jbjj. "to be willing, that"; 
} J*£> "to seek, that" ; j (jLu "to see, that" ; j po{ "to say, that" ; } ^t* 
"to know, that" &c. Even a second Object may be represented in this 
way, in cases like JLnSj 6tju* slhsv aCrr/v Kkaiovaav John 11, 33; otLjL* 
opo^ HH<*? °**°{ "k^ 8 h 10 ^ 1 saw (liim), that his colour was altered" 
Ov. 162, 12. 

B. In certain circumstances a clause with j (without a copula) may 
even constitute the Predicate ; of course it has always in that case a sense 
of purpose (§ 366 A) : ( x ) <o^*Kjj loo*? ^ ljo* toOto Zi SXov ytyovev Jva 
TrXypcofrMiv Matt. 26, 56 P. (similarly S.); cf. Matt. 1, 22; ?^^j ^o*o 
( 2 ) <oju>tj k*4? J*oi "and these things have I narrated of this man, that 
you may see" John van Telia 73, 1 ; ^>i oul? <,»^>^o yX kaicbj lioi 
lo£bs} oyilaj "this which I have written to thee, dear friend, (is to this 
end), that one should do the will of God" Aphr. 75, 6; &*,;£! o^o Jio»o 



(*) [As if it read: "now this which happened, (was) in order that" &c] 
(^ [Lit.: "and these things, which I have narrated of this man, (have been) in 
order that you may see".] 

19* 



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— 292 — §§ 359. 360. 

^Jlj «jK»ojl»o "and all this, which I have explained and pointed out to 
thee, (is) that thou mayst know" .=» I have written to thee for this end 
only, that thou shouldest &c." Aphr. 213, 15; and thus frequently o^a 
j . . . j, — y . . . j o»\r> Ji©», i . . . ) ^o^a ^Xot, in the meaning "only 
with this purpose, in order that" [or "only to the end that"] Aphr. 184, 5; 
Ov. 65, 17; Ephr. Nis. p. 8 v. 109; p. 87 v. 113; Ephr. (Lamy) I, 253 tilt.; 
Ill, 689 str. 13 &c. (cf. § 360 B). 
Keiative § 359. The immediate subordination of a clause, to a noun in the 

Clause in , 

the posi- construct state by means ol j, is limited to some few cases. ) ii{ and 
Genitive*. * H? "i n the locality (of the circumstance) that" = "there, where" 
(1KW Dipt?); ? ^J^? "i n the time (of this) that", — are by the speech it- 
self already treated as equivalent to the attributive constructions j fjljb, 
j )Ia£a. Not merely are they interchanged without distinction (cf. ^a 
^MJbooj "at the time when it is rent in pieces" Aphr. 451, 1, alongside 
of ik-Aoj J^JLa "at the time when she died" ibid. 452, 13), but the Ke- 
f erring form through ^ot may stand at least with ill and pj (§ 346), and 
even the form through o»a t with ii}: J^*J/ o*» ^juuJ? ill "in the place 
where the just are at rest" Aphr. 389, 11 ; |A^ loo* ^>li ^o ^ ^^ 
krdm oJ Tjv t6 Traihiov Matt. 2, 9 C. (?oo* ^i; $U S.). Notice, that after 
I ii?, the mere naming of the Subject is sufficient sometimes to convey 
the sense of 'existence' : ^&au£D? ii( "where our treasure i$" Aphr. 506, 
15; cf. 176, 19; ^ojoaj iU "wherever they are" Spic. 20, 14, 18 (for which 
19, 19 <ao*JMj ill, cf. 20, 5 ^h iU "wherever we are").—? kaw& 
"sufficing for this, that", "only for this, that" Aphr. 276, 19; Ephr. I, 
66 C; cf. Spic. 47, 16; then directly "in order that" (in translations of 
fva, &g &v). — This use of the Constr. st. is illustrated farther in very 
rare cases only: ^nfti? ^f^- "at the time that they (f.) go out" Gen. 
24, 11; } &S>» "by reason of this, that", "on this account, that" Aphr. 
505, 5 ; } vjj**~ I«o "what gain is there from this, that" Job 22, 3. 
Relative § 360. A. Complete clauses are widely rendered dependent upon 

pendent 6 " Prepositions, by means of j. Above all, the exceedingly common ^5 
U o»ition Pre " mus ^ ^ e men tioned here (from 3 "as", "like", which is no longer extant 
in Syriac in its uncompounded state, and j) "when, since, while"; con- 
stantly implying time (for exceptions v. § 230), often with a causal or 



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§ 360. — 293 — 

conditional secondary meaning. — So too we have *a, from j + a "while", 
"through this, that" (Ov. 180, 9), generally "seeing that":—? ^ "from", 
"from this, that" (Ov. 199, 1 &c), also in comparisons (§ 249 E ^;k*o 
oj^jU sQJq)} ^p W&i yQQ^'N.^ "and he has more greed for them, than 
they had [for riches]" Aphr. 431, 2), usually "since", for which also 
appears fg ^; — j ^^o "because", also "in order that" (Aphr. 455, 8, 
and frequently) ; — } *%** "on this ground, that", "because", also "in the 
meantime", "while", e. g. Land III, 208, 10; so too in incomplete clauses, 
where we translate the phrase by the preposition "within" : ; mv f i? ^ 
^*cL> "within twelve days" Jos. St. 61, 7; so ^o&» . . . j ^A* "in so 
many days" John Eph. 193, 7; 406, 7; Land III, 206, 24 (cf. Jer. 28, 11 
Hex. Jbojt ^iVt?^)— ? ih£ # "after that" (conj.) &c. 

Similarly, } ^ "through this, that", "because" Ov. 145, 18; 190, 
27 &c, and j loak "according as", "just as" Ephr. I, 66 D; II, 27 D; 
269 F; 271 A. Farther, } ^s)J "towards the time, that—" Qardagh 
(Feige) 87, 7 (= Abbeloos 97,*1). 

B. Clauses with j ^^o, and the like, appear as predicates, — just 
as those with j only (§ 358), and convey purpose and cause, in cases 
similar to ^* ^q^dAsj; ^t£a» Jio* J\rfS^ JUr;i~» ^fikaoj **^ °^^ 
^oopo»^a> "for all that men are punished with in this world, (comes) in 
order that they may be restrained from their sins" = "is only for this 
purpose . . . that" &c. Jos. St. 6, 2; } ^ ll<i*) ^ %ao^U JJj o^d "the 
victory has not been given us, only because" Jul. 199, 22; Kafi^bj {jo* 
^t^-cb? ^g>* yX "I have written this to thee, because they think" Aphr. 
359, 1; j ^\£ao . . . j o£j> Ji©» Aphr. 166, 1 ; J ^, . . . j tpoj* o^o )io» 
Aphr. 403, 10; ft HU ^X ?o©*J? Kr&& ^fcowjol U***} uju| ^otb "this, 
my brother, I have informed thee of beforehand, in order that thou 
mayest have space ..." Jul. 88, 19. Cf. farther Apost. Apocr. 182 sq. ; 
Jul. 219, 18 ( 2 ); 239, 20. 



( x ) Cf.: ; t^J V^m ^o»a loot l*o0»; *!,«£ "he allowed this to pass just be- 
cause of the fact, that ..." [lit. "all the inattention which he showed in these matters 
was by reason of this, that"] Jul. 54, 23; and *oai*ia**; atiftij^&a *.o$ } t «*\-o K % ^o» 
"all this happened through the influence of Jovian" Jul. 171, 2. 

( 2 ) Read Km* instead of \ 



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— 294 — § 361. 

C. Apart from the conditional particles ^{ and oSs and in many 
cases yJ, ^ is the only relative conjunction which stands without J, both 
in its meaning of "as long as" and in that of "until", "before that". In 
the latter sense JJ ^ is often employed to bring into prominence the 
negative force of the conjunction, e. g. W ^,jt JJ ^ "before I go" Ps. 
39 ult. &c, but also Jb*ii vxAdboo *^ "before the door is opened" Sim. 
366, 25; 377, 8. ; ^ only occurs in very rare instances, as in ^uu{ ^ 
^p|jp wotaaajuV ^JL ouuKaf ^o ^9ja ^^H? ^S " as l° n 8 as the door 
of the grave is still shut before our face, and as long as the door of his 
mercy is still open before us" Ephr. Ill, 426 E; \sl pal? ♦** "till I say" 
Joseph 322, 10; 6£^ \K& JJj ^ "before she dies" Simeon of Beth Ar- 
sham (Guidi) 13, 4. j jboj^» "until" is more usual. 
Abridging- § 361. Clauses with j are widely made to serve as explanatory ad- 

b g f0 8 r * n lve ditions [Epexegeses, — parenthetical explanations] for abstract substantives ; 
Beiative c f e g J^gj^ J|J ^mn ur> JJj wLc^uoaa *^i "he perceived my weak- 
ness, (which is or consists in this) that I cannot support calamities" Ov. 
168, 5; j 1^-4°^ "the curse, that" Aphr. 447 ult &c. And thus occa- 
sionally, to ensure a better connection, the non-significant word tLo£j 
"thing" ("circumstance", "fact") is joined with the j which is acting as 
subject; and for this word the clause then forms an Epexegesis: JLvj».jQ 
ofX ^»JL* 09* J^jj JjLsuJ ^»JL*»? ^b 6©i td(; (Loaj "and the fact is well 
known, that he who moves it, moves it as he wills" Spic. 3, 6; {£5s Jb^a 
uju ^d *aaAsjj? (Loaj too* "why was it necessary that he should be 
allowed to live?" Ov. 67, 12; j tLoaj ^©» {Jk-Laoj "that it is an excellent 
thing, that" Aphr. 45, 19; (&*&ju Jnvim ^ ^oo* toou? {Lo^j Loo* JLj*> Jj 
"it would not have been possible for us to be truly needy persons" Ov. 
25, 25 &c. With tLoaj placed after the clause: <j^suo «ju{ ou^Ju? 
(Lostj \L\} o»v>*»j.\ "it is an easy thing for one to praise and bless his 
friend" Spic. 6, 14; {jot ^0 floaj JLjU>ftoo (061 t^*j^ ^t^ ^ ^ 001 W?° 
"and that everything does not happen according to our will, is (a fact) 
seen from this" Spic. 9, 26 &c. (*) 

(*) Itoaj is found with this force even along with the Inf. with V: Lsk +* 
niKxj\, itoaj "if it is necessary to reply" Aphr. 374, 18 &c. So also, put absolutely: 
iUa>| ^ JLuAjo, r \ "as it appears to us" Aphr, 375 ult, cf. 234, 19. 



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§ 362. — 295 — 

§ 362. Far more common, however, is the practice of attaching Atmdging- 
with ? the demonstrative pronoun w©» or {joi to a clause, which serves in 8tr ^i™ 
any way as member of a sentence : <*4Jdo ^ »; m >l <«iSS ^oj{ +n&y I}* llf™* n 
. . . oS&JBD? ^A» (&^*bjbfe *ootX "this fact, — that he gave command to Relative 

Clause. 

the children of Israel, and separated for them the different kinds of 
food, was brought about because they had swerved ..." Aphr. 310, 10; 
} toot tjoi . . . ottaaa*aoto "and his integrity consisted in this, that ..." 
Aphr. 234, 18; j wot Uo* yj J^i ^ too* JJ "but not so great as this, was 
the circumstance that" Jos. St. 2, 14; ^ao t~°r^ v^^* °>*j*? w ^ J" <*t 
{pbo^X JLqjl ^.oJLi, w£*jb; {taab "nor is the fact that Jonathan saved 
David from death at the hands of Saul, deserving of wonder" Jos. 
St. 2, 18; * t J^ ? {?©i yiMVfc "only this we know, that" Aphr. 496, 6; 
• . • ^ip t;ot woi JLik,^ ^o**k*{ Jbjit ^S,ot?o "and that these things are 
so, is clear from ..." Jos. St. 6, 9; aniw l»ot *&l . . . tja^&mj? td{ 
"even that he should lend support . . . this too he can do" Spic. 5, 14; 
^oot^'ja ^xoo ooi? wot k^ap "I have assumed this, that he smote us 
by their hands" Jos. St. 7, 1 ; totSS ^otoLj; w6» *aoi JJ ^.o "while he 
should not part with this (property), — that he is God" Ov. 197, 26 &c. 
Strengthened expressions: — tksL£ NV> ^oi wot ^k**?? **+& l}o* wot 
"the very consideration that thou, Lord, hast made us, is a motive for good- 
ness" Ephr. II, 524 C. — Two such clauses are confronted with each 
other through w6t and (?ot in ^a; w6fX • • . totSS uuudtU; {joi ^? JLao; 
po{ . . . JL*j. "for the one fact, that God rested . . . has a resemblance to 
the other fact that, when he wished . . . , he said" Aphr. 241, 18. Just 
as we have in this case j w6^\, so have we many other combinations of 
a like nature with prepositions, e. g. j t?o*a, j w6*a "in this, or through 
this, that" frequently (j w6p JJ{ . . . j t?o*a (oot Jl "not from the circum- 
stance, that . . . , but from this [other circumstance], that" Spic. 4, 21) ; 
j wo» > ^* "for this reason, that" Jos. St. 18, 14; 49, 20; j *-6* ^s^fts^a 
"for meantime that" Ephr. II, 3 B &c. There is a considerable space 
between the t?ot and the } in ^f^X? otKXjijbo too* **^t?ot ^^o &l 
yjsp d&mdkj JJ o+MSk* ^» to»Ss? JLifj "for even on this account was his 
journey (taken) to that place, — that the thought of God might never be 
separated from his soul" Ov. 168, 19. Much more rarely is the masculine 



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— 296 — §§ 363. 364. 

jbot found with such a clause, as in ^p toot JJ J^JLo JLuAaa\ &**J9? Jioto 
Lpol uil^l "and this, — namely, that I have called Christ a stone, — I 
have not said from my own thinking" Aphr. 7, 7. 

^Xot may stand with more than one clause : oudj >&aaji ^o ^^o* 
^(o . . . totSs oyaa? "when Noah heard this, that God commanded 
him . . . and that he said ..." Aphr. 235, 8. 

? A* § 363. In certain cases also Jbo intervenes as correlative between 

a prep, and the conjunctional j. Thus, frequently j J^of^ "until (that)" 
(= t^* + Jb» + j), and in rare instances j Jbaa "while", "when indeed" 
Jos. St. 69, 19. (*) Of common occurrence also is j Ja&o "as many as", 
"as much as", "the more", "as long as" (j Jbo "when", "as" &c. § 348). 

r' § 364. A. yJ> "as" (originally an interrogative [ — "in what way? 

how?" — ] but no longer used as such) may also, with the help of j Jbo, 
introduce a clause: loot 6*Jbt*t? jbo y+l "as it actually was" Ov. 172, 20. 
Of more frequent occurrence is j ^S> y+l (in imitation of &g juiv) "as", 
"since", e. g. Ov. 83, 8; 185, 25, also "in order that" Jos. St. 8,. 6; 12, 
10 &c. — j oot y~\ occurs always by way of supposition "as if': oot y+l 
o\\. J^&*£D ^ViV wojt^ "as if a bargain with us had been made by him" 
Ov. 295, 20; cf. Jos. St. 31, 16; 33, 4; 34, 18; 56, 14 and 17; Mart. I, 
98 mid.; Sim. 282, 10; Ov. 179, 15 &c. 

B. In much larger proportion, however, j y^l is found pure and 
simple. It signifies not merely "as", but often "in order that" and "so 
that"( 2 ) (= &g)\ also in the negative form Jlj yj "that not", "lest". 
Very often too it stands before the Inf. with X, to bring out more 
strongly the notion of purpose: ty>vi\? yj "in order to scrutinize" 
Ov. 252, 4 &c. So also before prepositional phrases, particularly in the 
statement of design, motive or view (= &g) : ©H-Q-JJ? yj "as a mark of 
respect to him" Jos. St. 59, 9 ; otiotojL^j y+l "as a warning to him" Sim. 
370 mid.; and frequently X? yJL "as a . . . ", but also ft©*»o4o? yJ 
"from ostentation" Sim. frequently; )l?p»? y+l "with cunning" ZDMG 



(*) Martin 62, 17 reads thus, to all appearance correctly. Wright has U*** 
( 2 ) This use, however, is not equally in favour with all Syriac authors; m 
Aphr. it occurs only a dozen times at the most. 



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§ 364. — 297 — 

XXV, 335 v. 190; o**s^°* ^J " f ° r ^s own sak e" Ov> 82, 3; yj 
(JLLomA9 &g iwird ttoXv] [Nn>m9i^ y-{ "shortly", "in few words", often 
in ancient writings even. 

C. y+l without * is also found in many references. Thus, first of 
all, before brief nominal phrases, with the help of which it forms a 
relative clause: ll-^Jj y+l "as (is) a merchant" = "as merchant" Ov. 
165, 22; foJboL *^ yJ "as a son of wealthy parents" Ov. 160 paen.; 
} Jju=>; yj kcctoc rdv ypovov Sv Matt. 2, 16 P. (j ';? tiov>»\. C. S.) ; y+l 
^paj oM|J9ad "according to the command of the Lord" Ov. 166, 25; 
wLo^yuuce y+\ "according to my feebleness" [or "in my humble opinion"] 
Spic, 9, 14; } jd^» yJ "suitably to that which", frequently, &c. Often 
before numbers x *xml tjbo y+\ "as" i. e. "about (&g p) a hundred years" &c. 
— So with J»> "to be like" and similar words: {ioi yj loo* Jkoj "he was 
Uke a fire" Sim. 271 inf. Sccf) — If the word with which comparison is 
made must receive a preposition, then } yj is used, e. g. tlo+£J^i yj 
IVki* "as in the eminent fathers" Ov. 160, 8; fca^^j y+l "as with 
the man" Ov. 168, 9 &c. Or the preposition is withheld, and the special 
relation of that with which comparison is instituted is gathered merely 
from the context: "that great cheapness will prevail" }*++*> ^o? JLUla, yj 
"as (were) the years before" = "as in earlier years" Jos. St. 41, 16. 
However, there occurs: wo+qajul> tUo^j {kVflviiSi y+l JlviVv Jfot^* 
t+doji jL^o? {tsi^ViSi yj ^St^} oo^o "they considered this world as 
an insignificant sheltering-place, but that world beyond as a city which 
was full of beauty" Anc. Doc. 101 ult ; t^ju Laa»p yj "Uke an eagle" 
Sim. 385 mid. (if this is the right reading; Cod. Lond. gives it with* 
out yj). 

D. An Object or an Adverbial adjunct may stand in the incomplete 
clause which is introduced by y+l: t*ju^^ J^& U*»i y+l %ojI y&o^o "and 
turned them, as a good shepherd (turns) his flock" Aphr. 192, 11; y+lo 
^pofX looi n^fc *Vv> oiLol^j! Jaig &*£L 6t»iS\ JW "and as a mother her 
children, he embraced them under the wings of his prayers" Sim. 389 inf. ; 
wO+ajo.mj~fc oU yj otjd^b* JLo; "was victorious in his fight, like Job 



C 1 ) Compare JL»* *aJ "how does he look?" Joseph 195, 9; 225, 2. 



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— 298 — § 364. 

in his temptations" Sim. 395 inf.; ^ootloao; yj toot Wpd o»^»*» lo£5S tt|»oo 
JLaaAa? ^ootAsjpoAr&o JLoJbp? "and before God his intelligence continued, 
after the manner of the angels in their service in heaven" Ov. 169, 21 &c. 
Yet j y+l is more usual, at least when the Object is put at the commence- 
ment of the clause: JIqAiju ^o JJo*v t N tdl? y+\ otifjfck. {Lo^oot* ^o o*£l£ul»o 
tin i > ^ m; WS. "and earned him off from Judaism to his own faith, as 
Rabbula also from heathenism to Christianity" Ov.IBI^SjO {Jjlcq^j y+\ 
"as the enemy (ace.)" Anc. Doc. 105, 11. 

E. In some cases, however, yJ "as if without * appears also be- 
fore a short but complete clause. Thus frequently pojb «ju{ ^»t "as 
one says" ("as if one should say") ; Vgll yJ "as if thou shouldst say" 
= "that is" Isaac I, 184 v. 129; ^pofX looiL JiaA*jj ft* y*{ loot JJ "not 
as if they had any righteousness" Aphr. 309, 12 ; v*\^U )»^o y+l too* Jj 
u^ "not as if anything had been revealed to me" Aphr. 101 paen., and 
with special readiness in the case of Participles and Adjectives lyxeouayjo 
loot "and (it was) as if he bore a grudge" Moes. II, 116 v. 635; JjuJ qa^o 
^po^A^ ^ m » aV yj "accesserimt homines ut qui eos miserarentur" Mart. 
I, 197, 15 ; <*^i JJ yj i-s^ ofck, tool "for he was as if he did not know" 
Joseph 259, 2 [= Ov. 329, 10]; &mjuAooo (ji yj woe* "be as if thou 
wert quarrelling and wert angry" Ephr. (Lamy) I, 259, 10; ^j yA "as 
if they wanted ..." Jos. St. 56, 19; loot ouu^d yj "he was as if pleased", 
i. e. "he looked pleased" Jul. 143, 2, and thus frequently. We may 
often render this y+\ by "as if'. Answering thereto, we have ^dj oca 
wciokj Jl y+\ wo*ok*t "who, while he is,* (is) as if he were not" {or "as 
though he were not") Ov. 70, 2; and thus often wotok*^. yj, yj 
v oc*Jb^; also ^{ is*X ^1 Ephr. II, 339 Cft 



( x ) Thus an object may farther be found standing even after i*£*a "in the 
likeness or form of, "as", and its genitive: ujKauJ VoJLfk* ^o? Io»,a "thou hast loved 
me, as David (did) Saul" Jos. St. 3, 5; ».o% ^irifrV IK*;^\, *L£k.j Ji»iSN> JL»t^ r^**!**^ 
"for his prayers held creation together, as rafters do buildings" Sim. 384 utt. &c; 
cf. jj^5 )»> Jjul^A- foa*l i*»j» y \J.So "and come in before the judges, as lambs to 
the slaughter" Ov. 394, 14. 

( 2 ) The construction of yJ, as the above shows, is very strongly influenced by 
the Greek wg, but it is at the same time founded on a genuine Syriao idiom. 



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§§ 365. 366. — 299 — 

§ 365. As with j yA, so too with j %$*{, ! ^sl*{ "so as", "so that" other Ad- 
and "in order that". The interrogative is in the position of correlative here, Cor reia- 
just as in } ]ul &c. The demonstrative j ^5^? ? Ja-jA conveys the tive8, 
meaning "so that" with a measure of emphasis : in this case the adverb 
does not require to stand immediately before j, as is necessary in 

? y-l, ! \uU. 

A demonstrative often appears overagainst a relative clause which 
is introduced by an interrogative adverb ; and in other cases also such a 
particle is often added: thus ^o£t overagainst j yJ "just as ... , so"; 
^f*£t "at that time", "then", overagainst j ^k*p{> ? *^» t-55 and ^&L 
"there", overagainst } JL&J &c. 

§ 366. A. Following ancient usage, the bare particle j, however, ? «in order 
is still very frequently employed to mark the dependence of a clause, t« 8 ^ C ei», A c. 
without the special kind of subordination being given. Thus, times with- 
out number, j stands for "in order that": uaobsju? o*a ooot ^JLb sTrsrifJuav 
ccvt0 ha aiyyojl Luke 18, 39; ^os, >to» P. = ^ojuuto* C. hoc (fravepoo&fj 
(ipyoc) John 3, 21 ; K^cp ^ap JLmj£o? JLuoi otAu&dt ^t-cno "and then the 
Spirit led him away that he might be tempted of Satan" Aphr. 129, 4, 
after Matt. 4, 1 (wsipocadijvai) ; Jh»^N,y» ^* JLojjlj JJj "that he may not 
be overcome by the enemy" Aphr. 129, 9; {ojuJ? l}vKmj JLpo ^ao No* 
"this was done by the Lord, in order to show" Sim. 391 inf. &c. 

B. j is also employed very often in a loosely causal connection = 
"since", "while" : &*{? ^a^? JMA.j? (t^ loot tLaa»? . . . ^ ^oot^pa^ 
looi l&^j v?°^ J°°* "now their life was a copy of the church of the 
Apostles, seeing that everything which they had, was in common" Ov. 
167, 22; } kj;*h± "particularly as" Mart. I, 16 inf., and other passages; 
? **X wi "woe is me, that (seeing that)" Ov. 137, 5 &c, and many like 
instances; cf. § 358 B. 

C. j also serves the purpose, sometimes, of setting down a clause 
as a kind of theme, the meaning of which is explained afterwards, with- 
out any proper grammatical connection appearing: ^a£6tfio» JJ tla*I»?o 
'jlo vO^ojl toot Vy ik*JL? ^6p wdoi ^)i ^d "and as regards the cir- 
cumstance that the animals did not ^urn round, as they went, — Simon 
was represented by the first &c." Moes. II, 128 v. 796; jSVy »*t?o 



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— 300 — §§ 367. 368. 

^ail jviviv ooot ^11} ^s^JiSNo wotojuuoit ^ftA^ko ooot ^l? "and as 
to the fact, that he said that the dogs came and licked his sores, — the 
dogs indeed that came, are the heathen" Aphr. 382, 18; and thus fre- 
quently pfplj, t^pf, k»J^J "with reference to the (spoken or written) 
words . . . , then" v. Aphr. 384, 10; Mart. I, 24, 11; Spic. 3, 3 &c. Cf. 
pp{ ^jlIoJIo j^rp ^spy yj ^ubftu oi&o^o pOfflD? v*li ?*©• ^? pfca 

"hut now with reference to this fact, that he said: 'Sodom and her 
daughters shall remain as of old', and that he said to Jerusalem : 'thou 
and thy daughters shall be as of old', — the force of the expression is 
this, that they shall never more be inhabited" Aphr. 400, 2. 
! before § 367. On * before Indirect Interrogative Clauses v. § 372. Farther 

Oratio . 

Directa. > often serves to indicate the entirely loose dependence, in which direct 
speech is joined to the words which introduce it. In all cases, in fact, 
} may be used to introduce direct speech, but it is not absolutely ne- 
cessary. When however, j is so used, it is very often impossible to 
determine whether the oratio is directa or indirecta: <o^aajL Jbu^j ^l 
tK*a may be "he said that Simeon had built a house", and it may be 
"he said: 'Simeon has built a house'". Again, in |lua K*ia; ^>{ the 
context alone determines whether it must read: "he said 'I have built 
a house'? (when the person who 'said', is identical with the builder), or 
on the other hand : "he said that I had built a house" (when the reporter 
and not the person who 'said' is the builder), kit u&aui? kj{ {}oKjub 
Aphr. 71, 20 is indirect speech: "thou dost promise that thou wilt for- 
give"; the variant \»l for kj{ makes of it, without any change in the 
general sense, the directa oratio : "thou utterest the promise 'I forgive' ". 

? left out. § 368. The * which expresses the subordination may in many 

cases be omitted, when that is sufficiently denoted by the context. 
Thus, frequently, with JLaj "to be willing", >*nil "to be able", w;Jt 
"to begin" &c. Cf.— besides what is given in §§ 267, 272— : too* JL*j Jl 
jx^j wotoi.v JJ tdt ovk ri&sksv ovhi rovg 6(f>&akju,ovg eTrapai Luke 
18, 13 (S, JW?; O. )ol>;j . . . oupol); ^jI ooficol ^ N mN,» "thou 
hast sent me a message, that I am to write them" Jos. St. 5, 3 ; ©C^j oen 
Jrf j-Ss <*Jil "whom I am obliged to acknowledge" Ov. 163, 15 ; o^» oo**o 



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§§ 369. 370. — 301 — 

l&+s "and gave him to drink" Sim. 359 inf. ; J^ajto^^* o^, oooi ^n^a 
v^aj "they suffered the body to be scourged" Anc. Doc. 105, 11; 
y)«nr»l&j *aaj? "who came forth to be set" Anc. Doc. 95, 1 ; ©£*-? o^o 
loot {^&sJ too* "nor was it of himself that he was rescued" Anc. Doc. 
87, 23; t»oJLs JJ of t-ojj of «ju( ^^i, oSs "if one have the power, either 
to be burned or not to be burned" Anc. Doc. 87, 16 ; and many such 
instances. Also, when the subordinate clause is put at the beginning: 
ofX h*J Joifcsj "he may wonder" Moes. II, 110 v. 521; k*aj oot %fi^{L ^ 
"if thou art willing to learn" Spic. 1, 15; hoM» fc^oj toot tdo^juj «ju{o 
looi vjuaa^o JJ "and no one was able to snatch the martyr's place" Anc. 
Doc. 90, 15 &c. 

§ 369. On the other hand, particularly in long periods, the relative ? repeated, 
particle j is kept, and it may even be doubled: too* JLuajso i-s^JJ 
^jfOad JbkJ^t vp^j^ Jlvj \, ^$^p> ^d? tto^j "for it was not a possible 
thing that, while they worshipped Baal, (that) they should keep the nine 
commandments" Aphr. 15, 4 (so, a farther similar instance in JLuaj^o JJo 
* . . . J (Ioaj Spic. 16, 8) ; . . . ^\, toot vjuajl*? wAoptf V-s^ toot ^p 
^\Jii? "for he was in the habit, whenever he found us . . . , of asking" 
[lit "for he was accustomed that, whenever he found us ... , (that) he 
asked us"] Spic. 1, 3; o*a ^Jbl JLa^oj JML oo*a? JUut ^ v o( y^* JJ6 JJo 
JjUjooo JlaJ ofri* ubqaj? "and it is not seemly for thee, O man, that 
through that gate, by which the king entereth, filth and mud should come 
forth" Aphr. 46, 1 (where there is the additional incongruity that a [in 
J^JL oo*a] is taken up by ^» [in omad]). These examples might be 
held as confirmed. The same may be said of some in Euseb. Ch. 
Hist. In other places, a case here and there, which appears to be- 
long to this class, may rest on a copyist's error, just as, on the other 
hand, a few cases of omission may do the same. The representations 
contained in this and the foregoing section are, for all that, well 
established. 



§ 370. We have already had a few examples, in which a con- ? not at 

onal j did not appear at the head of its clause. So, farther, ^yuuo of e it8 ea 

JJ IK^AJ^. t^xiu? ^,ojLa? 6tLo*JL» "but his power was not suf- 



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Glauses 
set in a 
Series. 



— 302 — §371. 

ficient to render subject to sin her liberty in Jesus" Ov. 160, 20; |ito 
Ji{ J^j ^${f ftt*^. ooi ot^. "and I wish to know the exact truth" Ov. 
163, 10; JH\*> ofX oooi o^o^ <*^>j? tr?^ ^^^1 ^ " a ^ times indeed 
the emperors permitted him to wear purple" Sim. 349 inf.] ^a\o 
toot <^$** ^©*fe? Kt^'b t^- f > ^- fiLa ^>v^ ^^oj "and he was ready to 
meet all wicked emotions with all good emotions" Ov. 169, 8; uua**)! 
♦ ^ . opjo ^^{j fr flN, o my t;jDa* ty "I was not able to bear and endure 
the weight of power" Ov. 171, 14 &c. In many of these clauses it would 
be very natural to keep to the same arrangement of the words, using, 
however, X with the Inf. instead of j with the finite verb. jJj too is 
occasionally found not at the beginning of its clause : «m?i ^d JUaa 
JLVf&? ^ooKfdoa Ql^moU IpoJ "when Moses slew the lamb, the first- 
born of the Egyptians were slain" Aphr. 406, 2; I&ju +d JLoy Jl «dlo 
wot'd^p vpo^X ^J-s^ JNo^y ^ "and not even when a thirsty person 
drinks from a fountain, do its waters dwindle away" Aphr. 199, 10 &c. 
Of course such inversions of the natural order are more frequent in 
rhetorically elevated discourse, and with the poets, than in homely 
statement. 

Beiative § 371. When several relative clauses occur in a series, they may 

be satisfied with one j, even when they are not constructed alike; for 
attributive clauses v. above, (§ 344); cf. JLs^oif o*X *j&Jtt JLqjuO) ^?; Jta 
&*»JU+ju ^ajdo "this person, to whom gold had been sent from far, and 
who had joyfully accepted it" Ov. 199, 17 &c. Conjunctional: c*tAdj 
ofrX f**lo . . . lo£5S "that God had enjoined him . . . and had said to 
him" Aphr. 235, 8 &c. Of course, however, the j may also be repeated 
after o: this repetition may likewise take place when there is a separation 
of the divisions of the sentence into their individual members, without 
necessitating thereby the formation of several complete clauses: ip? 
opo^w yvivi ottw L*aj ot wo*qju{ "that he cause a brother's daughter 
or a sister's daughter to live with him" Ov. 173, 25, where the second j 
might quite as well be wanting. 



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§ 372. — 303 



C. INDIRECT INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES. 

§ 372. A. In many cases in Syriac, indirect questions cannot be indirect 
distinguished from direct. Even the presence of the relative particle j, r o g ltivo 
marking dependence, does not prove that an interrogative clause is indirect, Clau8e8 
seeing that this j may also stand before the oratio directa (§367). — Still, 
the point here is very often determined by the connection, the enfolding 
of the clauses, and particularly the change of person necessary in many 
cases of oratio obliqua. 

B. An interrogation which concerns the entire predicate is denoted 
in indirect discourse by the conditional particle <J ("if') "whether". 
y^ tifSao JLU ^ Ijuu "we shall see if it comes and helps thee" Sim. 
332, 3; JJo .<**&J 1+* 1*** vf D° -?-*^U JU^jd? l$JL fcwit ^ (^U) JJ 
. . . ^ J)o . • . ^ "nor (is it known) whether he was buried under the 
bodies of the slain, nor whether he threw himself into the sea, nor 
whether . * . nor whether ..." Jos. St. 11, 6. The alternative question, 
expressed in the last example by means of the repetition of ^ JJ, may 
also be denoted by o(: oot ota^^ lk*aj otpo ^ |aJ-^>^ >xpb (oot JJ 
JJ ot "the thief does not know whether the master of the house is within 
it or not" Aphr. 129, 13 &c. j o&st often stands for <j (§ 374 B): 
Kit (Aai; oopt aL^i^ ^yoo\ ojuuL( "consider first in thy thoughts 
whether thou dost forgive" Aphr. 71, 21. 

The dependence is more emphatically expressed by prefixing * to 
<^: o > mJlSriS. ItoAd ^»\a. v {j ^pofo o*S, oo&i ^»\Jiv>o kccI iTryjpci- 
rvjaav octroy Xiyovrsg si ^eariv ToTg aafifiaM dspairsvaai Matt. 12, 10 
(C. i ooi ^j) ; j^){ ^^ JttJLao JLasjj ^^na. ^jTvn^ ^ ooL oJkXJLj, 
"thou hast farther asked me, whether righteous and just persons have at 
all times been found on the earth" Aphr. 446, 6; JU^ayiN o^joKaJj 
tkJ&ou ftfjt o*qot ^f "that I may know Christ, whether he is the pure 
truth" Ov. 163 14 (where the interrogative clause is a kind of 'epexegesis' 
or rather second object; v. above, § 358 A, and several examples in 
what follows). 



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— 304 — § 372. 

C. Even when the interrogative concerns the Subject, or individual 
points in the Predicate, J may precede : J^om&t v oaLqj oul*»; ^n^iuN^ 
w£t$6j^ "that they deliberate as to whom they should institute as bishop 
in Edessa" Ov. 170 alt ; woiokj ^-oJo JLaJ; oft*jf uid ofifck* "his fellow- 
monks learned where and how he was" Ov. 169, 23; fr^Jt ooi ji+£u*q 
otL&X w^x>jb jbL&J? "and the truth knows, how to hold thee to herself' 
Ov. 163, 12; Jba*» <JL»*a JLa*A» JbaA.a>( )M?? o^*? jLo^ni toot JjLu ^d 
loos 70JL6 "while he saw his dignity, — with what a humble demeanour 
he stood at the head of the people" Ov. 189, 22; wkaplf "when" Aphr. 
19, 6; 170, 1; JLaJ ^ap? "whence" Ov. 190, 4; k-M^ jba*? "how rich" 
Ov. 191, 20 &c. With the interrogative placed in the end of its clause : 
^o**k*t v dio> Ji^^ ^S,ot pojb euub "who is it that says, what are 
these wheels?" Moes. II, 104 v. 438; and with the j placed at the same 
time at the commencement: ^yuuLl **&*?{ **> {^\\v ^J©»? &l y^i^M 
"I will make known to thee also, from what time these causes acquired 
strength" Jos. St. 8, 3. So also in headings of themes, when the govern- 
ing word is not given: tAu*ttt w£t*6J^ Jftnnrifr? JJaa* )>~»o^ loot ^^J? 
"How the blessed Rabbula became Bishop in the town of Edessa" Ov. 
170, 21&c.( 1 ) 

D. But this } may also be wanting: ^fr^no Ipi ^\»? t*i*ouC»l 
"(that) thou show me, what works are demanded" Aphr. 5, 4; jbo IjUuJ 
o*S, ^Ai ^oiij ^»j^o • • . ttvA^jJ^* 6t^» ^J{ "let him see, what will 
be suitable for the service . . . and by what things he will please him" 
Aphr. 8, 13 (together with • • . o^X J^£s* )Jl*o> )irp &y "man be- 
comes concerned, as to what is requisite for him (who) ..." Aphr. 8, 2) ; 
jbp oAjb v?°^? "wherein is written, what ..." Spic. 13, 8 ; ^JL?. Jl 
om>9 loo* jbo "it is not known what became of him" Jos. St. 11, 5; 
QjujJlt Jjl&J wjbuo "and see thou, how they have distinguished them- 
selves" Aphr. 60, 5; l\JL>l y^\» Jaa-o (qjuj? "that he may show how great 
honour he has bestowed [dispensed]" Sim. 391 inf. (Cod. Lond. JbdAj); 
s^^t foVft ^J ^ ,9i\jhn\ Aot Jbj fa woi Kilo "thou art 
desirous to learn this thing, by what causes it (the war) was stirred up" 



O Notice farther Ji*>c, ^ on "because" John 5, 16 C. S. (P. has merely 2 ). 



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§ 373. — 305 — 

Jos. St. 7, 22 (notice the demonstrative before the interrogative clause) &c. 
In all these cases j may also be found. 

E. Just as, in many cases, a direct question is really an expression 
of wonder, so too is it with many an indirect question: ]ul} o*mSli o*(lo 
ofrX tootJ? I&jl lf& "and his soul grows elate, that to such a master [lit. 
'to what sort of master'] he has become worthy of belonging" Moes. II, 
116 v. 639; and quite a similar instance is given ibid. p. 164 v. 1384. So 
^ol Jbajupro jboo^o JjjLo l^ JbuJJ JLao^uJo JLjlX) Jb{ Jju{j totSjl ouaJLaoo 
"and praised God, that such a stern and rapacious father had begotten 
such a just, generous and compassionate son" Land II, 159, 24; 6|yVS*» 
K*nil t A^J ^^ ^»{° '^t^ J^* x^+h JLaoooiVj tlfiW\vi\ )&X 
"Woe to the empire of the Romans, that it has lost such emperors, and 
met with such instead (of such)!" Jul. 79, 19; "Edessa is in mourning" 
JLiapb'? JL£d*qld ^^ oJ&w oi» .ov** 9-u*? "that such a man, instead of 
such, is sitting on the throne of the Roman world" Jul. 123, 2 (lit 
'who instead of ivhom 1 ). 

The conjoining of two interrogatives in one clause, as we have it 
in these last cases, is somewhat rare. Another instance, however, is 
found in {**( ^> jLjlo t+J? ^o^UL ^j( jbcu "try both of them, as to 
which of them is the stronger" Ephr. (Lamy) III, 681 str. 25. But it is 
only in translations from the Greek that this construction appears with 
any considerable frequency. 

§ 373. J*>f, p£, originally "for what?", then "if perhaps", "that J^,, Ac 
perhaps" or even, when it is an expression of doubt "lest perhaps" [ne 
forte] — is properly an indirect interrogation. The j here indicates de- 
pendence. Moreover a proper governing word is often wanting, and the 
notion of uncertainty, found in the connection, suffices, — so that we 
may translate by "perhaps", "perchance". And thus a farther additional 
j may be prefixed to the } (which has here become grammatically in- 
distinct) in order to express the dependence more clearly. Jhh\ is in 
strictness independent, and introduces at first an independent clause, 
but we deal likewise with it in this place on account of its being tanta- 
mount in meaning to the compound form. Examples: ouJJ JNn\ wju* 
kil pol Spa, juybsvl slny; Matt. 8, 4 P. (C. S. JboX?); lo^S ^s^J^w 

20 



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— 306 — §373. 

?o u Yt» oot JLj 6ow»? y] 'lovbaiccv 6 6sdg juovov Rom. 3, 29 ; lltsjlo JW ]*^ 
{o*SS ^ap <^* ^iL£ "are mother and wife haply better to me than God?" 
Mart. I, 251 inf. — "He does this or that" wot&ajb ojbqj Jb*^> "(in the 
hope) that perhaps he may take him into favour again" Aphr. 150, 5; 
"are asked ^pjuu J*l^? ^0jLu?o . . . ^lU ^ail oju> j^aX? whether those 
who come may have seen them, and whether those who go may 
see them" Joseph 193, 9 (var. both times with J^c^j) [= Ov. 294, 16]; 
j u^, <juaK*{ )aS. J^o^? "would that I were found (thought he) such 
that &c!" Ov. 171, 23; Jbc^j Jb^^uu I^Sljcd o{ tlo*\ Kj{ &lo fa 
«oN ^UKi "think upon death thou too, wise and learned scribe, 
lest haply thy heart be uplifted" Aphr. 427, 18; "seek ye for him Jba^j 
otot^jua ^u> ^»WSo ^oL LJboo ^cw ll+^e wofck. lest haply he may have 
gone into that cave and be dying there, and we be punished for his guilt" 
Sim. 283 mid.; {In i\v> oVin ^im^t v*i£ Jhn\j l^ot ^** pojb )b 
JLmjl oiiSt ^^ III fax** oot J^o^? ot iflcui J^o~/po? "what shall we say 
about this ? Is it that the children of Israel have received the kingdom 
of the Highest? God forbid! Or is it that the people have reached some- 
how to the clouds of heaven?" Aphr. 96, 8 &c. — o( k^otf k*JLa*;*D jf) 
ty ^©i i //,7J7rug sig ksvov rpix® y $>paju>ov Gal. 2,2; Ki{ ;^ri> jdJo "it may 
be thou thinkest" Jul. 47, 1. — ^potlot^mju ^^* Jlvi\»» ^oo^j *a^Jb? 
JJo JJ* jDt^» o>v>\ v?J^° "that we be concerned about them, so that 
they should not, through their need, be obliged to do anything that is un- 
seemly" Ov. 217, 16 ; ^poti* jajaiKi Jvi\?? ooo» ^ul»? "were afraid that 
he would take vengeance on them" Jos. St. 19, 21; J^&X?? ©*i» ^>j 
JLiao ^l^yh "is afraid of it, lest the waters should increase" Aphr. 
145, 15 (var. JaaX?) ; |jl=> o*i*? ^to^a ^ ^j-d Ja£w?? oMfoo9>\ <*»fcjuo 
"and will listen to his command, in order that perhaps, on account of our 
request of him, he may build" Jul. 110, 1; ^£**? ^»JLj? »aJu*tlo 
• . . ofX ih^hJ k£±} Jb&^? wotOo^o> "and Daniel thought, that on ac- 
count of the sins of the nation, he might perhaps remain . . ." Aphr. 
58, 14 (where * is separated from JNn\»; var., however, Jbot^?? 
^^o, J\ri\» afterwards) &c. — )B^&a ^»; .^ jdj* • • • (oot aaS^ 
"let him examine . . . whether in any respect they may be deserving of 
reproof" Ov. 176, 6; ^-a^JLo ^-£ otX ytft p» w©iaaoo*} (KjuoAio ^p 



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§ 374. — 307 — 

woto&t^ju? ttsjuoAtt "he shortened the measure of his days, that the 
measure of his sins might not become too great and overpowering" 
Jul. 5, 24. 

By far the most common of these forms is Jba^? (without * be- 
fore it). 

D. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. 

§ 374. A. The condition which is set forth as possible is expressed 
by v {. With the negative we say JJ v | or tyl. The ^j which introduces a 
clause occasions no farther change in its construction. The Act. Part, 
mostly serves as its verb (§ 271), the Impf. not so often (§ 265). When 
the past is referred to, which of course occurs much less frequently in 
these clauses, the Perf. is employed (cf. § 258), or the Part. act. with 
too* (§ 277), or even, though not often, the Impf. with (oot (§ 268 A). 
Besides, <l is frequently followed by a Nominal clause. The apodosis 
may agree with the protasis in time and in construction, but it may also 
differ from it in many ways, without thereby causing any deviation from 
the leading rules of clause-formation which have been described above. 
We give a few examples in support of the most important cases. Part 
yjLtt vOot-X ^af&oo JM $£ta&ou» yiS~» ^o "and if thou gloriest in thy 
sons, they are torn away from thee" Aphr. 84, 13; o*a uuaJ u&ai JJ{ 
©^ ^JA J&j* l\j* "if he (the dog) does not run out and bark at it, the 
master of the sheep beats him" Ov. 138, 20 (compare § 271). So with 
kj and k*X, e. g. JJoSl ^^l JttJLp k-^ ^ "if there are no righteous 
persons, (even) the wicked perish" Aphr. 458, 9. — Impf.: jaoji Ws^ \f 
. . . ^d^jui V . . . "for if he is fasting . . ., let him not mingle ..." Aphr. 
45, 22; sO^jlII ^i» JLoJ* ^p^iio ^pm.9iflll JJ ^ ^ "but if you will 
not be convinced, but continue to resist, then you will be held in con- 
tempt by us" Ov. 175, 3; t$^"\£a J^d&udI ^ "if it becomes blind, the 
(whole) body has grown useless" Aphr. 457, 11; ^?ott o^j&j Ij^jl, q*oo* 
w&s^*t* ^p ^iKfioL ^1 yA. "the truth makes itself known to thee, if thou 
dost renounce thine own knowledge" Ov. 163, 16 (and thus very fre- 
quently, a Part, in the principal clause, overagainst an Impf. in the 
conditional clause; cf. § 265). Both Impf. and Part, alternating: ^o 

20* 



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— 308 — §374. 

ofrX W+i- V %ooi\, a^ JJo wOtoM>ad *^lo totSS o©» t^>? out jjai 
to£iS o©» *x>j "and if any one makes confession (Impf.), that there is only 
one God, but transgresses (Part.) his commandments, and does (Part.) 
not do them, then it is not true for him that there is only one God" 
Aphr. 498, 5 (cf. line 12; v. 301, 17; 339, 1).—Perf. JioJ s+aoal JbJ,j 
^•^-^ <juax> u^t, v*a£t "if thy father has brought fish, give me five 
pounds (of them)" Sim. 273 mid. ; l^al {loia&^A (Lai&*£» &*^ ^ I 
JLaaj "but if faith has been injured by unbelief, then the soul is lost' 1 
Anc. Doc. 98, 12; o*a ;viv J**»av> tdt Jjlsu{ lK»|^fa ^fioHl JLuua* ^ 
)bu 9 i^~» "if Christ has been laid as the foundation, how then dwelleth 
Christ also in the building?" Aphr. 9, 14 &c. Cf. ^{^aUj Jiov* ^ I 
. . • kj^fcw j>}) ^» Jboo ooot ^•vjav> • • • "if the priests of Israel were 
accustomed to perform the service, how much more is it fitting for us . . J 
Ov. 172, 14 &c. For examples with the Impf. and (oot v. 268 A. No- 
minal clauses : . . . ~ju* • • • ? s^- oo» JLujLa ^ "if it is a disgraceful thing 
for thee that . . ., then see . . . " Ov. 162, 8; &s*a? V%? lKao*» ja-Jp v i 
^a^Kj (*fd^d "if even the remains of an idol's temple are standing in 
any place, they shall be destroyed" Ov. 220 paen, &c. We have several 
cases together in . . . Jio^a Jb^o JUiviSN. ^ol ooto • . . to*Ss oo» *w ^j 
...» \u*J %oo(^ ^dJ JJ jbo ^^o "if God is one (Nominal clause) . . . 
and has given men their nature (Perf.), and takes pleasure in this (Part.).... 
why then did he not give them such a nature, that . . .?" Spic. 1, 6. 

B. For y{ there often stands * ooi v {, * oop( "if it (is) that" e. §■ 
^po^ J^aboo? oom( "if there is necessary for them" Jos. St. 13, 18; oopl 
v q-dJLJ? "if they should conquer" Jos. St. 13, 13; ^ K*|j w^ ^^po* oa vj 
wo^^p[ • • • "if thou therefore, my son, hast . . ., then tell it" Spic. 2, 3 Ac. 

C. We have already seen that several clauses connected by o may 
stand after ^[. It is true that ^ may also be repeated with o : in that 
case conditional clauses are often elliptical: JbuuS. ^o {Lo^blS, ^ "be it 
for death, or for life" Jul. 169, 19; Jua; JI?o Jiaja {pv^i <lo {&S»a ( 
"be -it word or work, in season or out of season" Ov. 181, 22, and mani- 
fold cases resembling these (cf. e. g. Jos. St. 50, 19). How Jo and 
o( "or" may be exchanged here, is shown by the following example: <! 



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§ 374. — 309 — 

^i^^ . . . "whether they are in Edoin or in Arabia, in Greece or in 
Persia, whether in the North or whether in the South, they observe this 
law" Spic. 19, 14. 

D. We have another ellipsis in \} Jo or JJto "if not" e. g. h*J JJ ^o 
pojt*^* v*V (var. JJto) "if not, I have to say" Aphr. 441, 7; so 117, 14; 
Ov. 214, 11. Cf. Jfcs->odt t^aL JJ JJto "otherwise (if it were not so,) I would 
not have done it" Jul. 245, 26. 

After JJt "if not", "excepting", "except that", "other than", sen- 
tences which are incomplete are very common. In this application a 
farther ^ often comes in after JJt. Examples : JLut uJls» o^AdLi t*s^ JJ 
oyriS. ^juajuo? ]*+sd oot JJt o>\niS "for men have not been com- 
manded to do anything, except that which they are able to do" Spic. 5, 2 ; 
j ^^9 )J{ t *ijt ^fcSwlo Uao^it yOo^ oKoll . . • ? <»^ *^ o ^? Jbo ^^.o 
"and why is it, dear friend, that . . . there was written for them 'four 
hundred and thirty years', except because. . .?" Aphr. 26, 20; ^ 1+xjq 
JJL^^? tlo»? JJt tits^T^ \p°^ Ot^^ ^ tloaof u smd not one image 
made they for themselves to worship, excepting the image of the calf' 
Aphr. 312, 20; t^ Pt* Jit JLu^d >mj^iS, Ut ^aa ©£*, toot ^Jt JJ 
^lSjuoJa JLua^A "it was not permitted to him to slay the Paschal lamb 
in any place, except before one altar at Jerusalem" Aphr. 218, 22, while 
line 12 has ?6 u V» ^aAjtioJL* ^ Jl{ jL^d f**M o^X toot s^J^Jl JJ "it was 
not permitted him to prepare the Paschal lamb, save at Jerusalem only" ; 
J^t ^ jj{ l\*\\ >\++ out JJo kou ovbelg bmyiv&GKsi rov viov el fxy] 6 Traryp 
Matt. 11, 27; totSs ^ ^ Jit h^ K±* ovlslg aya&og el juij eig &eog 
Luke 18, 19 ; ^°*j ^^ \{ W t*ojj \*\-f }^> ^*t !*■»* "and what are 
the stones of fire but the children of Zion?" Aphr. 85, 7, where there is 
a var. <*!£> JJt without the J ; Ji6t*& ^ Jl{ JLjjj ^ojI ^b "who are the builders 
except the priests?" Aphr. 10, 18; Jftnm.W ^ Jl{ Jbuu^ ^ooMtt out *d JJ 
^.iy.*»t ^iut ^Vlo . . . "no one of them remained alive but the bishop . . . 
and two other men" Jos. St. 29, 4 ; 'o ^ JJt . . . In via "in what . . . except 
in . . .?" Aphr. 57, 11; tt^aa-^^t Jit . . . >a^ cli* "who understands . . . 
except the perfect?" Ov. 185, 19; and thus frequently. With these 
Particles beginning the sentence: o*X JLc^rb? toot fi^, JLuiot tjju ^t Jlto 
"and only one way was there, which led up to it" Jos. St. 15, 5. An 



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— 310 — § 374 

entire clause stands after ^ Jit in Kmift^l! ^ )J{ onh..6fvi>k Jit (*niv> jj Jj!o 
"and I cannot believe, without being convinced" Spic. 2, 14; «■**?» a v> Jl 
A^,** ^ )J{ . . . a\pKm\n\ fcot "thou canst not understand . . . , if thou 
hast not known" Ov. 162, 26. 

From the meaning "if not" is developed the adversative meaning 
"however, but, yet", in which sense Jit is oftenest met with. 

E. After the concessive particle ^&l = v [ &\ "even if, if even'' 
a complete clause may follow, e. g. too»t • . . ^ppotl Jiot t»a^» ^M Km 
T(f ipei rovrcf efmjre . . . ymfjOSTOU Matt. 21, 21 (C. S. merely ^t) ; ^ 
JLuu IJ^b S., JLuJ Laaaj ^dt P. k&v dmod-avyi tyaerai John 11, 25; ^!o 
JLa,?K* Jl • . • ^o^rii *-s^ "for even though he worships . . . , still he is 
not found fault with" Aphr. 335, 18 ; l&>m l*»V ©M* t^Jlt JL^ju ^b{o 
"and even if he has sinned, yet the seed of the righteous has been pre- 
served by him" Aphr. 462 ulL; V vi iO»*> v*ii> toqtl Jit ... j tooM ^^^ 
. . • } ^ tWt-*o "for even if it happens that . . . , let it yet be firm and 
sure for us, my sons, that ..." Jul. 8, 27 sqq. (where Jl{, as frequently 
happens, occurs at the beginning of the apodosis) &c. But very often ^sj 
is followed by a mere fragment of a clause, e. g. ^o Jaija *ju ^&t Jtalo 
2to^.j "and thou hinderest from prayer though it were but one man r? 
Sim. 328 mid. &c. ; cf. ?o*>Jtt? ^»t ^? Jit. >x{; "I am afraid even to 
mention" Ov. 196, 14. Often it signifies "though it were only", "at least'' 
(like fcdv = kou idv), e. g. ojti^iN? JjiitA ^at? om*» ooot ^oo 
^o^nt kolI napsKakovv avrov ha k&v tov jcpaa7r£bov rou fjmccr/ov atirot 
aipWTCU Mark 6, 56; s^o^ uojo^&o wjo^^ "^m ^*t? "that my 
acquaintances might remember me, for the sake of my words at least" 
Ov. 137, 5; J«V^\ ^ ^o ^al v*j^jlJ "let me dwell at least on the out- 
skirts of the pasture ground" Ephr. HI, 576 D; {&*? ^V>S> wotQ^Q^ 
J^ojuV +*a ^»t Jbo^ ^*» Jlto tln^ >^ ^dt tlajJL&a Jl{ woto^Ajaj? 
"Blessed is he who has been found worthy to obtain it (Paradise), if not 
through righteousness, at least through grace, — if not by works, yet by 
(Divine) compassion" Ephr. Ill, 576 A &c. 

F. We have, in the following sentence, an example of an ellipsis in 
the principal clause being made up for, by the contents of the conditional 
clause: ^ *at oa?* JU*>*\nf\, ^ "if they persecuted Christ, so also (will 



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§ 375. — 311 — 

they persecute) us" Aphr. 484, 15 ; v. also farther sentences there of like 
character. Other ellipses occur in {j|juj ooJL t*mju ^lo oo» ^2i*j fcjaj ^l 
"if (there is) honour, it is ours, and if discredit, it is also on both sides" 
Ov. 151, 17. 

Gr. ^ is found almost always at the beginning of its clause. Very 
seldom do we meet with cases like \i{ pJLS ^ JbooV v ootXd? {KJL* ^Ck, 
"if I stand upon the summit of all heights" Moes. II, 82 v. 83; and thus 
also 80 v. 79 and 81. 

Exceptionally ^ is set down twice in ^ . . . j ^o&x^ ^^d V-s^ \l 
)tq ^oldJLs ^»ot ^p "for if of all lands of food which . . . , if man eats 
of them" Aphr. 307, 11, where the sentence is taken up anew. 

Bern. The insertion of ^ in relative clauses to express the indeter- 
minate ("any", "somehow") is an imitation of the later Greek style, e. g. 
y^obsmj ^} ]kJ ooi darig idv emorr/pixd-fl Is. 36, 6 Hex. ; ^onS, pot ^ p+& 
6 ri hdv Xiyy vjjJv John 2, 5 Hark. ; ^o^Kj . . • v tj ^6i ^o ;*a^ Itcrd; 
el /xi] . . . ejUTTobi&iTO Lagarde, Reliquiae 57, 5 &c, and similarly, here 
and there, even in ancient original writings. Thus in particular ^ J^o 
"how much soever", "although" ; l^o ^ faxo "however much he exerts 
himself Jul. 9 ult ; Jjuv^S. Jbaa ^ J^o "however pitiful he might be to 
the eye" Ov. 188, 20; cf. Philox. 47, 16; 54, 21; 264 &c. Instead of this 
expression we have also Jboo ^o, Land III, 210, 19, 21 ; 211, 6 &c. ; and 
even ^ Jba^ v { Philox. Epist. fol. 13 a, 1, 4. 

§ 375. A. The condition which is set forth as impossible is ex- «& 
pressed by oSS. This particle is generally followed by the Perf. which is 
so much in use for hypothetical clauses (§ 259), or by the Part, with loot 
(§ 277) ; the Perf. is also strengthened occasionally by {ooi. In the principal 
clause the Part, with {oot is very generally found. There is no sharp dis- 
tinction between what is represented, by way of Condition, as still unfinished 
(si faceret), and what is represented as completed (si fecisset). Examples: 
^\d too* JLuu jJ ,016* {As£o* o^^bll JJ o25so icai si juij eKoko^d^jaav 
ou yjuApai etcslvai ov/c av kaufryj Traoa odpf; Matt. 24, 22 ; JL*aj Kn^i oSs 
(oot pJLb jJ (^^flC^ "if the soul abandoned the body, it (the body) would 
not continue in existence" Moes. II, 90 v. 221; ooot J^Q^P? JLqdq.vij qSs 
Lo©» JLuuBLaao JJ {oot^ui, {j©» "if laws belonged to climes, this would be 



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— 312 — § 375. 

impossible (to be)" Spic. 18, 25; {oot ^ JJ . . . Jboi oSs "if he had given 
a sign . . . , he would not have been burned" Anc. Doc. 87, 22 ; «-s^ a^ 
tLaa*»L {oot &J oal "for if they had been converted, there would have 
been penitence" Aphr. 54, 5 ; {oot IjAm {oot ^»o2 qSs Jbaa &l "even the 
children, if he had begotten them, he would have rescued" Aphr. 352, 10; 
loot o£*~? toot JJ . . . {ka^ &l (kooi . . . * JbujJ {oot r ^^U ^s^o^S "for 
if he had been made so, that . . . , then the good even (that he would do) 
. . . would not be his" Spic. 4, 4; JJ loot 6*JM ©tlaV ^jC^a o2is 
o£»* loot Jn^a "if it (f.) had always been with him, it would not have 
allowed him ..." Aphr. 128, 3 ; toot ;-^Jtfco© . . . loot ^i ouSS ei ffiei 
. . . sypyyopr/Oev dv Matt. 24, 43; JL***? • . . loot oju&a» . . . l+£& ++^ja& 
loot "for if the rain had weakened . . . , it would be clear ..." Aphr. 
450, 14; loot *aaJbo? oot cluo loot *v»N',ay» qjuo&juo j» t Y*V~ q^ «jf 
everything were ministered unto, who would he' be that ministered?" 
Spic. 3, 24; A*l{ JJ o^S o£^ loot ouuid kocXov y/v olvtcZ si ovtc hyewydy 
Matt. 26, 24, cf. Mark 14, 21 ; ooot ^&*4 JJ oSs ^po^ {oot uuAd "it 
would be better for them, if they did not rise" Aphr. 169, 12 ; JL%*» clSS 
loot "if it had been possible" Ov. 201, 1; JLaj^a JLoot {oot r -">^ oSs 
{oot Jijb© JJ{ {oot ^otokj JJ oii9n\ oot "if man had been made in that 
way, he would not have been for himself, but would have been an in- 
strument" Spic. 3, 4. 

Occasionally, with the naturally definite oSs, the suggestion of 
unreality, given by the Perf., remains quite in abeyance, and the 
particle is then followed by a clause with the Impf. or Part., or by a 
Nominal clause: ^X loot J^ot* JLL^ 6*X vootsju oSSj "which, if we 
listened to it (f.), would bring us woe" Jul. 210, 7 ; oot? {ooM oSfcs Jla{ 
«.. lAajio t**ot{ Jio^ "not even if it should happen that the tyrant let 
me go free" (where the hypothetical Perf. is in the dependent clause) 
Jul. 84, 7; v cia1d <oiyj{ o*X o^6t^ A*^>? otjuui jLutt t-s^ o2Ss 
<o&o{ ^jspL "for if the odour of the sinner were to strike one who ap- 
proached him, then you would all flee" Ov. 140, 20 (where there is a var. 
,oK*oot ^ o; v oot <o£o{); ^tsjud^jtl o^p; JLa^»o J*u k*^& oiis "if 
thou didst seek it, sea and land would sing thy praise" Moes. II, 78 
v. 45; Jb^j oSS "if thou didst wish" ibid, v. 39. Cf. {loj^iao JJ oSs 



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§ 375. — 313 — 

JLul> o*sol ^ ^d . . . JviSSS o^ JLo-*JU> totSS? "if the protection of 
God did not embrace the world, life would no doubt have come to an 
end" Jos. St. 4, 14; Jbai*. {*&**> J*iVv^ <*a ^potJM JJ oSS "if they 
were not in the world, it would dissolve" Aphr. 457, 14 (where there is 
a var. loot ftfcsjuo) ; o»*oi£ ^ toot ddAJuo . . . 2^*4*, JLt&j ^ &*{ aSs "if 
we had a pure soul . . . , astonishment thereat would strike us dumb" 
Moes. II, 160 v. 1307 (and so 164 v. 1357, while 166 v. 1385 has oSs 
toot &*(); (j^ju ^ loo* iotAob . . . \u±, JLsl* oSSo "and were the eye 
clear . . . , the throng would astonish us" Moes. II, 164 v. 1355; ^Ai o25s 
{oot ^o| . . ♦ Jiot . . . <ju( "if one had power . . . , then would this (one) . . . 
be higher" Anc. Doc. 87, 16. 

B. The clause with o3s is subjected to a certain dependence in 
cases like Ka£ o^-d ^o aSs Jij Jb>j Jboo kou ri #£A0 si -/jhij avf^Oy Luke 
12, 49 (P. Jij J^o); ^©^K*ju> aSS JL*©i fto{ ^^ "thou wishest now, 
thou hadst seen him" Moes. II, 160 v. 1319 (and so v. 1320); J^o-do 
&at^» Ot-J ^o o25s ^oK*oot ^aj "and how much you wished, it had already 
gone down" Jul. 23, 22. Cf. ibid, 81, 25; 104, 26. The notion of a hy- 
pothesis has in these cases passed over into that of a wish. 

C. With JJ oSs, accompanied by a noun, the idea of existence does 
not need to be expressly denoted: JLx» JJ ,oj6t (KmcL> w^b^ JL^o JJ oSSo 
;m^ "^d looi Kat si jut,-/] Kvpiog (8g) $/co\6/3ccosv rag rjjutyag {kicsivag) ovk 
av §od&7} Traaa odpf; Mark 13, 20 (S. differently) ; o*a^j Jjuu$oflD JJ o^S 
"had it not been the offence, which they committed" Jul. 50, 27; oSSo 
^otoA? ^p on9ii Jxx^s^ Jlo oot JJ "and had he not been, then neither 
would there have been (§ 339) any revelations from his Father" Moes. II, 
118 v. 654. The construction of j JJ o3S = JJ oSsis exactly like the latter 
in syntax : o»n>Jt JJ ^viv JtJLij Jua^ ^*^»? JJ Q^S "if the famine had not 
become severe, he would not have allowed him to come with us" Joseph 
242, 9 (Ov. 320, 15); j£*xb \il &l ty 1? \>y> J*a>t*? JiVhN? JJ oSs 
k*oo» "had I not been made subject to the king of the Persians, I too 
would have gone up" Sim. 328 inf.?) 



(*) I would not like to maintain confidently that even in K**»U( Jl . . . * o^ 
"if I did not . . . think" Jul. 132, 12, the , is correct, 



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— 314 — §§ 376—378. 

v| for o&t § 376. In rare cases ^ occurs instead of aSS with conditions clearly 

assumed as impossible, e. g. in +£l *-d U >vV\ ojS, b^l JjULsS* }*+** ^^\! 
JLmoioJ ©*X looi jib lll&l ^o» ^ ^f£)d^ |t^ "for if cattle had 
any advantage in keeping the sabbath, the law would have hindered them 
from these impure things before" Aphr. 233, 8 (only one Codex); ^o 
Jit^Jj ^oot ]»ko pvvi\ ^r^ ^ 00i M^ J" Pr* "^ or ^ ** were not in the 
power of our hands to do anything, we would be the instruments of others" 
Spic. 20, 22 (in the parallel clause aSS). 

clauses 8 377. The great variety of Conditional Clauses could only be 

which 

reaemhie represented here by a few leading types. But, besides, there are as- 
ciausei 01 * sociated more or less with Conditional Clauses proper, the Disjunctive 
Conditional, with o{ — oj (§ 258), the Temporal Conditional, with * J* 
(§ 258), as well as the Temporal, with j ~*op{, *■» (§§ 258; 265 &c.) and 
many others. *-» takes a concessive meaning by the addition of &1, 
more rarely <-s^p "much, greatly, even" ("even while") — "however 
much", "although", e. g. JU^pfcoe Jk^*ol wo»o«|*>i »a-£ ^o «a{o "and al- 
though he builds it up, it is still called a crack" Aphr. 145, 10 ; ^ / ^ 
JLlLkld( {oo» ^^ oN'.mt ^woJLa "although Xenaya [Philoxenus] was at 
the time in Edessa" Jos. St. 25, 11 and frequently thus. — c^^b t^o 
o+mldI JJ ^ai{ l^o JUaa "however much he tried and punished them, still 
they did not do well" Aphr. 402, 13. 



STRUCTURE OF PERIODS. INVOLUTION AND OTHER 
IRREGULAR FORMS. 

structure § 378. The fondness of the Syrians for the construction of rather 

long Periods, founded on the genius of their language — has been not a 
little fostered by the model which the Greek Style presented. Those 
periods are produced by the co-ordination and subordination of such 
clauses as have been already described, or others like them. The number 
of possible ways, in which the known elements may in these individual 
cases be combined, is unbounded. 



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§§379—381. — 315 — 

§ 379. The license given in the arrangement of words in a clause involution, 
is in part also extended to the arrangement of the clauses, which serve °* g of°o°ne 
as members of a period. For the purpose of being brought into stronger Cla £? e 
relief, the governed clause is occasionally placed a long way before the another, 
governing; and not seldom an express Involution or enclosing of one 
clause within another, makes its appearance. Cf. JLuujuo jxj^} ^s^JL^Q- ^p 
im^a^Kjj i^u Jl )»** ^* otLoi&a >6^-oqjj ^oto^** w^jdIJ "for, from the 
day on which the name of Christ was named over him, by nothing was he 
persuaded to resolve to satisfy his hunger" Ov. 182, 12; JiAg, ^j lio^a 
^o? {o^ot JLafckjuoji JbfcJ&uu; >x*i clu» otio^} l'io±*) {toad*? J^jl^ 
ooot ^Ltju&oo oiK^iJ^a totSS? JL>oi "but who can describe the wonderful 
changes, which, in this stolen quiet of the few days of his prayer, were 
renewed in his soul by the spirit of God?" Ov. 185, 18; l\x*l Jb>jj ^*i\ 
^qjJ ^\>N^ \i\ p&fo "ei, qui vult, dixi et dico eos faciles esse" Spic. 6, 4; 
Asit *^L? Jbs^a&A, JJfcoVoi {LoU*L t *^*ot t-oo "et quum haec mirabilia 
magna audiverim te facere" Addai 3,3 ab inf. ; ^p ^aj? ^AJ Ih^o} J 1 * ^^ 
^po*X ^oqvii JL-^j "those of the monks, who wish to make for them- 
selves stone chests for the dead" Ov. 214, 12 ; ^U ^J*j *a? omJLop ol JK 
JUtoi ^^J^ "but we have not now come to stir up the mud of Barde- 
sanes" Ov. 64, 12; tj^s^tf? h\ l)^ Mt*» J\S™*> v oKi{ &h ^£ao 
w^^vsV ^oisjj "for I see that you too are eager to hear profitable speech" 
Philox. 120, 2, and many similar instances. 

§ 380. Parentheses, like the following one, are seldom met with: paren- 
^ooitojU ^ JUabdaai o<^^J JIvjYim te*"^ ^ptsil ^j^m Jbo^ "how many 
wise men, think you, have abrogated laws in their several countries?" 
Spic. 19, 1. More frequently are parentheses found in quotations of 
sayings: e. g. yoKajL^j jo^o ^jU l*y± pol ty ^uuj "I am afraid, 
says the servant, to mention what you have stolen" Joseph 218, 3 [= Ov. 
307, 14] &c. 

§ 381. The construction of the Nominative Absolute (§ 317) be- Anacoiu- 
longs at bottom to the Anacoluthon, and the sUme may be said of several 
other constructions which we have met with above. But true Anacolutha, — 
i. e. those which are felt to be such, — are not very common. They belong, 
moreover, rather to the department of rhetoric than that of grammar. 



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— 316 — § 382, 

Eiiipaii. § 382. The range of the Ellipsis is very extensive. We have al- 

ready in foregoing sections dealt with various instances of its employ- 
ment, cf. e. g. §§ 374 E; 375 C. To the Ellipsis belongs the omission oi 
individual words and groups of words, which may be supplied from the 
contents of corresponding clauses (§§ 332; 374 F); thus farther IUjJI] 
£s*{^*? <-»°t HuAo oKaj K*JL^Jju <aj{? *-»©• "it is one thing for s, 
man to write with pathos, and another thing (for him to write) witl 
truth" Jos. St. 5, 7; Uli? U-M**? k£w* och v Oj*Asj? ^JLaio? wioolc 
^wJLaj "and whenever they [the teachers] do put a question, (they do so; 
that they may direct the mind of the questioner [the pupil], so that he 
may ask properly" Spic. 1, 18; {p rtoVv otto"* >% ^i«>&? U'+^l • ->ar 
j£±jL*6ly {^t^LA ^P&£»? J**VO frfinrHftV iftl; J^of^ . . . Uv>*N^o f^^\g^ 
"and sent others, who conveyed his kindness (i. e. his gifts) to the 
monasteries of the West and the South . . . , so that even to the needy 
saints who dwell in the wilderness of Jerusalem (he sent gifts)" Ov, 
205, 22 &c. Bursts of Exclamation produce other ellipses, which do not 
admit of being formed into complete sentences. Others, again, are pro- 
duced by the peculiar style of Adjuration-formulae. In fact living speech 
is very elliptical; but of course the proportion, in which the individual 
man may avail himself of this form of expression, is not a matter to be 
settled by grammar. 



APPENDIX. 

ON THE USE OF THE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET 

AS CIPHERS. 

The letters, which are noted on p. 2, may take numerical values. 
A line drawn above them, or some other distinguishing mark, is wont 
upon occasion to make them significant as ciphers. In compound nu- 
merals the higher order takes the right hand place. The hundreds from 
500 to 900, for which the alphabetical characters do not suffice, are 
represented by the corresponding tens, ^j, tflo, >x, «j», j, over which a 



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— 317 — 

point is placed for distinction's sake. This point, however, is often wanting; 
yet the numerical value is generally quite clear from the mere order of 
the ciphers, or from the context. For the hundreds from 500 — 800, com- 
binations with I = 400 frequently appear also, thus: %ol = 500; *l = 600; 
ott = 700 ; It 800. For the thousands the units may be placed, where 
the order of the ciphers gives them to be recognised as indicating thou- 
sands ; a small oblique stroke is sometimes set below them as a distin- 
guishing mark. 

Examples: ^? = 23; ^ = 209; ijm, = 394; juaj (juxi) or jL&oJL 
= 527; nffitl (nmftt, i^mft?) = 1862; ^3c*" = 5550 &c. 

Farther, the thousands are very often written out in full, with 
numeral letters accompanying, e. g. **jo JLbSs = 1944; ajjdo t ^fiSs o 
= 2152 &c. And, besides, there occur combinations of numerals written 
out in full and numerals represented by letters, e. g. JLcdo tjaa^jtio JLa2Ss 
= 1967; ^tC^lo ifib = 630 &c. 

Rem. In certain MSS. a very ancient system of ciphers is found, 
resting upon quite a different principle. 



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ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

P. 2, 1. 2 from foot, 3 rd last col.; after — sh — , insert — (3). 

P. 16, 1. 15 from top; read — Exception. 

P. 23, 1. 19; for— "there"— , read— "then". 

P. 45, 1. 4 from foot of text; for *JboL read — «Jbo?. 

P. 46, 1. 4 of § 66; for— f. v*jj-— , read— f. v*a— 

P. 52, 1. 11 from top; read last word — fy&l**. 

P. 64, 1. 10; for J&o£, read— J^oif. 

P. 64, 1. 11; for Jb^, read— JLd^. 

P. 74, 1. 4; for — syllables — , read — letters. 

P. 87. 1. 11; for— 6^., read— 6^1. 

P. 87, 1. 20, 2 nd col.; for— ^jxij, read— <*£i-?. 

P. 87, 1. 26, 2 nd col.; for— ^n.ivj, read— ^%-JLi?. 

P. 88, 4 th footnote; for — ^6ogid{, read — ^pouaji. 

P. 94, 1. 9 from foot; for — J*M>?, read JLp^-b?. 

P. 95, 1. 3 from foot of text; for— ^m^lK^, read — ^m^Lfc^L. 

P. 97, margin; for — months — , read — month. 

P. 98, 1. 2 from foot of text; after— "ill" ;—, insert— **% "well", "much" 

(adv.);—. 
P. 103, margin; for — Preposition — , read — Prepositions. 
P. 107, 1. 8; read first word as — •?$£*{- 
P. 114, l 8t line of footnote; for — wJLlcd — , read — ^JLLcp. 
P. 128, 1. 2; read last word as — fo^J. 
P. 128, 1. 9; for— i^d— , read— Laa. 
P. 128, ult, mid. col.; for — ;d^j — , read — jo^J. 
P. 133, ull; for— JLuj— , read— JLuJ. 
P. 140, 1. 10; for — ^oU3o£aaj — , read — wot*io£x*)j 



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— 319 — 

P. 144, last column; read 3 rd word as — <»?V>^ 

P. 182, 1. 16 ; read last word as — Q-£a>* 

P. 209, 1. 8; read 3 rd Syriac word as— po$. 

P. 212, U. 10 & 9 from foot; read — Sentences. 

P. 222, 1. 11 from top; after— § 283—, insert— A. 

P. 229, 1. 15; for— wo»6^|— , read— ^5»6^|. 

P. 232, 1. 5 from foot; for— ^^{— , read— ^fl^i- 

P. 240, 1. 2 from foot; from the words — "who are you Christians" — , 

delete — you. 
P. 244, 1. 5 from top; read first word as — ensample. 
P. 255, 1. 15; for— 28 ab inf.—, read— 28a, inf. 
P. 255, 1. 19; read — consigned to writing. 
P. 257, 1. 16; for— oo©», read— oo©». 
P. 271, 1. 9 from foot; for— XXX— , read— XXIX. 

Note. — A vowel-mark, or a point or other sign, has fallen out in 
the Syriac portion of the type, much oftener than could have been wished. 
It would appear that the occasional occurrence of such an accident, im- 
mediately before the final impression, is exceedingly difficult to avoid in 
this particular type, however careful the manipulation may be; and, 
happening when it does, it is of course beyond the control of any proof- 
reading. In the above list of "Additions and Corrections", only those 
instances of such a fault have been pointed out, which stand in Paradigms 
or similarly important situations. The others are left to the discernment 
of the reader to discover and correct, and to his indulgence to condone. 



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INDEX OF PASSAGES. 

(THE REFERENCES ARE TO THE PAGES OF THIS EDITION) 



A. SCRIPTURE. 

(a) OLD TESTAMENT. 



Genesis 

1, 2 238 

2, 6 238 

7 191 

9 151 

18 263 

8, 1 238 

10, 11 . . . 159 

4, 2 238 

9 247 

8,21 235 

9,11 207 

23 256 

25 156 

12, 1 284 

11 164 

14, 18 238 

15, 17 .... . 289 
16, 1 (Ceriani) . 243 
18,27 248 

20, 5 247 

21, 5 238 

17 182 

23,15 185 

24,11 292 

44 248 

27,18 248 

46 202 

29, 9 216 

81,15 238 

27 204 

81,41 185 

34,22 208 

36,31 209 

37,33 236 

41, 2,3 . . . . 154 

2, 18, 19 . . 158 

42,11,31 ... 159 



Genesis 

43,10 . . . 167,204 

44,28 286 

48,14 229 

50,15 233 

Exodus 

1, 5 238 

5,11 284 

17 108 

16, 5 187 

17, 1 241 

18,21 157 

21, 8 157 

11 155 

22, 3, 6 . . . . 187 
26(Barh.) . . 141 j 

24,12 234 

82, 1 252 



Levitiou8 

14,30 . • 



201 



Numbers 

U, 4 204 

21, 5 199 

26,15 (Ceriani). 15 

Deuteronomy 

1,35 254 

4,14 229 

24 .... . 222 

26 117 

9, 8 222 

21 229 

18,14 244 

24,15 256 



Deuteronomy 

28,67 204 

33,19(Barh.). . 120 

Joshua 

6, 3 sqq. ... 148 

26 193 

10,22 186 

Judges 

2, 15 284 

3,22 42 

4,20 274 

6,19 274 

30 209 

^7,14 243 

8, 5 153 

7 203 

24 241 

10,11 266 

12 138 i 

11, 1 165 

33 290 

14,17 192 

16,25 214 

20,13 209 

Ruth 

2, 5 182 

8,10 182 

I Samuei 

14,47 284 

20,32 216 

21, 9 (Barh.). . 141 
26, 7 189 



2 Samuel 

8,14 284 

13, 20 200 

16, 8, 12 . . . 238 
18,83 204 

1 Kings 

6, 9 55 

14,30 198 

15, 6, 19 ... 198 
22, 28 286 

2 Kings 

1,16 (Hex.). . . 285 
9,32 186 

11, 5,9 . . . . 189 
8 148 

20,12 161 

2 Chronicles 

4, 6 226 

Nehemiah 

13,26 175 

Job 

1, 1 289 

1 (Hex.) . . 285 

3 170 

7, 2 (Hex.) . . 132 

5 106 

21 240 

10,18 204 

11 , 5 . . . .204 
13, 5 . . . 204, 236 

14,13 204 

16, 4 275 

22, 3 292 



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322 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



Job 

24,10 190 

26, 6 155 

30, 3 1C6 

31,24 248 

82, 4 . . . . 238 

33, 6 248 

9 247 

40,19 248 

42,11 238 

Psalm 

1, 3 199. 

3, 3 223 

10, 14 222 

19, 3 153 

33,17 221 

84,15 234 

85, 3 222 

87,22 223 

89, ult 294 

40,14 234 

41, 6 204 

9 .... . 221 
48,12 (&'Hex.). 148 

50, 1 156 

61, 5 221 

69,28 164 

73, 5 240 

84, 7 156 



Psalm 

84,12 223 

91,15 (Hex.) . .165 

104,4 156 

119,20 106 

186,2 156 

Proverbs 

1,16 175 

8,15,18 ... 247 

28 241 

4,23 153 

5,14 153 

6,30 226 

8, 2 242 

12 248 

30 . . . . 238 

9,12 247 

17 158 

10, 2 155 

15,27 211 

17,11 155 

28,35 (Hex.). . 285 

Ecclesiastes 

1, 3 . . . 172,181 

7 153 

6, 6 167 

6 (Ceriani) 171 



Ecclesiastes 

8,15 172 

Canticles 

3, 8 223 

Isaiah 

1,19 207 

18, 3 222 

12 (Hex.) . 196 

14,16 221 

16, 3 78 

19, 2 153 

14 221 

20, 4 190 

28,15 255 

36, 6 (Hex.) . .311 
37, 34 (Hex.) . . 143 

40, 3 172 

48,12 161 

51, 2 138 

19 175 

52, 2 107 

55, 1 155 

60,21 230 

Jeremiah 

4,29 172 

6, 8 199 



Jeremiah 

10,20 240 

16,19 279 

28,11 (Hex.) . . 293 
38, 9 247 

Lamentations 

4, 8 106 

Ezekiei 

16,39 190 

23,40 256 

29,18 153 

44,13 234 

Daniel 

3, 6, 11 sqq. . 222 
24 266 

4, 8, 9, 18 . . 156 
5,11 156 

12 158 

6,20 275 

9,21 236 

Micah 

1, 2 286 

Nahum 

2,10 106 



I Maccabees 

12,36 194 



2 Maccabees 

14,44 .... 



256 



(b) APOCRYPHA. 



Sap. (Sol.) 

14,10 117 

19, 3 168 



Sirach 

2,11 153 

23,19 187 

42,11 214 

43, 4 187 



Sirach 

47,10 152 

23 155 



(c) NEW TESTAMENT. 



Matthew 

1,18 161 

19 160 

22 291 

2, 1 188 

5 218 

9 . . . 274, 292 

11 274 

16 . 188,274,297 

18 240 

20 177 

3, 9 234 

17 287 

4, 1 299 

6 176 



Matthew 




Matthew 




Matthew 




4, 8 . . 


. . . 190 


7, 9. . 


. . . 232 


11, 22, 24 


. . .196 


5, 3. . 

5 . . 

11 . . 


. . . 155 
... 230 
. . . 157 


11 . . 
14 . . 
29 . . 


. . . 159 
. . . 182 
. . . 266 


27 . . 


. . . 309 


32, 1 . . 


. . . 214 


10 . . 


... 303 


13 . . 


. 163,249 


8, 2. . 


. . . 235 


34 . . 


... 159 


25 . 


... 205 


4. . 


... 305 


44 . . 


... 284 


29 . . 


... 273 


16 . . 


. . . 189 


45 . . 


. 158, 160 


34 . . 


... 177 


22 . . 


. . . 214 


13,11 . . 


... 175 


46 . . 


... 180 


9, 9. . 


. . . 188 


17 . . 


, 168,248 


48 . . 


... 160 


10,16 . . 


. . . 160 


24,31, 


33 . .168 


6,11 . . 


... 167 


20 . . 


... 247 


46 . . 


. 162, 250 


16 . . 


. 160 


37 . . 


. . . 196 


14,15 . . 


. . . 209 


34 . . 


... 179 


11, 3 . . 


. 156,216 


27 . . 


... 248 


7, 2, 7 . 


... 201 


4 . . 


... 247 


15, 2 . . 


... 230 



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INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



323 



Matthew 

15,34 170 

16,10 154 

16, 20 . . - 248 
23 167 

17, 8 230 

9 215 

17 268 

19 198 

18, 6 231 

13 195 

15 198 

15-17 ... 204 
30 249 

19, 3 153 

10 197 

14 214 

28 285 

29 . .... . 187 

20,15 158 

21,21 310 

23, 24, 27 . .154 

27 215 

31,32 ... 257 

41 168 

46 224 

22,16,21 ... 166 

25 229 

29 228 

36, 40 . . . 154 
43 155 

23, 4 . ... 228 

14 248 

17 228 

23 204 

27 161 

34 153 

37 164 

24, 2 . . . 153,230 
5 . . . . 248 
7 153 

10 187 

22 311 

25 274 

38 282 

41 240 

43 312 

48, 49 . . . 300 
50 282 

25,32 187 

40 . . . 175, 179 

26, 4 197 

9 193 

11 244 

24 312 

35 226 

38 200 

42 167 

47 216 

56 291 



Matthew 

26,63 ..... 248 
74 120 

27, 4 182 

5 229 

12 173 

27 228 

45, 46 . . . 154 
64 214 

28,12 158 

Mark 

1, 6 220 

11 287 

18 230 

27 187 

32 189 

2, 2 275 

3 186 

9sq, ... 230 

13.. . . .172 

14 216 

28 172 

3,20 210 

4,17 166 

5, 9 159 

15, 16,18 . . 177 
6, 10 ... . 285 

11 196 

17 203 

37 214 

49 146 

56 310 

10,13 216 

14 214 

15 196 

30 187 

11,25 205 

13,20 313 

27 186 

38', 35 . . . 205 

14,21 312 

16, 3 204 

Luke 

1,15 160 

22 249 

33 155 

34 219 

42 160 

73 279 

2, 1 252 

5 .... 249 
6 250 

15,49 ... 188 

3, 5 172 

8 225 

22 287 

4, 5 ..... 276 
36 188 



Luke 

5,12 235 

7,19,20. ... 216 

8, 8 187 

47, 55. . . . 256 
50 235 

9, 4 285 

41 268 

55 183 

10,12,14 ... 196 
24 . . . 247, 248 

30 197 

35 179 

37 205 

42 151 

11,17 176 

42 205 

53 .... • 215 

12,13 .... . 214 

22 167 

49 313 

13, 2 160 

7 .... 274 
9 204 

14 . . . 205, 215 

28 240 

34 . 164,286,287 

14, 2 220 

15, 7 .... . 196 

13 170 

17 154 

22 232 

24,32. ... 160 
29 154 

16, 6, 7 ... . 170 

12 178 

13 278 

16,17 196 

17, 1 201 

2 . . . 196, 231 

18, 1 . . . 206, 262 

13 800 

19 ..... . 309 

22 158 

25 196 

39 299 

19,18 167 

26 241 

20, 2 154 

29 155 

30 166 

31 167 

21,14 206 

22,29,70 ... 248 

23, 5 230 

8, 9 173 

24,29 . . . 200,218 

John 

(Bernstein S. VI) 120 



John 

(Bernst.-Gen.Kef.)133 

1,1 242 

4 255 

4, 10 . . . 239 

11 178 

15 177 

19 248 

27 280 

28 239 

30 177 

31 192 

43 228 

2, 5 (Hark.) . 312 

12 170 

25 231 

3, 4 167 

17 231 

21 299 

35 171 

4, 7, 10 . . . 209 
15 206 

4,29,32,35. .248 

34 178 

37 156 

46,49 ... 168 

5, 1 (Hark.) . 196 

7 156 

9 180 

13 188 

16 304 

19 214 

26 244 

27 239 

34 264 

6, 9 197 

7,19 266 

8,39 . ... 246 

41 239 

44 243 

48, 52 . . . 197 

53 248 

9,13 .... 160 

30 226 

34 177 

10, 35 239 

38 (Bernstein) 1 9 

11,25 310 

26 212 

33 291 

38 ... 198 

12, 8 244 

28 212 

13,14 239 

15,19 239 

16, 4 239 

8,16 ... 19 
20 (Bernstein)117 

18,18 200 

19,12 238 



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324 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



John 

20, 1 200 

12 . . . 189,193 

21,18 156 

25 253 

Aotsof theApostles 

2, 4 224 

39 239 

45,47 ... 216 

4,32 153 

5, 10 276 

21,34 ... 189 

8,21 238 

9,33 153 

43 158 

10,26 177 

33 256 

12,15,19 ... 177 
18, 2 232 



Acts of the Apostles 

15,36 .... 182 
16,27 . . . 203, 208 

30 225 

17, 4 158 

26 153 

19,34 154 

24,17 192 

26,21 234 

27,15 289 

28,22 196 

Romans 

3,29 306 

14, 6 167 

I Corinthians 

3,13 212 

9,13 17 

15,37 184 



1 Corinthians 

15,51 ..... 264 
53 266 

2 Corinthians 

2, 9 32 

Galatians 

2, 2 306 

6, 9 205 

Ephesians 

6, 9 205 

Philippians 

2, 4 275 

4,15 254 

I Thessalonians 

j 4,13 199 



2 Timothy 

3, 2 (Hark.) . 165 

Hebrews 

3,17 182 

7,18 155 

12,29 222 

18, 7 . . . 205, 223 

James 

3,15 83 

5.17 (Hark.) . 200 

Revelation 

1,10 (Gwynn). 155 
2, 5, 15 . . . 122 

4, 2 (Gwynn). 155 

9.18 ( „ ). 154 

15, 6 220 

17, 3 (Gwynn). 155 
21,10 ( „ ). 155 



B. AUTHORS and WORKS mentioned in the preface, as well as 

the following: 

PHILOX. = Discourses of Philoxenua, Bishop of Mabbogh (Budge); 

JOHN VAN TELL A (Kleyn); 

EUSEB. CH. HIST. = Eusebius' Church History; 

BED JAN, MART. = Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum (Bedjan). 



Addai 

2,12 153 

8, 3 ab inf. . . 315 

ult 247 

81, 8 253 

44,16 281 

ult 205 

48, 8 218 

Anc. Doc. 

20,14 218 

42, 9 . . . 223, 224 

13 195 

22 222 

43,25 208 

55, 2 254 

78,13 152 

87, 3 230 

9 263 

16 . . . 301,313 

22 312 

23 301 

89, 14 234 



Anc. Doc. 

90,15 301 

18 176 

22 210 

23 . . . 214,217 

25 220 

paen 215 

ult 287 

91, 8 236 

95, 1 301 

98,12 308 

101, 3 158 

ult. . . .297 

102, 3 206 

108,13 208 

20,25 ... 218 
104,25. ... 268 
105,11. . . 298,301 

Aphr. 

(Wright , sPref.l2, 21) 

169 

5, I 175 

4 304 



Aphr. 

6, 1 . . . 202, 228 
4 199 

12 . . . 175,199 
14 . . . . . 260 

16 166 

ult 175 

7, 1 260 

2 . 203,251,262 

7 296 

8 274 

9 174 

11 203 

ult 202 

8, 2, 13 . . . 304 

14 154 

paen. . . . 199 
ult 249 

9, 10 . . 172,260 

12 260 

14 808 

16 151 

10,18 . .... 809 
10,20 235 



Aphr. 

12, 3 273 

13,12 247 

14,10 251 

15, 1 203 

2 218 

4 301 

13 228 

17 282 

16,12,13 ... 257 
19 . . . 154, 157 

18, 4 251 

17 230 

19, 6 304 

16 187 

20, 4 235 

8 173 

21, 1 235 

22, 6 232 

12 171 

18 225 

24, 3 257 

4 9.... 154 

25, I*, 4,6,9,22 . 259 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



325 



Aphr. 

26, 5 209 

26, 4 275 

5 180 

6 206 

20 . . . 291,309 

27,10 177 

11 &c. . . . 246 

13 290 

28, 8 219 

9 . . . 161,278 

30, 1 24* 

12 172 

31, 6 201 

15 187 

33, 2 241 

34, 1 180 

36, 2 231 

5 178 

20 . . . 185,212 

37,12 216 

39,13 213 

40, 8 201 

ult 288 

41, 10 .... 230 

17 164 

42,17 169 

44, 2 . . 222, 261 
5 237 

45, 5 152 

8 . . . 158, 246 

10 246 

17 .... . 251 

19 294 

22 307 

46, 1 . . . 278, 301 
15 284 

47, 1, 2 ... . 223 

48, 2 230 

10 204 

18 264 

49, 3, 6, ult. . . 233 
12 237 

50,11 167 

51, 7 246 

52,15 171 

53, 13 162 

54, 5 312 

55, 3 161 

18 205 

56,21 185 

57, 1 185 

11 309 

58, 14 306 

59, 7 178 

60, 5 304 

ult 167 

61,11 233 

62, 7 229 

68,10 171 



Aphr. 

63.13 . 

17 . 

18 . 

64, 5 . 

65, 2 . 
66,17 

18 . 

67, 9 . 

68,12 . 

69,12 . 

70, 4 . 
6 . 

8 . 

71, 6 . 

20 . 

21 . 
72,15 . 
74,12,15 
75, 6 . 
77, 6 . 

79.14 . 

82, 2,4 

11 . 

83, 5 . 
20 . 
23 . 

84.12 . 
13 . 
ult. 

85, 7 . 

86.13 . 
87, 2 . 

88.13 . 
93, 9 . 

95.14 . 

96, 8 . 

97, 6 . 

98, 9 . 

100.17 . 
101, 5 . 

9 . 
17 . 

paen. 

103, 1 . 

4 . 

105, 2 . 

10 . 

107.18 . 
108, 3,4, 

12 . 
110,10 . 

ult . 

Ill, 6 . 

112, 9 . 

12 . 

13 . 

113.19 . 
114, 2 . 

15 . 



. 276 

. 251 

. 275 

276 

. 242 

. 222 

. 231 

. 174 

. 201 

. 283 

. 235 

. 242 

. 266 

. 234 

. 300 

208, 303 

212 

191 

291 

288 

184 

248 

272 

278 

251 

286 

202 

307 

153 

309 

208 

278 

163 

228 

239 

306 

274 

243 

233 

218 

212 

211 

298 

224 

208 

208 

231 

261 

228 

199 

221 

162 

15 

175 

224 

229 

218 

171 

, 183 



Aphr. 






116, 11 . . 




184 


117, 9 . . 




208 


14 . . 




309 


119, 5 . . 




309 


119, 10 . . . 




178 


22 . . 1 


59 


,285 


221, 1 . . 




177 


14 . . . 




284 


122,18 . 




254 


128, 2 . . . 




171 


18 . . . 




229 


124. 2 . . . 




228 


17 . . . 




231 


125,10 . . . 




161 


126,20 . . . 




230 


128, 3 . . 2 


42,812 


129, 4,9 . . 




299 


6 . . . 




282 


13 . . 2 


35 


,303 


180, 1 . . . 




264 


3 . . . 




235 


18,19. . 




170 


182,15 . . . 




184 


188,17 . . . 




185 


134, 6 . . . 




267 


12 . . . 


, 


231 


185, 2 . . . 




241 


8 . . 1, 


S3 


242 


186, 3 . . . 




251 


4,8 . 




224 


19, 22 . 




184 


137,21 . . 1 


59 


,246 


188, 2 . . . 




183 


142, 9 . 




196 


10 . . 




251 


144, 7 . . 




159 


15, 17 . 




160 


22 . . . 




204 


145,10 . . 




314 


11 . . 




280 


13 . . . 




230 


15 . . . 




306 


147,13 . . . 




221 


149,18 . . . 




221 


150, 5 . . . 




306 


15 . . . 




245 


152,10 . . . 




257 


153,15 . . . 




214 


154, 1 . . . 




212 


5 . . . 




170 


8 . . . 




201 


155, 8 . . . 




184 


157,12 . . . 




203 


158,11 . . . 




241 


20 . . . 




202 


160,18 . . . 




232 


161, 7 . . 2 


09 


,282 


8 . . . 




199 


9 . . . 




206 



Aphr. 

161, 12 . 

165, 9 . 

13 . 

14 . 

16 . 

166, 1 . 
168, 7 . 

17 . 
169,12 . 
170, 1 . 

12 . 

13 . 
172, 7 . 

ult. . 

176.19 . 
177, ult . 

179, 1 . 

180, 2 . 

7 . 

15 . 

181, 5 . 

182, 4,13 

183.16 . 

19 . 
184, 3 . 

5 . 

185.20 . 
186, 4 . 

187.10 . 

188.17 . 
190, 4 . 

192.11 . 

198, 6 . 
194,14 . 
198,10 . 

199, 1 . 
10 . 

12 . 

13 . 

200, 1 . 
12 . 
15 . 

201, 5,6 

202, 1 . 
204, 4 . 

20 . 

206.21 . 

207.22 . 

209, 4 . 

210, 1 . 
4 . 

10 . 
13,17 

211, 4 . 

8 . 

213, 7 . 
15 . 

214, 1 . 

14 . 



. 169 

. 261 

. 157 

. 226 

. 234 

. 292 

. 209 

. 164 

. 318 

. 308 

, 231 

, 153 

171 

, 200 

, 292 

. 229 

. 164 

. 169 

, 206 

, 269 

, 179 

242 

. 229 

, 228 

, 252 

72, 292 

213 

285 

214 

253 

151 

297 

234 

286 

172 

224 

234, 302 

. 207 

. 273 

. 172 

. 184 

157,253 

235 

153 

249 

154 

155 

185 

192 

228 

214 

159 

262 

278 

151 

232 

292 

155 

221 



Digitized by 



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326 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



Aphr. 




Aphr. 




Aphr. 




Aphr. 




218,12,22. 


. 309 


272,10 . . 


. 258 


814, 6 . . 


. 272 


392,20 . . . 


221,12 . . 


. 195 


273, 2 . . . 


. 213 


315, 9 . . 


. 174 


394, 6 . 




222, 1 . . 


. 284 


9 . . 


. 216 


318, 9 . . 


. 182 


12 . 




3 . . 2 


62, 283 


274, 6 . . 


. 240 


11 . . 1 


83, 268 


895, 2 . 




5 . . 


. 209 


276,19 . . 


. 292 


819, 5, 6 . 


. 235 


896, 3 . 




8 . . . 


. 155 


281, 5 . . 


. 183 


10 . . 


. 178 


399, 6 . 




228,11 . . 


. 170 


14 . . . 


. 253 


13, 15. 


. 186 


ult. . 




19,25. 


. 176 


282,13 . . 


. 198 


concl. 


. 207 


400, 2 . 




227, 9 . . 


. 239 


284, 2 . . 


. 192 


321, ult.. . 


. 279 


402,13 . 




229,18 . . . 


. 161 


4 . . 


. 254 


323, 4 . . 


. 163 


18 . 




280, 1 . . . 


. 205 


285, 9 . . 


. 221 


328,14 . . 


. 176 


408,10 . 




5 . . . 


. 201 


ult. . . . 


. 162 


16 . . 


. 256 


14 sqq. 




6 . . . 


173 


286, 5 . . 


. 114 


329, 3 . . 


. 256 


404,21 . 




281,12 . . . 


. 252 


8 . . 


. 164 


5 . . 


. . 196 


406, 2 . 




282,15 . . . 


. 162 


19 sqq. 


. 249 


380,16 . . . 


. 273 


407,14 . 




288, 8 . . . 


. 314 


287, 2 . . 


. 222 


331, 2 . . 


. 170 


408, 3,4 




284, 2 . . . 


. 210 


16 . . 


. 224 


4,5 . 


. 248 


412,17 . 




18 . . . 


. 295 


288,12 . . 


. 287 


9 . . 


. 247 


414, 5 . 




19 . . 


. 294 


289, 8 . . 


. 222 


14 . . 


. 246 


415, 8 . 




285, 8 . . 2 


96, 302 


17 . . 


. 173 


15 . . 


. 248 


419,13 . 




18 . . . 


. 185 


292, 2 . . 


. 173 


835,18 . . 


. 310 


420,18 . 




ult. . . . 


. 209 


298, 2 . . 


. 179 


836, 3 . . 


. 273 


422,20 . 




286,19 . . . 


. 206 


5 . . 


. 245 


338, 2 . . 


. 197 


423,19 . . 




paen. . 


. 213 


16 . . 


. 159 


839, 1 . . 


. 308 


424,22 . 




ult. . . . 


. 222 


17 . . 


. 224 


340,19 . . 


. 213 


426, 1 . 




287, 4 . . 


. 283 


296, 8 . . 


. 275 


841, 6 . . 


. 247 


18 . 




241,18 . . 


. 295 


13 . . 


. 157 


342, 4 . . 


. 201 


427,18 . 




242, 4 . . 


. 252 


297, 1 . . 


. 155 


17 . . 


. 268 


428, 4 . 




14 . . 


. 231 


7 . . 


. 246 


343, 6 . . 


. 282 


6 . 




16, 17, 18 


. 230 


8 . . . 


. 153 


10 . . 


. 200 


429, 1 . 




248, 2 . 
244, 7 / . 


. 282 


298, 4 sqq. 


. 204 


17 . . 


. 173 


480,12 . 




. 170 


19 . . 


. 170 


18 . . . 


. 279 


ult. . 




249,16 . . 


. 228 


299, 2 . . 


. 179 


345, 1 . . . 


. 208 


431, 2 . 




250,19 . . 


. . 151 


800,20 . . 


236 


346,12 . . 


. 279 


438,11 . 




251,19 . . 


. 195 


301,17 . . 


. 308 


19 . . 


. 182 


434,17 . 




252, 2 . . 


. 155 


ult. . . 


. 162 


847, 4 . . • 


. 195 


19 . 




254,15 . . 


. . 163 


302, 1 . . 


. 284 


11 . . 


. 182 


438,13 . 




256,14 . . 


. 245 


20,21. 


. 157 


850, ult. . 


. 182 


14,18 




15 . . 


. 158 


308, 8,9 . 


. 157 


852,10 . . 


. 312 


489, 3 . 




257,22 . . . 


. 245 


303, ult. . . 


. . 253 


16 • . 


. 177 


8 . 




260, 4 . . . 


. 221 


304, 9 . . 


. 203 


854, 6 . . 


. 161 


441, 7 . 




7,20. 


. 224 


14 . . 


. 201 


8 . . 


. 174 


7,8 




8 . . 


. 223 


17 . . 


. 208 


356, 2 . . 


. 241 


12 . 




10 . . 


. 156 


805, 2 . . 


. 156 


3 . . 


. 280 


442, 6 . 




16 . . 


. 222 


5 . . 


. . 243 


357, 8 . . 


. 232 


16 




261, 6 . . 


. 181 


307, 5 . . 


. 161 


359, 1 . . 


. 293 


446, 1 . 




9 . . 


. 224 


11 . . 


. 311 


3,7 . 


. 225 


3 




19 . . 


. 236 


19 . . 


. 265 


867, 5,11. 


. 225 


6 . 




262, 5 . . 


. 237 


808, 3 . . 


. 246 


370,19 . . 


. 236 


15 . 




264, 6 . . 


.205 


18 . . 


. 153 


874,18 . . 


. 294 


paen. 




265, 6 . . 


. 272 


809,12 . . 


. 298 


875, ult. . 


. 294 


447, 2 . 




267, 2 . . 


. 153 


310, 8 . . 


. 278 


381, 2 . . 


. 179 


ult. . . 




21 . . 


. . 212 


10 . . 


. 295 


882, 7 . . 


. 193 


448, 6 . . 




268, 1 . . 


. 156 


312, 6 . . 


. 215 


18 . . 


. 300 


15 . 




5 . . 


. 249 


20 . . 


. 309 


883, 2 . . . 


. 160 


16 . 




269,12 . . 


. . 159 


21 . . 


. 218 


884, 3 . . 


. 215 


449,11 . 




270, 5 . . 2 


08, 236 


818, 4,5 . 


. 163 


10 . . 


. 300 


15 . 




8,10,11 


. 247 


12 . . 1 


64, 208 


389,11 . . 


. 292 


450,14 . . 




271, ult . 


. . 221 


814, 4 . . 


. 210 


891, 8 . . 1 


64, 206 


16 . . 





Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



327 



. 292 
. 194 
. 224 
. 273 
. 224 
223, 243, 292 
. . 235 
. . 154 
. . 157 
. . 274 
. . 224 
. . 176 
. . 274 
. . 293 
. . 243 
. . 247 
. -163 
. . 220 
. . 307 
. . 313 
. . 246 
274, 275 
. . 231 
241, 307 
. . 156 
. . 178 
. . 113 
. . 229 
. . 151 
. . 186 
. . 157 
. . 156 
. . 161 
. 221 
. . 162 
. . 310 
. . 246 
. . 283 
. . 171 
. . 219 
. . 283 
. . 243 
. . 180 
. . 185 
. . 185 
. . 217 
. . 181 
. . 161 
. . 268 
. . 289 
. . 273 
. . 161 
. . 257 
. . 162 
. . 186 
. . 186 
. . 186 
. . 256 
. 192 



Aphr. 

479,16 . 

480, 8 . 

481, 4sqq 

12 . 

482, 9 . 
488, 4 . 

18 . 

484,14 . 

15 . 

485,16 . 

20 . 

486, 5 . 

487,11 . 

488, 9 . 
11 . 

ult. . 

489, 9 . 
491, 1 . 

5 . 

13 . 
492,10 . 

18 . 
498, 2 . 

7 . 
10 . 
18 . 
ult . 

494, 9 . 

12 . 

13 . 

496, 2 . 
3 . 

5 . 

6 . 

8 . 

12 . 

497, 2,3 

7 . 

15 . 

16 . 

17 . 

498, 5,12 

6 . 

13 . 
ult . . 

500, 7 . 

503, 4 . 

505, 5 . 

7 . 
15 . 

506, 3 . 

14 . 

15 . 
17 . 
ult. . 

507, ult. . 



. 283 
. . 269 
. . 154 
. . 257 
. . 282 
. . 153 
. . 212 
280, 284 
. . 341 
. . 222 
. . 288 
. . 251 
. . 291 
. 247 
194, 246 
246 
178 
259, 260 
. 174 
. 214 
. 196 
. 287 
. 186 
. 263 
. 246 
. 243 
. 207 
. 207 
. 233 
. 178 
. 268 
. 226 
. 194 
. 295 
. 207 
. 183 
. 183 
. 235 
. 286 
. 285 
. 202 
. 308 
202, 263 
. 263 
. 202 
. 286 
. 272 
. 292 
. 168 
. 201 
. 166 
. 178 
. 292 
. 161 
. 279 
. 188 



Apost. Apocr. 

176,18 . . . 



271 



Apost. Apocr. 

182*2. • 

197, ult 

198, 1 . 
274, 9 . 

11 . 

16 . 
paen. 
279, 7 . 
806, 7 . 
816, 3 . 
816, 4 ab inf. 



. 293 
. 225 
. 183 
.247 
. 277 
. 232 
. 242 
. 227 
. 119 
. 146 
. 140 



Bedjan, Mart. 

11,229,10 . . 198 

428, 7 . . 167 

562, 6 . . 167 

572, 10 . . 158 

579, 8 . . 238 

605,17 . . 167 

609, 3 .197 

612,14 . . 198 

IV, 179, 18 . . 238 

V,619, 3(Jac.Sar.) 

. . 174 

Ephr. 

I, 140 . . . 189 

23 D . . .218 

36 B ... 284 

55 F ... 192 

66 C . . . 292 

66 D ... 293 

101 F . . . 198 

110 E . . . 237 

152B . . 192 

161 E . . . 173 

228 E . . . 187 

294 F . . . 198 

398 F . . . 168 

404 F . . . 174 

428 E . . . 176 

496 F . • . 174 

498 E . . . 174 

520 ult . 170 

521, 1 ... 170 

544 F . . . 170 

549 F . . . 173 

II, 3B . 191,295 

26 A . . .186 

27 D ... 293 
108 A . . . 165 
117 F . . . 284 
124 B . . . 165 
127 A . . . 189 
145A(JacEd.?) 

... 255 
171 E . . . 288 
175 C . . . 289 
179 A . . . 168 
212 B . . . 267 



Ephr. 

11,222 E ... 273 

227 . . . 187 

267 B . . . 191 

269F ... 293 

271 A . . . 293 

316 C . . . 151 

319 D . . . 219 

337 E . . . 270 

339 . . . 298 

347 D . . . 118 

384D ... 165 

401TJ ... 236 

411 E . . . 191 

415 F . . . 171 

424 D . . . 157 

433 F . . . 163 

435 B . . . 276 

451 B . . . 177 

453 F . . . 183 

456D ... 182 

485B ... 151 

488 B . . . 162 

505 D . . . 182 

506 C . . . 134 

524 C . . . 295 

554 C . . . 240 

554 F . . . 231 

555 A . . . 168 
555 B ... 231 

III,XXXIlI,mid.201 

ult. ... 225 

XXXIX,3 . 193 

XLIII,mid. . 212 

,. ad *V.169 

„ inf. . 252 

XLV (twice) 175 

LIII ad inf. 244 

2 C • . . 176 

3C ... 157 

IOC ... 176 

42 B ... 195 

111C . . . 153 

136 B . . . 194 

161 B . . . 277 

225B ... 156 

245 D . . . 256 

250 B . . . 162 

251 A . . . 153 

253 C . . . 189 

254 D . . . 210 
263D ... 157 
302D ... 178 
303 B . . . 154 
305 F . . . 278 
310 F . . . 182 
342 E . . . 243 
344 E . . . 223 
859 A . . . 182 
882 A . . . 176 



Digitized by 



Google 



328 
Ephr. 

Ill, 383 E 

418 K 

419 A 
423 B 
426 £ 

522 E 

523 A 
530 F 
532 
537 B 
554 E 
569 A 
576 A 
576 D 
593 D 
593 P 
651 A 
658 B 
658 F 
663 A 
668 A 

674 F 

675 A 
678 A 
687 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



. 191 
. 240 
. 240 
. 189 
. 294 
. 271 
. 271 
. 171 
. 171 
. 107 
. 177,275 
. 275 
. 310 
. 310 
. 182 
. 177 
171,178 
195 
232 
261 
196 
280 
280 
194 
242 



Ephr. (Lamy) 

I, 23, str. 26 

57, str. 7 . 

91, 9 . . 

126.10. • 
175,19. . 

paen. . 
205,16 . . 
217,5 . . 

245. 16 . 
253, ult. . 
259, 10 . . 
261,21 . . 
303, 11 . . 

369. 17 . . 
391, ult. . 

467.11. . 
535,15. • 
607, str. 19 
617, str. 1 
645, str. 15 
684, str. 18 

11,179,4 . . 

247,3 . . 

411,11,14 

599,8 . . 

739, 14, 20 

741,7 . . 

765, 2 . . 
Ill, 681, str. 25 

689, str. 13 

Ephr. Nis. 
p. 3(l),v.l49 



. 276 
. 166 
. 231 
. 176 
. 210 
. 210 
. 210 
. 278 
. 157 
. 292 
. 298 
. 157 
. 226 
. 157 
. 157 
. 181 
. 171 
. 275 
. 275 
. 226 
. 275 
. 222 
. 222 
. 157 
. 219 
. 168 
. 168 
. 168 
. 305 
. 292 

162 



Ephr. Nis. 

p. 4, v. 7 
4,v.46 . 
8,v.91 

v.109. 
18, v. 72 
49 (31), v. 
v.123 
55, v. 144 
57.V.67- 
v. 73 
60, v. 261, 
62, v. 83 
v. 88 
64, v. 203 
68, v. 58 
71,v. 65 
77, v. 98 
87, v. 113 

96, v. 54 

97, v. 110 
100, v. 189 
106, v. 39 

Ephr. 



... 157 
. . 171 
... 268 
. 292 
... 191 
122 . 162 
... 162 
. . .241 
... 168 
... 229 
. . 178 
... 227 
... 240 
... 210 
... 285 
. .15,191 
... 153 
. . .292 
... 158 
... 171 
... 157 
... 274 

(in Wright's 

Cat.) 

689 a, 3 ... 167 
689 a, 14 ... 275 

Ephr. (in Zingerle's 

Chrest.) 
257, 8 .... 245 



278, 6 sq. . 

279, 5 . . 
827, v. 117 

Euseb. Ch. 

14, 14, 18 
128, paen. . 
146, 1 . . 
180, 9 . . 
211, 1 . . 
260, 4 ab inf. 

274, 8 

275, 6 ab inf. 
815, 6 . . 
832,12 . . 
895, 5 . . 

Isaac 

I, 22, v. 446 

v.454 

v.462 

132, v. 1117 

184, v. 129 

220, v. 313 

242, v. 397 

244, v. 407 

v. 414 

248, v. 511 

266, v. 362 

288,7.267 



. 167 
. 174 

. 184 

Hist. 

. 273 
. 273 
. 155 
. 265 
. 122 
. 254 
. 180 
. 273 
. 265 
. 289 
. 93 

. 178 
. 178 
. 174 
. 283 
. 298 
. 276 
. 139 
. 160 
. 196 
. 288 
. 273 
. 167 



Isaac 

II, 4,v. 

12,v. 

42, v. 

80, v. 

92, v. 
136, v. 
192,v. 
216,v. 
v. 
218,v. 
326, v. 
344, v. 
348, v. 



22 
135 
104 
169 
67 . 
600 
633 
251 
280 
318 
1513 
1753 
1858 



152 
191 
241 
157 
275 
275 
196 
288 
288 
173 
193 
152 
200 



UaaC (in Zingerle's 

Chrest.) 
407, v. 33 ... 154 



Isaac Ninivita 

(Assemani 
1, 449 .. . . IK 

Jao. Ed. 

(LagardeV&Uttl 

144, 4 . . . .2fi| 
14 . . . .2Ui 



Jac. Ed. 

(Wright), 

Ep. 13, p, 2,21 .2S> 

11, 7.2*4 

Jac. Ed. 

(Wright's Cat 
28 a, inf. . . . 255 



Jac. Sar. 

Alexander, (Zt. f. Assyriologie 

VI) 368, v. 155 204 

Constantin vv. 28, 632 ltf 

V.402 138 

v. 656 190 

Thamar, v. 81 281 

w.247, 251 3. 

v.279 28(> 

v.407 15« 

(in Assemani) I,810&, inf. W 

(in Zingerle's Chrest.). 874 181 

875 281 

411, v. 46 . . .19' 
(in Bedjan, Mart.) V, 619, 3 . . . . 1W 



(in Mart.) 



11,288, 1 . 
237, inf. 
242, mid. 



(in Moes.) 


I 


31, v. 296. 


. .1M 


(in ZDMG) 


XXIX, 109 v. 30 . 


. .168 




XXXI, 377, ult . 


. . lW 


John Eph. 




John van Telia 


81,18 . . 


. 194 


23,16 . . . 


. . 187 


117,13 . . 


. . 177 


28, 5. . . 


. . 158 


192, 20 sq. . 


. . 168 


31, 5 . . . 


. .254 


193, 7 . 


293 


46,12 


23b 


202,19 . . 


. . 282 


50, 18 . . 


. .254 


222,15 . . 


. . 256 


51, 3. . . 


. .214 


820,21 . . 


. . 190 


61, 2 . . . 


. .187 


328, 6 . . 


. . 276 


73, 1 . . . 


. .291 


849,13 . . 


. . 204 






859, 3 . 


. 196 


Joseph 




395,12 . . 


. . 168 


4,12 . . 


. 266 


398,16 . . 


. . 177 


9, 6 


.226 


399,15 . . 


247, 270 


11, paen, . 


.m 


406, 7 . . 


. . 293 


15, Note 10 


. m 






19, 3 . . 


.210 


John van Telia 


26, 9 . . 


.176 


8, 8 . . . 


. . 221 


14 . . 


. 159 


11, 9 . . . 


. . 221 


29, 7 . . 


.214 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



329 



Joseph 

31, 11 
38, 1 

ult. 

Note 5 

42, paen. 

43, 4 . 
100, 5 . 
105,11 . 
117,11 . 
124, Ssq. 

192.11 . 
12 . 

193, 9 . 
194,13 . 
195, 9 . 
196> 6 . 
ult. . 
201,1*2*. . 

203.12 . 

204, 4 

205, 1 . 

206, 4 ab 

213.12 . 
214, 5 . 
218, 3 . 
220, 4 . 
225, 2 . 

ult . 

227, 4 . 

229, 7 . 

14 . 

288, 9 . 

242, 9 . 
256, paen. 

258, 4 . 

259, 2 . 

280.13 . 
298, 2 . 
297, 9 . 
304, 8 . 
322,10 . 



inf. 



J08 

4 

2, 6 
14 
17 
18 

3, 5 
10 
11 
14 
21 
22 

4,14 

17 

5, 2 

3 



St. 



. 234 
. 196 
. 161 
. 210 
. 260 
. 260 
. 275 
• 237 
. 236 
. 275 
. 189 
. 172 
. 306 
. 227 
. 297 
. 162 
. 204 
. 237 
. 194 
. 227 
. 274 
. 200 
. 275 

172, 189 
. 315 
. 227 
. 297 
. 197 
. 271 
. 276 
. 217 
. 273 
. 313 
. 172 
. 199 
. 298 
. 214 

236, 290 
. 237 
. 255 
. 294 



184, 221 
. . 256 



.... 184 
.... 295 
.... 195 
.... 295 
.... 298 
.... 179 
. . . . 167 
.... 179 
.... 234 
. . . . 180 
220,245,313 
.... 288 
.... 281 
.... 300 



J08. St. 

5, 7 . . . 150,316 

13 213 

16 247 

6, 2 293 

9 . . . 184,295 

11 281. 

18 .... 264 

7, 1 295 

18 213 

21 262 

22 .... 305 

8, 2 201 

3 304 

6 . . . 281,296 
8 169 

17 260 

9, 4 197 

18 217 

10, 2 . . . . 206 

17 213 

21 170 

11, 5 304 

6 303 

9 179 

12,10 296 

11 151 

17 264 

13,13,18 ... 308 

14, 1 180 

15, 5 309 

6 281 

17 154 

18 . ... 235 

16,18 169 

17, 3 228 

9 220 

10 231 

18,14 295 

19,21 306 

21,20 170 

28, 14 205 

16Note2 . . 201 

17 171 

24,11 225 

25,11 314 

26, 7 169 

8 187 

9 264 

18 152 

28, 2 169 

19 189 

29, 4 309 

7 . . . . .178 

10 258 

11 214 

13 258 

81, 3 256 

16 296 

82,10 170 



J08. St. 

83, 4 296 

18 193 

84,18 . 192.201,296 

85, 9 217 

86,13 170 

87, 5 158 

17 217 

39, 10 289 

41, 7 . '/ . . . 288 

16 297 

42, 3 169 

15 213 

46, 5 173 

47,20 253 

49,20 295 

50. 6 . ... 197 

11 283 

19 308 

52, 1 255 

54, 3 257 

55, 14 230 

56,14, 17 . . . 296 

19 298 

57, 16 201 

58, 2 152 

20 217 

59, 9 296 

60, 6 252 

13 231 

14 220 

61, 2 213 

7 293 

64, 1 231 

65, 2 . .' . . . 231 
66,10 255 

13 192 

21 262 

69, 4 ... • 263 
19 296 

70, 2 264 

10 158 

20 178 

76, 5 209 

78,10 173 

80, 1 194 

2 212 

16 289 

20 262 

81,11 234 

84, 6 169 

85,10 186 

16 263 

86,21 263 

87,16 197 

88,15 281 

89, 8 234 

13 . . . 161,174 

18 274 

22 264 



J08. St. 




90, 6 ... . 


. 263 


10 ... . 


. 169 


15 ... . 


. 276 


91,15 . . . . 


. 170 


92, 4 ... . 


. 244 


Jul. 




4, 4 . . . 


. 180 


10 . . . 


. 226 


5,24 . . . 


. 307 


8, 27 sqq. . . 


. 310 


9, 7 . . . 


. 226 


ult. . . 


. 311 


14,14 . . . 


. 172 


15, 5 . . . 


. 171 


13 . . . 


. 284 


ult. . . 


. 182 


18, 3 . . . 


. 243 


21, 7,14. . 


. 277 


15 . . . 


. 243 


ult.. . 


. 284 


28,22 . . . 


. 313 


24, 9 . . . 


. 163 


26,13 . . . 


. 267 


27,27 . . . 


. 279 


30, 3 . . . 


. 177 


34, 4 . . . 


. 154 


37, 5 . . . 


. 178 


38, 2,5 . . 


. 252 


39, 9 . . . 


. 173 


41,10 . . . 


. 164 


42,12 .. . 


. 182 


48, 5 . . . 


. 182 


45, 2 . . . 


. 209 


47, 1 . . . 


. 306 


10 . . . 


. 162 


48, 1 . . 


. 277 


50,27 . . 


. 313 


54,23 . . 


. 293 


28 . . 


. . 165 


65,21 . . . 


. 262 


56, 2 . . 


. 182 


23 . . 


. . 163 


58,18 . . 


. . 163 


64, 3 . . 


. . 272 


69,12 . . 


. . 172 


70,12 . . 


. . 258 


72,21 . . 


. . 229 


78,11,13. 


. . 287 


76,24 . . 


. . 154 


79,19 . . 


. . 305 


81,25 . . 


. . 313 


83, 8 . . 


. . 185 


9 . . 


. . 273 


84, 7 . . 


. . 312 


86, 1 . . 


. . 277 


87,17 . . 


. . 153 


88,19 . . 


. . 293 



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330 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



Jul. 

88,21 . 

89, 3 . 

90,25 . 

92, 7 . 

95, 9 . 

96,17 . 
98,11 

13 . 

99,21 . 

100, ult . 

104,26 . 

106, 1 . 

6 . 

27 . 

109, ult. 

110, 1 . 
112, 13 . 
115, ult. 
119, 6 . 

128, 2 . 
5 . 

125.18 . 
27 . 

126, 5 . 

129, 7 . 
131, 3 . 
132,10 . 

12 . 

138, 1 . 

143, 2 . 

146, 6 . 

152,21 . 

27 . 

155,15 . 

158,26 . 

162,10 . 

169.19 . 

170, 4 . 

171, 2 . 
177,15 . 
181, 13 . 
194, ult. 
199, 22 . 
210, 7 . 
217,26 . 
219,18 . 

220.23 . 

221, 6 . 

222, 5 . 

223, 4,6 
24 . 

229, 4 . 

285.25 . 
289,20 . 
242,22 . 

244.24 . 

245.26 . 

247, 2,22 

248, 3 . 



. 204 
. 157 
. 138 
. 172 
. 277 
. 275 
. 225 
. 170 
. 228 
. 189 
. 313 
. 277 
. 287 
. 154 
. 178 
. 306 
. 165 
. 187 
. 157 
305 
. 225 
. 229 
. 223 
. 223 
. 189 
. 229 
. 258 
. 313 
. 229 
. 298 
. 278 
. 282 
. 278 
. 163 
. 286 
. 165 
. 308 
. 195 
. 293 
. 240 
. 193 
. 288 
. 293 
. 312 
. 204 
. 293 
. 185 
. 231 
. 185 
. 185 
. 181 
. 165 
279, 282 
. 293 
. 284 
. 185 
. 309 
. 185 
. 185 



Land 

I, 40, 5 . 
11, 26, 11 . 
48,13 . 
55,18 . 
93, ult . 
97, ult. 
141, paen. 

159.24 . 

167.6 . 

175.9 . 

201.7 . 

240.10 . 
251,14 • 
277,3 . 

14 . 
326,2 . 

345. 9 

349. 2 

356.7 . 
388,6 . 

III, 36,18,19 

39.16 . 
53,26 . 
60,13 . 
73,1 . 

91.17 . 

106.25 . 
136,14 . 

140.17 . 

141.12 . 
142,1 
177,27 . 
206,24 . 

208.10 . 
20,23 

210,10 . 
19,21 

211.6 . 

213.14 . 

215.13 . 

235.15 . 

244.18 . 

246.14 . 

257.3 . 
258,17 . 
281,13 . 
285,7 
327,24 . 

331.8 . 
335,17,21 

350.7 . 

IV, 87,9 . 

Mart. 

I, 11,2 . 
9 
12,21 



ult 



16,6 



. 191 

. 146 

. 186 

. 252 

. 209 

. 209 

. 183 

. 305 

. 272 

. 281 

. 209 

. 289 

. 209 

. 153 

. 288 

. 168 

. 196 

. 188 

. 187 

. 253 

. 254 

. 165 

240 

. 284 

. 194 

. 241 

192 

, 165 

241 

241 

241 

275 

293 

293 

155 

192 

311 

311 

158 

162 

180 

237 

275 

273 

240 

241 

241 

245 

170 

170 

274 

220 



164 
181 
231 
250 
, 222 



Mart. 

I, 16,»V- 
18,5 . 
19, inf.. 
23, mid. 
24,11 . 

25, mid. 

26, inf.. 
27,5 . 
32, mid. 
35, mid. 

46.5 . 
47,1 . 

9 . 
56,13 . 
57, mid. 
68,19,21 
70, mid. 

73.6 . 
75, inf. . 
79,10 . 

12 . 

91,3 . 

94,8 
14 . 

98, mid. 

99,1 . 
100,24 . 
106,tn/.. 
112,2 . 
113, inf.. 
120,9 . 
122,6 . 

9 . 

10 . 
16 . 
23 . 

123. 166,2 
124,2 . 

9 . 

mid. 

inf. 
. 125, mid. 

ult 
126,2 . 

10 



mid. 186, 228, 236 
127, supr. 

11 . 
129, ult. 
134, ult 
135,9 . 
137, inf. 
149, mid. 
152,9 . 
153,15 . 
155,8 . 
157, ult. 
159, mid. 222, 287 

inf. ... 283 



299 
233 
67,272 
. 193 
. 300 
. 214 
. 217 
. 219 
. 229 
. 162 
. 252 
. 165 
. 252 
. 229 
. 215 
. 286 
. 192 
. 254 
. 270 
. 165 
. 275 
. 217 
. 272 
. 217 
. 296 
. 217 
. 156 
. 217 
. 182 
. 266 
. 249 
. 208 
. 232 
. 216 
. 209 
. 274 
6,228 
. 169 
. 203 
. 218 
. 228 
. 228 
212 
283 
225 



220 
213 
275 
180 
187 
198 
168 
219 
285 
258 
288 



1,160,20 . . 


. 224 


166, inf.. . 


. 195 


167, mid. . 


. 217 


180, inf.. . 


. 221 


181, inf.. 


. 17* 


182,3 . . 


. 243 


6 . 183,267 


8 . . 


. 180 


inf.. 


. 219 


183, mid. . 


. 261 


185,12 . . 


. 153 


186, mid. . 


. 267 


194,10 . . 


. 222 


197,15 . . 


. 298 


mid. . 


. 238 


218,1 . . 


. 239 


227 1 paen. . 


. 175 


234,3 . . 


. 180 


235, inf. . . 


. 168 


243, mid. . 


. 198 


244,8 . . 


. 202 


245,8 . . 


. 264 


246,9 . . 


. 237 


mid. . 


. 215 


251, inf.. . 


. 306 


253, ad inf. 


. 237 


255, mid, . 


. 250 


11,233,1 (Jac. 


Sar. 


. 


. 227 


237,tn/.(Jac 


Sar. 


. 


. 231 


242,mid.(Jac 


.Sar: 



124 
175 



268 

Moes. 

I, 31, v. 296 

SaiO . 

102,12 . . 

103,28 . . 

II, 56, v. 

57, v. 

63, inf 

64,1 . 

65,23 

68,12 

25 

69,26 

70,10 

11 

71,30 

72,5 

12 

14 

73,18 

26 

74,3 

75,5 

76, v. 



148 
261 



(Jac 
. 194 
. 231 
. 231 
. 249 
. 249 
. 251 
. 208 
. 264 
. 264 
. 151 
. 181 
. 182 
. 279 
. 252 
. 192 
. 154 
. 194 
. 243 
. 289 
. 158 
. 222 
. 286 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



331 



Moes. 

II, 78,vv. 39,45.312 

80,vv. 75,77.260 

w. 79,81.311 

82, v. 83 . 311 

84, v. 115 . 188 

v.117.181,254 

86, v. 152 . 37 

88, v. 182 . 268 

v. 197 . 189 

90,v.221.259,311 

v. 221 . 259 

v. 233 . 206 

v. 237 . 181 

92, v. 239 . 284 

v. 242 . 244 

94, v. 296 . 166 

96, v. 328 . 269 

98, v. 334 . 282 

V. 336 .196 

v. 358 . 243 

100,vv.371,383.181 



v. 371 
102, v. 393 
104, v. 428 

v. 431 

v.438 

v. 444 

v.448 
106, v. 482 
110, v. 521 

v.538 
112, v. 550 
116, v. 635 

v. 639 
118, v. 654 
^22,v. 703*2 

V. 724 
126, v. 787 
128, v. 796 
136, v. 939 
146, v. 1081 
156, v. 1241 

v. 1247 
158, v. 1266 . 281 
160, v. 1307 . 313 

v. 1319 

v. 1320 
162 v. 1324 
164 v. 1355 

v. 1357 

v. 1384 

v. 1385 

v. 1392 

v. 1397 



254 

. 264 

. 173 

. 268 

. 304 

. 244 

. 210 

. 181 

. 301 

. 268 

. 217 

. 298 

. 305 

313 

262 

197 

291 

299 

284 

197 

173 

282 



166, 



313 
313 
286 
313 
313 
305 
313 
264 
266 



Ov. 

9,25 
12,19 
21, 7 



217 
275 
279 



Ov. 

21. 18 . 

25, 25 . 

45, 6 . 

59, 4 . 
13 . 

60, 9 . 
15 . 

62,21 . 

22 . 

68,10 . 

12 . 

21 . 

24 . 

64,12 . 

65,17 . 

67, 7 . 

9 . 
12 . 

70, 1 . 

2 . 

3 . 
17 . 

71, 10 . 
78, 1,4 
75, 10 . 

23 . 

78, 5 . 

79, 18 sq. 

80, 4 . 

81, 8 . 

10 . 

82, 3 . 

88, 8 . 
84,17 . 

18 . 

85, 7 . 

87,21 . 

89, ult. . 
91,21 . 
98,19 . 
99,19 . 

100, 1 . 

102.14 . 

15 . 
22 . 
23 

103, 3,5 
115,12 . 
116, 6,7 

117.15 . 
119,10,11 

14 . 

16 . 
ult . 

121, 8 . 

20 . 

122,26 . 

128,19 . 
124,14 



. 164 
. 294 
. 177 
. 177 
. 290 
. 290 
. 177 
. 214 
. 244 
. 282 

159, 201 
. 201 
. 226 
. 315 
. 292 
. 181 
. 159 

182, 294 
. 240 
. 298 

240, 281 
. 210 
. 229 
. 201 
. 278 
. 160 

184, 185 
252 
181 

210,262 
. 210 
. 297 
. 296 
. 160 
. 159 
. 160 
. 189 
. 201 
. 164 
. 252 
. 260 
. 160 
. 262 
. 232 
. 189 
. 270 
. 270 
. 249 
. 242 
. 174 
. 267 
. 181 
. 253 
. 181 
. 265 
. 184 
. 198 
. 180 
. 276 



Ov. 

125, 26 

126, 2 
182, 14 



185, 
136, 
187, 

138, 



7,8 
2 . 

5 . 
9 . 

6 . 
20 . 
24 . 

140,19 . 

20 . 

141, 4 . 

8 . 
14 . 
17 . 

142,23 . 
145,18 . 
147, ult 
150,18 . 
151,17 . 
154,10 . 
155,10 . 

22 . 

159, 4 . 

7 . 

9 . 
9, 10 

14 . 

15 . 

160, 4,9 

8 . 

9 . 
11 . 
14.169, 

15 . 

16 . 

20 . 

21 . 
paen, 

161,13 . 
15 . 
20 . 

23 . 

162, 1 . 
8.174, 

12 
14 
19 
20 
21 
2a 
26 

163, 2 
8 

10 
12 
14 
15 



237 

235 

237 

153 

156 

299,310 

. 138 

. 264 

. 307 

. 271 

. 204 

. 312 

. 242 

. 230 

. 159 

. 227 

. 227 

. 293 

. 197 

. 190 

88,311 

. 244 

. 200 

. 182 

. 211 

. 244 

. 289 

. 161 

. 203 

. 165 

. 177 

. 297 

. 280 

. 243 

179,262 

. 215 

. 160 

. 302 

178,253 

297 

163 

177 

196 

298 

280 

246, 308 
. 291 
. 242 
. 291 
. 274 
. 169 
. 206 
. 310 
. 225 
. 264 
. 302 

247, 304 
303 
300 



Ov. 

168,16 
20 
22 
25 
ult 

164, 2 
7 

11 
13 
17 
21 
22 
23 

165, 3 
7 
9 

16 
22 
24 
25 

166, 7 
9 

14 
18 
24 
25 

167,12—14 
15 
17 
20 
22 
24 
25 
26 

168, 1 
5 
7 
8 
9 

10 
15 
19 
20 
23 

169, 8 
21 
23 
24 
26 

170, 2 
5 
7 
8 

17 

21, lift, 
171,14 

23 

24 
172, 5 



180,307 

276 

283 

188,274 

. 215 

. 176 

. 289 

. 185 

. 258 

. 279 

. 172 

. 228 

. 202 

. 280 

. 251 

. 172 

. 261 

. 297 

. 243 

. 172 

. 275 

. 279 

. 228 

. 231 

. 153 

. 297 

. 280 

. 189 

. 209 

. 279 

. 299 

166, 189 

190 

153 

89, 288 

294 

276 

74, 262 

297 

230 

243 

166, 295 

289 

162 

302 

298 

243, 304 

. 262 

. 207 

99, 264 

263 

206 

155, 177 

. 263 

. 304 

. 302 

. 306 

. 230 

. 211 



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332 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



Ov. 




Ov. 


172,14 . 


. . 308 


185, 3 . 


17 . 


. . 279 


12 . 


18 . 


. . 289 


18 . 


20 . 


274, 296 


19 . 


22 . 


. . 219 


25 . 


178,11 . 


. . 251 


186, 1 . 


18 . 


172,261 


21 . 


24 . 


. . 261 


26 . 


25 . 


. . 302 


187,10 . 


26 . 


. . 201 


16 . 


27 . 


. . 196 


17 . 


174, 1 . 


. . 257 


188,20 . 


8 . . 


. . 261 


189,14 . 


11 . . 


. . 257 


22 . 


14 . 


205, 265 


ult . 


ult. . 


. . 207 


190, 1 . 


175, 3 . 


. . 307 


2 . 


5 . . 


. . 279 


4 . 


11 . 


. . 276 


13 . 


19 . 


. . 232 


16 . 


22 . 


. . 196 


24 . 


26 . . 


. . 230 


27 . 


176, 2 . 


. . 166 


191, 9 . 


5 . 


151,184 


13 . 


6 . 


. . 306 


20 . 


14 . 


. . 268 


192, 7 . 


16 . 


. . 283 


19 . 


27 . 


. . 253 


20 . 


177, 2 . 


. . 240 


193,13 . 


3 . 


. . 250 


14 . 


4 . 


. . 247 


17 . 


7 . 


. . 229 


21 . 


11 . . 


. . 254 


194, 10,11 


22 . . 


. . 289 


26 . 


178, 7 . . 


. . 153 


195, 1 . 


16 . . 


. . 202 


19 . 


22 . 


. . 257 


196, 14 . 


25 . . 


. . 160 


15 . 


179, 2 . 


. . 231 


197, 6 . 


6 . . 


. . 183 


26 . 


8 . 


. . 263 


198, 1 . 


11 . 


. . 164 


3 . 


15 . 


. . 296 


199, 1 . 


17 . 


. . 224 


14 . 


18 . 


. . 279 


17 . 


180, 5 . 


. . 200 


200, 8 . 


9 . 


. . 293 


13 . 


181,22 . 


. . 308 


14 . 


25 . 


. . 195 


19 . 


182, 5 . 


. . 180 


201, 1 . 


10 . 


. . 170 


2 . 


12 . 


. . 315 


202,12 . 


18 . 


. . 222 


203,10 . 


183, 8 . 


. . 189 


16 . 


26 . 


. . 289 


25 . 


184, 8,15 


. . . 178 


204,20 . 


17 . 


. . 285 


205,19 . 


19,20 


. . 286 


22 . 


22 . 


. . 268 


206,11 . 



. . 198 
161,260 
. 315 
. 309 
. 296 
. 189 
. 209 
. 210 
. 153 
. 263 
. 178 
. 311 
. 236 
. 304 
. 230 
. 231 
. 221 
. 304 
. 163 
. 166 
. 202 
. 293 
. 161 
. 170 
. 304 
. 283 
. 264 
. 214 
. 232 
. 176 
. 166 
. 164 
. 176 
. 267 
. 267 
. 243 
. 310 
. 273 
. 213 
. 295 
. 209 
. 291 
. 293 
. 257 
. 302 
. 178 
. 207 
. 184 
. 280 
201,312 
. 226 
. 211 
. 265 
. 241 
. 184 
. 175 
. 280 
. 316 
. 172 



Ov. 




207, 3,6 . 


. . 172 


21 . . 


. . 166 


25 sq. . 


. . 176 


26 . 


. . 275 


208,19 . 


. . 179 


21 . 


. . 213 


24 . . 


. . 171 


210, 4 . . 


. . 239 


10 . 


. . 178 


ult. . 


. . 173 


211, 2 . 


. . 230 


212, 4 . 


. . 239 


9 . 


. . 197 


14 . 


. . 155 


213, 4 . 


. . 178 


9 . 


. . 270 


11 . . 


. . 242 


17 . 


. . 265 


214, 7 . 


. . 230 


11 . . 


. . 309 


12 . 


. . 315 


21 . 


. . 173 


215,11 . 


. . 205 


216,16 . 


. . 163 


ult . . 


167, 242 


217, 4 . 


. . 241 


9 . 


. . 205 


14 . 


. . 249 


15 . . 


. . 201 


16 . . 


. . 306 


18 . . 


. . 269 


218, 8 . . 


. . 271 


11 . . 


. . 289 


19 . . 


. . 257 


219, 1 , . 


. . 178 


10 . . 


. . 278 


24 . 


. . 239 


220, 4 . 


. . 244 


10 . 


. . 270 


19 . 


231,278 


paen. 


. . 308 


221, 2 . 


. . 163 


6 . 


. . 153 


9 . 


. . 173 


252, 4 . 


296 


261,14,16 


. . . 168 


266,15 . 


. . 171 


271,22 . 


. . 286 


278,11 . 


. . 178 


275, 5 . 


. . 280 


277, 2 . 


. . 210 


278,15 . 


. . 210 


' 26 . 


. . 246 


281,26 . 


. . 160 


282, 1 . 


. . 159 


288,11 . 


. . 214 


284,16 . 


. . 234 


287,23 . 


. . 196 


26 . 


. . 210 



Ov. 

288, 7 . 
290, 8, 1 2 
292,25 . 
294, 6 . 

16 . 
296, 15 . 

20 . 

296, 2 . 

10 . 

17 . 

299, 9—10 

300, 6 . 
12 . 

308, 13 . 

804, 13 . 

805, 8 . 
16 . 

306.11 . 
807, 14 . 
308, 17 . 

ult. . 

811.21 . 
24 . 

812.12 . 
813,17 . 

24 . 

814.17 . 
818,14 . 
820, 9 . 

15 . 
328, 7 . 

25 . 

829.10 . 
860, 7 . 
894, 14 . 
397,12 . 

899.22 . 
400, 19 . 

403.22 . 
424, 4 . 

Philox. 

29,. 8 . 

47,16 . 

54,21 . 

106, 9 . 

120, 2 . 

154, 7 . 

264 . . 

843,20 . 

855, 1 . 

861.18 . 
366 . . 
867, 6 . 

384.11 . 

473.23 . 
500, 5 . 
618,13,20 

519.12 . 



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INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



333 



Philox. 

524,11 . 

531.19 . 
543,26 . 
544, 9 . 

552.20 . 
570,11 . 
573,19 . 
589,24 . 

n, cv, ii 



. 214 
. 283 
. 254 
. 166 
. 207 
. 205 
. 283 
. 283 
. 255 



Phiiox. (Assemani). 

II, 44 288 

446 266 

Phiiox.Epist.(Gkiidi). 

Fol. 10a, 1, 2 . . 289 
13a, 1,4 . . 311 
28ft. ... 220 
29a, 2 mid. . 247 



Sim. 

268 . . 

ult. . 

269, 1 . 
supr. 

6 . 

9 . 
mid. 
ad inf. 
tn/.182, 

270, 7 
mid 
inf. 

271 . 
3 
4 
6 
7 
8 
13 
mid. 



207, 241 
. . 246 
. . 174 
. . 169 
. . 262 

217, 220 

160,190 

. . 216 

,192,268 

. . 176 

. . 259 

228, 265 
. . 250 
. . 259 

209, 263 
. . 236 
. . 246 
. . 190 
. . 259 

179,247 



249, 276, 280 
inf. 246, 269, 297 



paen. 

272, 1 . 

8 . 

9 . 
11 . 

13 . 
ad inf. 
inf. 
ult. , 

273, 8 
12 

14 , 
mid. 



273, inf. 230, 248, 276 

274, 1 .... 230 
13 .... 179 



254 
230 
261 
179 
195 
242 
257 
232 
185 
283 
242 
170 
253, 308 



Sim. 

274 mid. 

275, 3 . 
15 . 

276, 5 . 
7 . 

inf.. 

277, ad inf 

278, ad inf. 

279, mid. 

280, mid. 

281, mid. 

282, 10 . 
mid. 
inf. . 

283,11 . 

mid. 

inf. . 
284, mid. 
286, 6 . 

mid. 



290,mid. 192, 208,290 

291.11 . 

292, 1 . 
supr. 

10 . 
mid. 

293, mid. 
inf. . 

294, 4 . 

295, 2 . 

11 . 

296, mid. 
300, 2 . 

mid. 

inf. . 

301, 4 . 

5 . 

11 . 

mid. 

inf. . 
803, mid. 
304, mid. 
305,24 . 
306, 4,6 

308, 1 . 

309, mid. 

311, mid. 

312, 1 . 
mid. 
ad inf. 

818.12 . 
inf. 

315, inf. 

316, ult. 

317, mid. 
inf. 

821, mid. 
822,12 . 
323, 2 . 



216 

189 

216 

154 

243 

243 

184 

244 

89, 275 

. 272 

. 265 

. 296 

70, 189 

198 

262 

306 

214 

290 

167 

204, 243 



190 

. 230 

. 213 

. 288 

. 254 

. 275 

. 274 

. 229 

. 237 

. 272 

. 188 

. 167 

. 267 

. 276 

. 271 

. 199 

. 181 

58, 187 

204 

208 

235 

165 

200 

240 

281 

180 

180 

246 

174 

236 

200 

236 

205 

67, 272 

178 

172,213 

. 252 

. 240 



Sim. 

825, 8 . 
mid. 

827, mid. 
inf. 

828, 4 . 

7 . 
supr, 
mid. 
inf. 

330, 1 . 
inf. 

381, 3 . 
ad inf. 

382, 3 . 
mid. 

333, 3 . 
mid. 

6 aft inf. 

334, 4 . 
386,13 . 
887, 9 . 
840, mid. 
842, mid. 
844 . . 

12 . 

846, mid. 

inf. 

348, mid. 

349, inf. 
851, 12 . 

853.11 . 
354, inf. 
855, 3 . 

356, 1 . 

357, mid. 

358, 1 . 
359,10 . 

inf. 
860, inf. 
868, mid. 

inf. 
865, mid. 
366, mid. 

25 . 

368, mid. 
inf. 

369, 8 . 

870, 4 . 
mid. 

871, inf 

872, inf. 

873, mid. 

874, 7 . 

376, sq. . 

377, 8 . 

379.12 . 
881, mid , 
832, 3 . 

8 . 



284 

187 

198 

264 

214 

282 

215 

310 

313 

286 

283 

180 

178 

303 

180 

237 

179 

231 

197 

209 

232 

180,257 

211 

154 

173 

166 

220, 272 

154 

302 

192 

272 

197 

166 

166 

174, 253 

289 

197 

301" 

170 

215 

158,289 

243, 275 

. . 282 

. . 294 

. . 183 

. . 182 

. . 280 

. . 181 

. . 296 

. . 232 

. . 189 

. . 187 

. . 217 

. . 166 

240, 294 

. . 282 

. . 194 

. . 200 

. . 188 



Sim. 

883.13 . 

384, mid. 
ult. 

385, mid. 

888.14 . 
mid. 

889, inf. 
390, 8 



252 
288 
298 
297 
257 
213 
297 
189 



391, inf. 189,299,304 

392, mid. . 257,289 
893,12 .... 171 

895, mid. . . .271 
inf. ... 298 

896, mid. . . .188 
397,12 .... 279 

Spic. 

1, 1 151 

3 301 

6 308 

7 . . . 184,281 
9 217 

15 . . . 175,301 

17 235 

18 . . . 265,316 
20 . . . 169,208 

2, 2 184 

3 308 

4 212 

13 236 

14 . . . 204, 310 

18 161 

19 286 

20 173 

25 278 

8, 3 300 

4 312 

6 . . . 151,294 
6,11 ... 183 

7 182 

11 242 

18 154 

20 270 

21 242 

24 312 

4, 4 312 

5 184 

7 183 

15 241 

17 281 

21 295 

23 188 

5, 1 183 

2 . . . 183,309 
7 226 

11 225 

13 201 

14 . . . 156, 295 
16 196 



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334 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



Splc. 

5, 19 . . . 162,290 
24 281 

6, 4 315 

6 170 

10 225 

11 179 

14 294 

21 208 

7, 1 162 

14 211 

15, 16 . . . 221 

20 202 

26 167 

8, 1 177 

14 279 

9, 5 193 

9 . 169,177,241 

14 . . . 186,297 

22 183 

23 . . . 249, 263 
24, 25 . . . 284 
26 294 

10, 2, 18 . . . 265 

19 . . . 194,265 

20 . . . 194, 287 

22 249 

ult 184 

11, 7 265 

8 195 

14 288 

20 256 

12, 2 . . . 184 
3 . . . .188 
4, 6 . . . .166 
7 266 

10 ..... . 297 

13 ... . 278 



| Spic. 

J 12, 18 256 

19 . . . 184, 201 
ult .... 264 

13, 2 204 

4 242 

6 . . . 192,215 
8 . . . 219, 304 

17 218 

19 208 

24 189 

26 231 

14, 1 242 

5 254 

14 184 

18 272 

20, 24 . . . 283 

25 231 

26 233 

15, 9 281 

18 189 

19 222 

20 266 

23 190 

25 193 

16, 8 301 

12 231 

22 219 

23 184 

17, 4 267 

17 . . . 198,240 

19 253 

20 237 

23 231 

18, 4 242 

7 . . . . .159 
9 253 

16 152 



Spic. 

18,18 
21 
25 

19, 1 
8 



20, 



. . 206 
. . 285 
. . 312 
. . 315 
. . 164 
. . 184 
. . 151 
. . 309 
. . 282 
187, 292 
. . 278 
. . 178 
5, 14, 18 . . 292 

15 283 

22 . . . 171,314 

23 262 

24 235 



9 , 
10 , 
14 , 
17 , 
19 , 
23, 

4 , 



Spic. 

21, 7 212 

22, 5 189 

26, 2,3 . . . . 192 

27,24 171 

40, 8 119 

20 154 

41,15 93 

48 sqq 156 

7 219 

44, 1 226 

46, 7 . . . 155, 192 

47, 2 241 

16 292 

48,16 225 

20 157 

49,20 168 



ZDMG. 

XXV, 335 v. 190 296 

337 v. 297 284 

339 v. 348 198 

v. 361 174 

340 v. 403 284 

342, 453 189 

XXVII, 571 v. 103 273 

v. 109 274 

573v.267(Cyrillona) 165 

578 v. 81 sq. (Cyrillona) 172 

598 vv. 274, 276 274 

XXIX, 109 vv. 26, 27 232 

v. 30(Jac. Sar.) 166 

116 paen 243 

ult 209 

117 v. 235 210,271 

I XXXI, 337 ult (Jac. Sar) 180 

| XXXVI, tab. 1, No. 8 93,193 



C. OTHER AUTHORS, WORKS and DOCUMENTS, 

OCCASIONALLY REFERRED TO. 



Abbeloos 

68,11 194 

97, 1 293 

Acta S. Maris 

45, 2 . . 272 

Acts of Thomas (Burkitt) 

10,11 146 

Apoc. Baruch 

83 (fol. 551 c. Ult) 254 



Arist. Hermeneutica (G. Hoffmann) 

26,6=27,7 285 

A8semani 

1,310 b inf. (Jac. Sar.) . . . • ... 194 
357 (Simeon of Beth Arsham) . . 253 
449 (Isaac Ninivita) 181 

II, 44 (Philoxenus) I 288 

44b (Philoxenus) 266 

Barde8ane8' Hymns 

Gen. Reference 36 



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INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



335 



Barh. Gr. 

215, ult. (Quotation) 



258 



Clemens 

9, 18 256 

56,25 194 

136,18 143 

140,13,14 143 

146, 32 256 

Codex of 44 

Ref. to certain Examples 143 

Codex D of Alexis 

Var. to 18,17 146 



Documents (circa 200 A. I).) 
Gen. Reference 



36 



Ebedjesu 45 

Eclessan Chronicle (Hallier) 

Gen. Ref. to Doc. of 201 A. D. . . . 272 

14b,paen 284 

146, 5 253 

6 237 

16 261 

Euseb.-Theoph. 

11,84, ad inf. 244 



Euseb. (Pseud.) de Stella 

1, 18 



Geoponicl 

95,2 . . 

22 . . 



255 



220 
143 



Gregor. Naz. Carm. 

11,23,21 132 

Gurla et Shamona 

24,8,11 238 

Ined.'(Sachau) 

2, 14 236 

90,ult 187 

Jesussabran (Chabot) 

509, ult. 185 

554, 11 247 

568, 5 190 

Kaiilag and Damnag (Biokell) 

10, 16 255 

16,23 255 



Kaiilag and Damnag (Bickell) 

52, 16 201 

88, 8 219 



Knos, Chrest. 
39 

44 inf. . . . 



237 

273 



Lagarde, Anal. 

20,28 132 

145, 18' 187 

Lagarde, Beliq. Jur. Syr. 

21, 23, 24 244 

57, 5 311 

144, 4 245 

Martyrer (Hoffmann) 

107, 964 285 

108,973 219 

Nova Coll. 

X, 341 a 155 

Offic. Sanct. Maron. 

(Hyemal.) 366 b 237 

(Aestiv.) 74 b nit 237 

Qardagh (Feige) 

58,2 194 

87, 7 293 

Regulae Monasticae (Chabot) 

in 'Accad. dei Lincei, Rend. 1898' 

41,15 244 

43, 10 45 

Sette Dormienti (Guidi) 

22 v. 142 216 

24 v. 43 213 

27 v. 158 213 

28 v. 168 216 

Simeon of Beth Arsham (Guidi) 

1, 3 180 

6, bob inf. 192 

7,13 180 

9,10 ... • 237 

14 204 

10,13 195 

13, 4 294 



Simeon of Beth Arsham (Assemani) 
I, 357 



253 



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336 



INDEX OF PASSAGES. 



Statuti delia Scuola di Nisibi (Guidi) Vita St. Antonil (Schulthess) 

10, ult 194 11, paen 139 

13, 8 214 i 



15,10 165 

25, 9 205 



Stephen bar Sudaili (Frothingham) 
18,1 



265 



Synodes (Obabot) 

28,17,22 236 



Te8tam. Ephr. 



Testam. Jesu Christi 

104,12 ' 



197 



132 



Wright's Catalogue 

28 a, w/.(Jac. Ed.) 255 

664 6, 18 190 

689a, 3 (Ephr.) 167 

14 (Ephr.) 275 

Zingerle'8 Chrest. 

257,8<Ephr.) 24-5 

278, 6 sq. (Ephr.) 167 

279, 5 (Ephr.) 174 

327, v. i 17 (Ephr.) 184 

374 (Jac. Sar.) 181 

375 (Jac. Sar.) 281 

411, v. 46 (Jac. Sar.) 197 



Printed by W. Drugulin, Leipzig. 



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j 



.2 
.1* 
.If 



.ill 

.is; 

. 174 

.!« 

28! 
197 



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